Know Your Bible
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE OLD TESTAMENT
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . I3
THE PENTATEUCHAL WRITINGS
INTRODUCTION ………. 19
GENESIS ………… 21
EXODUS ………… 25
LEVITICUS ………… 29
NUMBERS ………… 33
DEUTERONOMY ………. 39
THE HISTORICAL WRITINGS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . .
JOSHUA . . . . . . . . . . . .
JUDGES . . . . . . . . . . . .
RUTH . . . . . . . . . . . .
I SAMUEL . . . . . . . . . . .
2 SAMUEL , . . . . . * . . . . *
1-2 CHRONICLES . , , . . . . , . .
EZRA . . . . . . . . . . . .
ESTHRR . . . . . . . . . . . .
NEHEMIAH . . . . * . . . . .
THE POETICAL WRITINGS
SONG OF SOLOMON. …….
THE WISDOM WRITINGS
THE PROPHETICAL WRITINGS
JOEL . .
JONAH . .
AMOS . .
HOSEA . .
ISAIAH . .
MICAH . .
NAHUM . .
JEREMIAH . .
HABAKKUK . .
DANIEL . .
BZEKIEL . .
OBADIAH . .
HAGGAI . .
ZECHARIAH . .
MALACHI . .
THIS is the first of two volumes which, together,
survey analytically the whole Bible. The
treatment aims at that degree of brevity which is
consistent with adequacy, and is designed to
create a more widespread interest in the Scriptures.
It is intended that these volumes shall be fol-lowed
by two others, one treating the Bible Syn-thetically,
and the other treating it Didactically,
the whole series to be presented under the caption,
KNOW YOUR BIBLE.
The method in this volume, and that on the
New Testament to follow, is to provide a brief
introduction to each of the books of the Bible,
and also to the various groups of books, together
with a detailed analysis of each.
The approach throughout is practical, and not
critical, and so, much is assumed which might be
Questions of chronology and authorship must
always be of secondary importance, and until we
can speak on these subjects with more assurance
than is possible at present, we shall here follow
conservative views on both these subjects, without
emphasis or dogmatism, and with a mind open to
all new light that may be given. An event is always
of more importance than the time of it, and the
Writings, such as the Epistle to the Hebrews,
have a value which is independent of the question
It is questionable whether there is any sound
basis for Scripture chronology before the time of
the Monarchy, yet we may accept a provisional
scheme, such as Bishop Ussher’s, to get a general
idea of the Bible periods, while always remembering
that such a scheme is not authoritative, and in
places is probably incorrect. The values of the
Bible are moral and spiritual, and all other values
are subordinate to these. The average reader of
the Scriptures has little interest, I am persuaded,
in critical questions, important as these are for
the classroom, but it is of tremendous importance
that by the Scriptures we know our God.
In the present volume the Writings are viewed
separately ; and in the Synthetical volume they
will be viewed together. We should remember
that the divisions into chapters and verses are
altogether artificial, and that such analyses as
follow are only a guide to thought, and to aid
memory, and were never in the minds of the
writers of these Scriptures..FOREWORD II
One of the dangers of such analytical work is
that it may prevent one apprehending and appreci-ating
the literary values of the Writings; but if we
are alive to that danger we shall not succumb to it.
The benefit of the following pages will be felt
only by those who follow the Scripture text with
the outlines. For the careful and constant reading
of the text there is no substitute,
A word must be said about the arrangement of
the Books. The order in our Bibles is not chrono-logical,
but is on a grouping plan. In the Old
Testament the Historical Writings are all together
first, then, the Poetical and Wisdom Writings, and
finally, the Prophetical Writings. In like manner,
in the New Testament, the Historical come first,
then the Doctrinal, and finally the Prophetical.
A strictly chronological arrangement would entirely
break with this classification, and might confuse
the general reader, so I have ventured upon a
compromise, namely, chronological order within
the groups. Thus, the Old Testament Prophets
are kept together, but are in their supposed chrono-logical
order; the Gospels are kept together, but
MARK comes first ; and Paul’s Letters are kept
together, but are in the order in which they were
written. Of the Epistles, JAMES is believed to
be the earliest, but it is kept in the Catholic.12 FOREWORD
group. This amended order will help us to
discern how our Bible grew to its completion.
All these Writings are divided into two main
groups, which are called the Old and New Testa-ments,
or Covenants. These are vitally related to one
another, and reveal the progress of the Divine revela-tion.
The Old Covenant is of Law, and the New is
of Grace, and the one led to the other (Gal. iii. 17-25).
The New is in the Old contained, and the Old is
in the New explained. The Old commences
what the New completes. The Old gathers round
Sinai, and the New round Calvary. The Old is
associated with Moses, and the New with Christ
(John I. I 7). Without the New Covenant the Old
is a start that has no finish ; and without the Old
the New is a finish that has no start.
These Covenants are related to one another as
were the Cherubim on the Mercy Seat, facing and
answering to one another.
In the Old Testament are thirty-nine Writings,
and in the New are twenty-seven Writings, and
these sixty-six constitute our Bible..THE OLD TESTAMENT
T has become fashionable in quarters to exalt
the New Testament at the expense of the
Old, and, except for its literary value in places, to
regard it as having only an antiquarian interest.
This, however, is as far from the truth as anything
The literary value of some of these thirty-nine
Writings is very great, but their cumulative ethical
and religious value is incalculable. Here the
foundations of religion are laid in the revelation
of the one and only true God. Here the sin-blight
in its origin and development is disclosed,
the curse which separates men from God. Here
is clearly taught the utter inability of the law to
bring to man the salvation he needs. Here is
anticipated the saving purpose and plan of God,
in prophecies and types. Here the Saviour Him-self
is promised, the Son, the Servant, the Prophet,
the Priest, and the King, Here we find men
at grips with great moral problems, such as of sin,.I4 THE OLD TESTAMENT
and of suffering. Here is made evident the im-manence
of God in history, and the fact that a
principle of righteousness underlies universal
government. Here all the chords of the human
heart are swept in immortal songs. And here we
learn of the rise and progress of that People to
whom God was pleased to reveal His purpose,
and by whom He is fldfilling it through Jesus
Although these Books were written at different
times, and by different persons, across a period of
some sixteen hundred years, yet there is discernible
in them progress both historical and doctrinal.
Historically, there is progress from a nomadic
state to national life, and from precarious leader-ship
to the order of a Kingdom. And doctrinally
there is a steady movement forward from the Law
of Sinai to the Sermon on the Mount : from out-ward
observance of the law of God to inward con-formity
to it ; and from domestic and tribal to
individual responsibility. The Family of Genesis
expands into a Nation from the Exodus and
onward, and contracts into a Church from the
Exile and forward.
The Writings of the Old Testament are divisible
broadly into three classes, history, literature, and
legislative and genealogical material. The Bible.THE OLD TESTAMENT I5
reader will have no difficulty in differentiating these.
To history belong Genesis, Exodus, Numbers,
Joshua to Esther, and parts of Daniel; to literature
belong Job, parts of Deuteronomy, Psalms, Pro-verbs,
Ecclesiastes, The Song, and all the Pro-phetical
Books; and to the third division belong
Leviticus, parts of Deuteronomy, parts of
I Chronicles, and parts of Ezra and Nehemiah.
Through these millenniums we may trace the
development of the redemptive purpose through
the Ante-diluvian and Post-diluvian periods; the
Patriarchal period; the period of Egyptian En-slavement
and of Wilderness Wandering; the period
of Joshua and the Judges; the period of the Kingdom
United, Divided, and Single; the period of Baby-lonian
Captivity; and the Post-Exilic period to
the end of Old Testament history in NEHEMIAH.
Of the remaining 400 years, until the Messiah’s
advent, we have no canonical records, but most
valuable history and literature are to be found in
the Apocryphal Books.
Through all these ages “one increasing purpose
ru% ” a way is being prepared for the feet of the
Redeemer. The revelation is organic and pro-gressive,
and it is consummated in Christ.
These Writings raise endless critical questions,
but such should never be allowed to obscure.THE PENTATEUCH
T HE Hebrew Bible is divided into three main
parts which, in LUKE xxiv. 44, are called the
Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, the third part
being called the Psalms because the Psalter is first
in that group of Books. The Law, or Torah,
comprises the first five Books of the Old Testament,
as the word Pentateuch indicates, Why there are
only five books in this group we cannot say, but
it is interesting to observe that the Psalter is in
five parts, and that another group of Hebrew
Writings, the “Megilloth,” or Rolls, also comprises
five books, RUTH, ESTHER, SONG OF SONGS, ECCLESI-ASTES,
It is regrettable that the Pentateuch has been
viewed much more from the critical than from the
spiritual standpoint. Libraries have been written
on questions of authenticity, genuinenessj authors,
editors, documents, style, date, and so on, and the
consideration of these matters may easily blind
one to other great facts and values. There is a
wide land between the position that Moses had
little to do with the Pentateuch, and that he wrote
the whole of it, including the account of his own.THE PENTATEUCH
death. Criticism is allowable and is inevitable,
but results must be based on something more
substantial than hypotheses and theories.
The Mosaic authorship of these Books does not
exclude the employment of existing documents.
Every historian has his sources and authorities.
Nor does the Mosaic authorship rule out the ideas
of additions and editorial care in succeeding ages
(e.g., Gen. xiii. 7 ; xxxvi. 31 ; Exod. xvi. 35 ; Deut.
xxxiv). We may assume, therefore, that in the
Pentateuch are pre-Mosaic and post-Mosaic ele-ments,
but that the dominating element is Mosaic.
Here are the Writings, and they constitute a unity,
giving the Hebrew cosmogony, the origin of the
people of Israel, and the foundation of their national
It is most probable that the Book of the Law,
which was found in the Temple in the days of
Josiah (2 Chron. xxxiv.) was the Pentateuch, and
there is no reason to doubt that it was the Penta-teuch
which Ezra read to the people in ~5 B.C.
The historical, literary, biographical, ethical,
legislative, prophetical and spiritual values of these
Writings are beyond estimate. These are their
true values, and can little be affected by purely
Keywad-ELECTION. CHAPTERS: 50.
THE title GENESIS, which is Greek, means
“Origin, ” and the first word in the Hebrew
means “Beginning, ” words which indicate both
the scope and the limits of the Book.
As to scope, GENESIS tells us of the beginning of
everything, except God. The beginning of the
universe, of life, of man, of the sabbath, of coven-ants,
of nomenclature, of marriage, of sin, of
redemption, of death, of family life, of sacrifices,
of nations, of government, of music, of literature,
of art, of agriculture, of mechanics, of cities, and of
languages ; indeed, of every thing that we know.
As to its limits, it is only the beginning ; there. is
here no finality. It is a kind of daybreak book. a
wondrous dawn, an hour of revelation and vision.
It is the seed basket out of which the harvest of
all after revelation comes ; it is the fountain-head
from whence flows “the river of God which is fU
of water” ; it is the mighty root from which has
spread throughout the world the Tree “whose
leaves are for the healing of the nations ” ; it is
the small window through which may be seen,
beyond the dark valley, the Land of Delights ;
it is the foundation on which the whole super-structure
of Divine revelation rests.
GENESIS should be studied historically, pro-phetically,
dispensationally, typically and spiritu-ally.
Its outstanding characters are Abel, Noah,
Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph; Its outstanding
events are the Creation, the Fall, the Deluge, the
Call of Abram, and the Descent into Egypt. Its
outstanding prophecy is chapter iii. 15.
Divine electing grace dominates the book of
GENESIS. Of Adam’s sons, Cain drops out, and
Seth is taken ; of Noah’s sons, Ham and Japheth
drop out, and Shem is taken ; of Terah’s sons,
Nahor and Haran drop out, and Abram is taken ;
of Abram’s sons, Ishmael drops out, and Isaac is
taken ; of Isaac’s sons, Esau drops out, and Jacob
is taken ; and of Jacob’s sons, Judah is elected to
be the line of the Messiah (chapter xlix. IO). Be-neath
and behind the historic redemption is the
eternal election (Eph. i. 4)..I. From
I. PRIMITIVE HISTORY (i. ~-xi. 9).
the Creation to the Fall (i.-iii.).
The Creation, and God’s Week of Work, i. r-ii. 3.
The Garden, and the Probation of Man, ii. 4-25.
The Serpent, and the Fall of Eve and
Adam, . . . . . . . . . . iii.
2. From the Fall to the Flood (iv. t-viii. 14).
(i.1 Cain and Abel, and their Offerings, . . iv. 1-16.
(ii.) The Genealogies of Cain and Seth, . . iv. 17-v. 32.
(iii.) The Great Apostasy, and Divine Judg-ment,
. . . . . . . . . . vi. r-viii. 14.
Analysis of Genesis
3. From the Flood to Babel (viii. IS-xi. 9).
(i.) The New Covenant of God with Man, . . viii. IS-ix.
(ii.) The Posterity of Noah’s Three Sons, . . X.
(iii.) The Confederacy and Confusion at Babel, xi. 1-g.
II. PATRIARCHAL HISTORY (xi. 10-1.).
I. The Story of Abraham (xi. IO-xxv. 18).
(i.) THB AWAKENING OF FAITH. From the
Call in Chaldea to the Settlement in
Canaan, . . . . . . . , xi. IO-xiii.
(ii.) THY DISCIPLINING OF FAITH. From the
Settlement in Canaan to the Birth
of Isaac, . . . . . . . . xiv-xxi. 21.
(iii.) THH PERFECTING OF FAITH. From the
Birth of Isaac to the Death of Abra-ham,
. . , . . . . . , . xxi. 22-xxv. 18.
23.ANALYSIS OF GENESIS
2. The Story of Isaac (xxi.-xxxvi.).
(i.) THE SUBMISSIVE SON. From his Birth
to his Marriage with Rebekah, . .
(ii.) THE FAITHF~JL HUSBAND. From his
Marriage to his SettIement at Beer-sheba
. . . . , , . .
(iii,) THE INDULGENT FATHER. From his
Settlement at Beersheba to his Death,
3. The Story of Jacob (xxv. 19-l. 13).
(i.) THE SUPPLANTER. From his Birth to
his Departure from Home, . . . .
(ii.) THE SERVANT. From his Departure
from Home to his Covenant in
Gilead, . . . . . . . .
(iii.) THE SAINT. From his Covenant in
Gilead to his Descent into Egypt. . .
(iv.) THE SEER. From his Descent into
Egypt to his Burial at Mamre, . .
4 The Story of Joseph (xxx. 22.-l.).
(i.) THE ~IRIOD OF HIS T RAIN I NG. THE
SON. From his Birth at Haran to
his ArrivalinEgypt, . . . .
(ii.) THE PERIOD OF HIS T ESTING. THE
SWFERER. From his Arrival in
Egypt to his Promotion to Power, . .
(iii.) THE P ERIOD OF HIS T RIUMPH. THE
SOVEREIGN. From his Promotion to
Power to the End of his Life, . .
. . . xxv. 19-xxvm. 9
. xxviii. Io-xxxi.
xli. 37-1. 26..EXODUS
&?yf.#rd-REDEMPTION. CHAPTERS : 40.
HE title EXODUS, which is Greek, means “Way
Out,” or departure, and the book tells of the
deliverance of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage.
From the departure, recorded in chapter xii, to
the end of the book, chapter xl, is a period of
about one year. The sons of Jacob have become
the people Israel, a family has become a nation.
First, we see them crushed, and hear them crying;
next, we see them freed, led and fed ; then, we see
them taught and established. Chapters i-xviii
are historical ; and chapters xix-xl are legislative.
The book should be studied geographically,
biographically, and institutionally. Its outstanding
character is Moses. Its outstanding events are the
Training of Moses, the Ten Plagues, which were
judgments against the gods of Egypt, the Institution
of the Passover, the Exodus, the Giving of the Law,
the Prescription of a Ritual, the Appointment of
a Priesthood, and the Construction of the
Following on Election in GENESIS is Redemption
25.in EXODUS. The need of it is seen in the people’s
condition and consciousness (chapters i-ii) ; the
way of it is by blood (chapter xii), and power
(chapter xiv.) ; the law of it is the Divine will,
set forth in the Decalogue, and the Book of the
Covenant, and the medium of it is set forth in the
Tabernacle and its institutions.
The connection between GENESIS and EXODUS is
intimate. In the one the Divine purpose is re-vealed,
and in the other the Divine performance is
exhibited. In the one are human effort and failure,
and in the other are Divine power and triumph.
In the one is a word of promise, and in the other
is a work of fulfilment. In the one is a People
chosen, and in the other is a People called. In the
one is God’s electing mercy, and in the other is
God’s electing manner. In the one is the reve-lation
of nationality, and in the other is the realis-ation
of nationality..Analysis of Exodus
ISRAEL IN EGYPT (i.-xii. 36).
I. The Persecution of the People (i.).
(i.) National Expansion, . . . . . . .
(ii.) Cruel Exaction, . . . . . . . . . . . .
(iii.) Purposed Extinction, . . . . . . . .
2. The Preparation of a Saviour (ii.-iv. 28).
(i.) Moses the Prince in Egypt, . . . . . .
(ii.) Moses the Shepherd in Midian, . . . . . .
3. The Plan and Progress of Redemption
(iv. 29-xii. 36).
ii. Igb-iv. 28.
(i.) The First Movement-Experimental, . . .
(ii.) The Second Movement-Evidential, . . .
(iii.) The Third Movement-Executive, . . .
iv, 29-vii. 13.
vii. 14-X. 29.
ISRAEL FROM EGYPT TO SINAI (xii.37-xviii. 27).
I. To the Red Sea (xii. 37-xiv. 4).
2. Through the Red Sea (xiv. s-xv. 21).
3. From the Red Sea (xv. 22-xviii. 27).
ISRAEL AT SINAI (xix.-xl).
I. The Will of God Disclosed (xix.-xxxi.).
(i.) The Law, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix.-xxiv.
(ii). The Tabernacle, . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv.-xxvii. . . . (iii.) The Priesthood, . . . ,.. . . . . . . xxvm-xxix.
(iv.) The Service, . . . . . . . . . . . xxx.-xxxi
27.2. The Will of God Contemned (xxxii.-xxxiv.).
(i.) The Great Transgression,. . . . . . . . . xxxii. 1-6.
(ii.) The Divine Displeasure, . . . . . . . . xxxii. 7-xxxiii.
(iii.) The Law and the Covenant Renewed, . . . xxxiv.
3. The Will of God Fulfilled (xxxvsl).
(i.) The Construction of the TabemacIe, . . . xxxv.-xxxix. 31
(ii.) The Completion of the Tabernacle, . . . xxxix. 32-xl. 33.
(iii.) The Consecration of the Tabernacle, . . . xl. 34-38..LEVITICUS
Keyword-CoMhlmuION. CHAPTERS: 27.
T HE title LEVITICUS is from Levi, the priestly
tribe, and the book is one of ritual and not of
history. It does not advance the story of EXODUS,
but elaborates the ritual which is there ordained.
The book is ethical in character ; its value is morai
and spiritual. The dominating notes are oblation,
mediation, separation, sanctification.
There are five main Offerings ; the Burnt, the
Meal, the Peace, the Sin, and the Trespass. These
are enfolded in the Passover, and the Passover is
unfolded in these. There are eight great Feasts ;
the Sabbath, Passover, Pentecost, Trumpets, Atone-ment,
Tabernacles, the Sabbatic year, and Jubilee.
Here is a Sabbatic system : seventh day, seventh
week, seventh month, seventh year, and a heptade
The outstanding character is Aaron, and the
outstanding chapter is the sixteenth, which tells of
the Day of Atonement. It is important to observe
where priesthood is introduced as an office ; it is
for a people already redeemed. Christ is the High
Priest only of believers. As Aaron and his suc-29.30 LEVITICUS
cessors acted only on the behalf of the people of
Israel, who had been behind Passover blood, SO
Christ is the fulfilment of that type only on the
behalf of the Christian Church. There is no
priesthood on the behalf of the world. Ma& the
connection between EXODUS and LEVITICUS. In
the one the people are brought nigh to God, and
in the other they are kept nigh. In the one is the
fact of atonement, and in the other is the doctrine
of it. EXODUS begins with sinners, but LEVITICUS
begins with saints, that is, as to their standing,
though not necessarily so as to their state. In
EXODUS we read of God’s approach to us, but in
LEVITICUS, of our approach to God. In the one
book Christ is the Saviour, and in the other He is
the Sanctifier. In EXODUS our guilt is prominent,
but in LEVITICUS, our defilement. EXODUS reveals
God as Love, and LEVITICUS reveals Him as Light.
In the one, we are brought into union with Him,
and in the other we are brought into communion.
EXODUS offers us pardon but LEVITICUS calls us to
purity. In the one book we are delivered from
Satan, and in the other we are dedicated to God.
In EXODUS God speaks out of the Mount, but in
LEVITICUS He speaks out of the Tabernacle..Analysis of Leviticus
I. THE WAY TO GOD BY SACRIFICE.
PRIVILEG E (i.-x.).
The Work of the Son for US.
What He is and Does.
I. Oblation. The Law of the Offerings (i.-vii.).
(i.) THE CHARACTER OF THE OFFERINGS, . . . i. I-vi. 7.
Complete Consecration. (I). Burnt
Offering : Ch. i. Perfect in Death-Godward.
(2) Meal Offering : Ch.
ii. Perfect in Life-Manward.
Cloudless Communion. (3) Peace Offering : ch. iii. Fellowship with
the Father. Fellowship with the
Continued Cleansing. (4) Sin Offer-ing
: ch. iv. Iniquity. Sin. God-ward.
(5) Trespass Offering : ch. V.
Injury. Sins. Manward.
(ii.) THE OFFERING OF THE OFFERINGS , . . .
(a) The Burnt Offering (vi. 8-13).
(b) The Meal Offering (vi. q-23).
(c) The Sin Offering (vi. 24-30).
(d) The Trespass Offering (vii. I-IO).
(e) The Peace Offering (vii. 11-34).
2. Mediation. The Law of the Priesthood. (viii.-x.).
(i.) CONSECRATION , . . . “’ . . . . . . . . VU.
The Place of the Priesthood in the
Economy of Redemption.
31.32 ANALYSIS OF LEVITICUS
(ii.) INAUGURATION, . . . . . . . . . . .
The Service of the Priesthood in Type
(iii.) TRANSGRESSION, . . . . . . . . . .-.
The Exercise of the Priesthood
according to the Law.
II. THE WALK WITH GOD BY SANCTIFICATION
The Work of the Spirit in us.
What we are to Become and Do.
r. Separation. The Law of Purity (xi.-xvi.).
(i.) THE REQUIREMENT , . . . . . . . . .
(a) The Law of Food: xi.
(b) The Law of Issues : xi.-xii.
(c) The Law of Leprosy : xiii.-xiv.
(I) In a Person, xiii. 1-46 ; xiv. 1-32.
(2) In a Garment, xiii. 47-59.
(3) In a House, xiv. 33-57.
(ii.) ‘ ;rHB PR O V I S I ON, . . . . . . . . .
The Great Day of Atonement.
. . . Xvi.
2. Sanctification. The Law of Holiness.
(i.) Tr-nr RBQuIIW~ENT, . . . . . . . . .
(a) Our Daily Meals : xvii.
(b) Our Social Conduct : xviii.-xx.
(c) Our Priestly Relation : xxi.-xxii.
(d) Our Public Worship : xxiii.
(e) Our Entire Life : Xxiv.
(ii.) THE PROVISION, . . . . . . . . .
The Sabbatic Year and the Jubilee.
(a) Conclusion : Concerning the Cove-nant,
(b) Appendix : Concerning Vows, xxvii..NUMBERS
Keyword-DIRricTION. CHAPTBRS : 36.
HE title NUMBERS, which is from the Greek,
is given to this book because of the double
numbering or census of the people (chapters i.-iv.,
and xxvi). It gives the history of the journeyings
of the Israelites from their departure from Sinai
until they arrived in the Plains of Moab. The
book covers a period of about thirty-eight years,
and of the twenty-seven chapters (x-xxxvi) which
tell of events after the people left Sinai, seventeen
are occupied with the history of the last year
(xx-xxxvi). Chapters xv-xix represent a period
of about thirty-seven years, the time of the wan-derings,
as distinguished from the journeyings,
and here no itinerary is given, The movements
of God’s people out of His will are not on His
Outstanding characters in this narrative are
Joshua and Caleb, the only two to enter Canaan,
of the older generation which left Egypt, The
outstanding chapters. are the thirteenth and four-teenth,
which tell of the great rebellion at Kadesh.
3 33.34 NUMBERS
Between the Nation’s Egyptian and Babylonian
captivities there were three great rebellions : this
one in x490 B.C. ; the one in the time of Samuel,
in Iogs B.C., when they demanded a king ; and
the one in 975 B.C. when the Kingdom broke
into two after the death of Solomon.
This book is remarkable for the number of
fragments of ancient poetry preserved in it, showing,
incidentally, the use in the Pentateuch of other
writings (cf. vi. 24-26 ; x. 35, 36 ; xxi. 14, IS, 17,
18, 27-30). Moses, Aaron, and Miriam all died
before the people entered into the Land ; Law,
Priesthood, and Prophecy bring us to the borders of
our inheritance, but only our Divine Joshua can
bring us into it.
As EXODUS is connected with GENESIS, and
LEVITICUS with EXODUS, so is NUMBERS with
LEVITICUS. In LEVITICUS the subject is the be-liever’s
worship, but in NUMBERS it is the believer’s
walk. The one treats of purity, and the other of
pilgrimage. The one speaks of our spiritual
position, and the other, of our spiritual progress.
The one is concerned with our condition within,
and the other, with our conduct without. LEVITKUS
is ceremonial, and NUMBERS is historical. In the
one the Sanctuary is prominent, and in the other,
the Wilderness. The one emphasises privileges,.NUMBERS 35
and the other, responsibilities. The one calls to
fellowship with God, and the other, to faithfulness
to God. LEVITICUS speaks of the priests, and
access to God, and NUMBERS, of the Levites, and
service for men.Analysis of Numbers
I. ARRAY. PREPARATION FOR THE JOURNEY (i. I-X. IO).
THE ENCAMPMENT AT SINAI.
I. Organization of the Camp (i.-iv.).
(i.) Number of the Men of War, . . . .,.
(ii.) Order of the Camp, *.* . . . . . .
(iii.) Separation and Number of the Levites,
(iv.) Service and Number of the Levites, . . . .
2. Purification of the People (V.-vi.).
(i.) Law of the Leper, . . . *** . . . . . .
(ii.) Law of Trespass against a Fellow, . . .
(iii.) Law of Husband and Wife, m.0 . . .
(iv.) Law of the Nazarite, .,. *.- .,.
(v.) The Priestly Blessing on Israel, . . .
3. Provision for the Service (vii.-ix. 14).
(i.) Dedication of the Altar, . . . . . .
(ii,) Consecration of the Levites, . . . . . .
(iii.) Celebration of the Passover, . . . . . .
4. Anticipation of the March (ix. 15-x. IO).
(i.) The Law of the Cloud, . . . . . .
(ii.) The Law of the Trumpets, . . . . . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
ii. . . . 111.
Vii. . . . vm.
II. ADVANCE. DISAFFECTION ON THE JOURNEY.
(x. II-xiv. 45).
FROM SINAI TO KADESH.
I. The Departure from Sinai (x. 11-36).
The Complaint at Teberah (xi. 1-3).
36.ANALYSIS OF NUMBERS
3. The Lusting at Kibroth-Hattaavah (xi. 4-35).
4. The Sedition at Hazeroth (xii.).
5. The Apostasy at Kadesh Barnea (xiii.-xiv.).
(i.) The Search of the Land, . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) The Advice of the Spies, . . . . . . . . .
(iii.) The Rebellion of the People, . . . . . .
(u) The Choice of Israel (1-12).
(a) The Intercession of Moses (13-I@*
(c) The Sentence of the Lord (20-38).
(d) The Victory of the Enemy (39-45).
III. RETREAT. INTERRUPTION OF THE JOURNEY.
FROM THE FIRST TO THE S ECOND V ISIT TO KADESH.
I. Legislation for the Future (xv.).
2. Insurrection of the Princes (xvi.).
3. Vindication of the Priesthood (xvii).
4. Direction of the Priests and Levites (xviii).
5. Provision against Pollution (xix).
IV. RETURN. CONTINUATION OF THE JOURNEY.
mOM f(ADESli TO THE PLAINS OF MOD.
r. The Return to Kadesh (xx. 1-21).
2. The Sojourn at Mount Hor (xx. 22-xxi. 3).
3. The March through the Arabah (xxi. 4-g).
4. In the Coasts of the East (xxi. 10-35).
5. The Encampment at Shittim (xxii.-xxxvi.).
(i.) THE WIDB PROSPECT BHPORB THE NATION,
(a) The Call of Balsam (xxii. 1-20).
(a) Balaam meets Balak (xxii. 21-41).
xxii.-xxv..(c) Balaam’s Prophecies (xxiii.-xxiv.).
First, “. xX111. r-12.
Second, xxiii. 13-26.
Third, xxiii. 27-xxiv. 9.
Fourth, xxiv. 10-25.
(d) Balaam’s Sinful Counsel and the Result (xxv.).
(ii.) THE RICH PROMISES TO THE NATION (xxvi.-xxxvi.).
(a) Numberinp (xxvi).
(I) The Warriors (1-36).
(2) The Levites (37-65).
(b) Laws (xxvii.-xxx.; xxxvi.).
(I) Law of Inheritance (xxvii. I-11 ; xxxvi.).
(2) Appointment of Moses’ Successor (xxvii. 12-23).
(3) Law of the Offerings (xxviii. 1-15).
(4) Law of the Feasts (xxviii. 16-xxix.).
Passover, . . . xxviii. 16-25.
Pentecost, . . . xxviii. 26-31.
Trumpets, . . . xxix.
(5) Law of Vows (xxx.).
(c) Znstruct~ons (xxxi.-xxxv.).
(I) Concerning the Midianites (xxxi.).
(2) Concerning the Inheritance of the Two Tribe
and a Half (xxxii.).
(3) Record of Israel’s Journeyings (xxxiii. I-49).
(4) Concerning the Inhabitants of the Land (xxxiii.
(5) Concerning Possessing the Land (xxxiv.-xxxv.).DEUTERONOMY
Keyword-instruction. CHAPTWs : 34.
T HE title DEUTERONOMY, which is from the
Greek, and means “The Second Law,” is
suggested by the statement in chapter xvii. 18, that
the coming king shall “write him a copy of this
law in a book” ; for DEUTERONOMY is just the
words copy and law together. It belongs to the
period during which the Israelites were in the
Plains of Moab.
The book stands in relation to the four pre-ceding
books much as John’s Gospel does to the
Synoptic Records, in that each gives the spiritual
significance of the afore-related historical facts.
The dominating notes of the preceding Books are
all here ; the choice of GENESIS, the deliverance of
EXODUS, the holiness of LEVITICUS , and the guidance
Two of the keywords of the Book are remember
and obey, the one pointing back to the Wilderness,
and the other pointing on to the Land.
The three Feasts emphasised are Passover,
Pentecost, and Tabernacles, referring to the past,
the present, and the future.
39.The first part of DEUTERONOMY is Historical ;
the second part is Legislative ; and the third part
is Prophetical. Moses, at the close of his life,
looked upon a new generation, a new land, a new
life, new duties, and a new leader, and so there
was the need for this new revelation of the Divine
“love, ” nowhere mentioned until now, though
much illustrated. In chapters i-iv, we learn of
God’s love in the past ; in chapters V.-xxvi., of His
love in the present ; and in chapters xxvii-xxxiv,
of His love in the future. No critical questions
can lessen the moral and spiritual value of this great
Book, the Orations of Moses in the Plains of Moab.
It is a significant example of what De Quincey
calls “the literature of power,” as distinct from
“the literature of knowledge. ” It is probably
true that DEUTERONOMY is the most spiritual Book
in the Old Testament..Analysis of Deuteronomy
I. A REVIEW OF ISRAEL’ S WANDERINGS AND
GOD’ S LONGSUFFERINGS (chs. i. r-iv. 43).
PREFACE, i. 1-s.
I. From Horeb to Kadesh (i. 6-46).
(i.) The Order to Proceed, ,… . . . . .
(ii.) The Appointment of Elders, . . . . . . . . .
(iii.) The Journey, . . . . . . . , . . . .
(iv.) The Mission of the Spies, . . .
(v.) The Great Rebelhon, . . . . . .
(vi.) The Lord’s Anger with Israel and Moses, . .
(vii.) The Israelites Defeated by the Amorites, . . .
2. From Kadesh to Heshbon and Bethpeor
The Wilderness Wanderings, . . . . . . . . .
Instructions concerning the Edomites, . . .
Instructions concerning the Moabites, . . .
A Note of the Wanderings, . . . . .
Instructions concerning the Ammonites, . .
The Defeat of Sihon, King of the Am-monites,
. . . . . . . . . . , . . . .
The Defeat of Og, Ring of Bashan, .,, . , .
Relating to the Two and a Half Tribes, . . .
Joshua Appointed to be Moses’ Suc-ces*
or, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Exhortations to Obedience, with a Warn-ing
(i.) What God had Said-Retrospective, . . .
(ii.) What God would Do-Prospective, . . .
(iii.) What God had Done-Retrospective,
Historical Note, 41-43.
. . . 1-24.
. . . 25-31.
. . . 32-40.
..II. A REPETITION AND EXPOSITION OF THE LAW.
(chs. iv. 44-xxvi.).
PREFACE, iv. 44-49.
PART A-THE SINAITIC LAW (v.4.).
I. Recital of the Decalogue (v. 1-21).
2. Discourse on the Decalogue (v. 224. 32).
(i.) Moses Appointed to Mediate between
Israel and Jehovah, . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) Exhortation and Warning, . . . . . .
The Ground of Approach to God,
vi. 1-g. The Sin of Forgetting God,
vi. IO-vii. 11. The Blessings of
Obeying God, vii. 12-26. The Past
Goodness of God, viii.
(iii). Rehearsal of Israel’s Rebellions, . . . . . . ix. 1-x. 11.
(iv.) Exhortation and Warning, . . . . . . x. 12-xi. 32.
PART B-SPECIAL LAWS (xii.-xxvi. 19).
I. Laws Concerning Religion (xii. r-xvi. 17).
(i.) The Central Sanctuary, ……… xii. 1-28.
(ii.) The Peril of Idolatry, ……… xii. 2g-xiii. 18.
(iii.) The Matters of Food, ……… xiv. 1-21.
(iv.) The Tithe of the Increase, …… xiv. 22-29.
(v.) The Year of Release, ……… xv. r-18.
(vi.) The Firstling of the Flock, …… xv. 19-23.
(vii.) The Annual Feasts, ……… xvi. 1-17.
2. Laws Concerning Government (xvi. IS-XX. 20).
(i.) Authority and Functions.
(a) Of the Judge, ……… xvi. II-xvii. 7.
(b) Of the Priest, ………… xvii. 8-13.
(c) Of the Ring, ………… xvii. 14-20..ANALYSIS OF DEUTERONOMY 43
(ii.) place and Privileges of the Priests and
Levites, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii. 1-8.
(iii.) Concerning Spiritualism, . . . . . . . . . xviii. g-14.
(iv.) True and False Prophets, . . . . . . . . . xviii. 15-22.
(v.) Cities of Refuge, . . . . . . . . . . . xix. 1-13.
(vi.) True and False Witnesses, . . . . . . . . . xix. 14-21.
(vii.) Laws for Time of War, . . . . . . . . XX.
3. Laws Concerning Private and Social
Life (xxi.-xxvi. 1s).
Conclusion, xxvi. 16-19.
III. A REVELATION OF GOD’ S FUTURE PURPOSES
REGARDING ISRAEL (chs. xxvii-xxx).
PART A-THE FAR VIEW (xxvii.-xxviii).
I. Instructions for the Land (xxvii).
(i.) Concerning Blessings and Curses, . . . I-IO
(ii.) Emphasis on the Curses, . . . . . . . . . 11-26.
Consequences of Obedience and Die-obedience
(i.) Obedience and its Blessings, . . . . . . 1-14.
(ii.) Disobedience and its Curses, . . . . . 15-68.
PART B-THE NEAR VIEW (xxix.-XXX).
x. In the Wilderness, . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix. 1-g.
2. In the Land, .,. . . . .,. . . . . . . xxix. 10-21.
3. In Captivity, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix. 22-29
4 In the Land Again, .,. . . . . . . .., xxx. I-IO.
The Final Appeal, . . . . . . . . . . . . xxx. 11-20.
IV A RECORD OF THE CLOSING EVENTS OF MOSES’ LIFE (chs. xxxi.-xxxiv).
1 Four Solemn Charges (xxxi. r-29).
(i.) Moses to Joshua and the People, . . . . . . . 1-8, 23.
(ii.) Moses to the Priests, . . . . . . .., 9-13.
(iii.) Jehovah to Moses, . . . . . . . . . 14-22.
(iv.) Moses to the Levites, . . . . . . . . . 24-29..44
2. The Prophetic Song of Moses (xxxi. 30-
(i.) Invocation, . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxi. 30-xxxii. 5
(ii.) Election of Israel and their Establishment
intheLatid, . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14.
(iii.) Rebellion of Israel, . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19.
(iv.) Rejection of Israel ,… . . . . . . . . . 20-21.
(v.) Judgment upon Israel, . . . . . . . . . 22-35.
(vi.) Restoration of Israel, . . . . . . . . . 36-44.
(vii,) Conclusion, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-47.
3. The Final Events (xxxii. 4%xxxiv. 12).
(i.) The Lord’s Last Word to Moses, . . . xxxii. 4852.
(ii.) The Blessings of Moses upon the Tribes, “‘. xxxm
(iii.) The Death and Burial of Moses, . . . xxxiv..THE HISTORICAL WRITINGS
JOSHUA 2 KINGS
JUDGES I CHRONICLES
RUTH 2 CHRONICLES
I SAMUEL EZRA
2 SA?duEL ESTHER
I KINGS NEHEMIAH
45.THE HISTORICAL WRITINGS
T HIS classilication is general, and for the sake
of convenience, and it must be remembered
that large parts of the Pentateuch, and parts of the
later Prophets are also historical.
The period covered by these Books reaches
from the death of Moses in 1451 B.C., to the end
of Old Testament history, about 396 B.C. (?), that
is, approximately 1055 years, a long time in the
history of a people.
This long period falls into three main parts,
namely, first, from the death of Moses to the
accession of Saul, 14jI-rog6 B.C., that is, 355
years : second, from the accession of Saul to the
overthrow of Judah, 1096-586 B.C., that is, 510
years : and third, from the overthrow of Judah to
the end of Old Testament history, 586-396 B.C.,
that is, rgo years. By getting that perspective it
will be easier to follow the unfolding story. These
periods represent three forms of government,
relative to the Chosen Nation, first, the Theocracy,
or rule of God ; second, the Monarchy, or rule of
47.48 THE HISTORICAL WRITINGS
kings of their own ; and third, the Dependency,
or rule of alien kings.
It must be remembered that the Old Testament
story is history with a religious purpose, and
selection and omission are determined by this fact.
That millennium was the period of great civilisa-tions,
great characters, great cities, and great
conflicts of Babylonia, Egypt, Assyria, Phoenicia,
Syria, Greece, and Persia ; yet, all this fascinating
story has no place in the Bible record except in
so far as these powers and persons came into
contact with this chosen People. And not only
so, but in the history of Israel itself, much is passed
over briefly which we would consider of great
historical importance, while events of seeming
minor importance are recorded at length. The
reason for this is that the purpose of Old Testa-ment
history is moral and spiritual, and not
annalistic ; it is the history of God’s Self-revelation
for the redemption of men. All omissions and
digressions must be received in this light.
Herodotus is commonly regarded as the Father
of History, .but the Hebrews wrote history a thou-sand
years before Herodotus was born. “That in
these Writings other documents are named, as
the depositories of ampler information, and that
some of the Books were written or collected long.THE HISTORICAL WRITINGS 49
after the events they describe, are facts which
create no difficulty, and are in accordance with
what we know of the general method of revelation.
They account, moreover, for the occasional blend-ing
of matter evidently contemporaneous with the
events described with others of clearly later origin. ”
Although these Books were written by different
persons, at different times, and in different places,
they yet present a coherent and constructive
account of a thousand years of history. This can
be accounted for only by assuming a Divine pro-vidence
and superintendence, a Divine inspiration.
The dates attached to the following Books are
given without dogmatism.
Keyword-Possmrom Cmmms : 24.
DATE : 1451-1426 B.C. ; 25 Years.
T HIS Book bears the name of Joshua because
he is the hero of it, although, no doubt,
Jewish tradition is right in assuming that he also
supplied the materials of the story, which were
supplemented and edited by some later scribes.
This book goes on from where DEUTERONOMY
leaves off; Joshua completes what Moses com-menced.
The great event in Moses’ life was the
passage through the Red Sea, and the great event
in Joshua’s life was the passage through the Jordan.
The one tells of deliverance from bondage, and the
other of entrance into blessing. Moses’ symbol
was the rod, but Joshua’s was the spear. The
connection between DEUTERONOMY and JOSHUA is
instructive. In the one is a prospect, but in the
other, an experience. In the one is the vision of
faith, and in the other, the venture of faith. In
the one is Israel’s inheritance, and in the other,
Israel’s possession. In the one is the call to
conflict, and in the other is the clash of conflict..Analysis of Joshua
I. ENTERING THE LAND (i. I-V. 12).
I. Preparation of the People (i. I-iii. 13).
(i.) INWARD PREPARATION. The Law, . . . . . . .
(a) The Lord to Joshua (r-9).
(b) Joshua to the People (10-15).
(c) The People to Joshua (16-18).
(ii.) OUTWARD PREPARATION . The Spies, . . .
(a) The Mission of the Spies (r-7).
(b) The Covenant of the Spies (8-21).
(c) The Report of the Spies (22-24).
(iii.) ONWARD PREPARATION . TIze Ark, . . . . . . .
2. Passage of the People (iii. 14-iv. 24).
(i.) The Crossing of Jordan, . . . . . .
(ii.) The Memorial in Jordan, . . . . . . . . .
(iii.) The Encampment over Jordan, . . . . . .
3. Purification of the People (v. x-12).
(i.) The Consternation of the Enemy, . . . . . . .
(ii.) The Circumcision of the Sons, . . . . .
(iii.) The Cessation of the Manna, . . . .
. . . m. 1-13.
II. CONQUERING THE LAND (v. I3-xii. 24).
I. The Revelation of Victory (v. 13-15).
2. The Realization of Victory (vi.-xi.).
(i.) The Central Campaign, . . . . . vi. I-ix. 27.
Jericho and Ai.
(ii.) The Southern Campaign, . . . . . . . . X.
Gibeon and Beth-Horon.
(iii.) The Northern Campaign, .
. . . . . xi..ANALYSIS OF JOSHUA 53
3. The Record of Victory (xii.).
(i.) East of Jordan, . . . . . .
(ii,) West of Jordan, . . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
III. POSSESSING THE LAND (xiii.-xxiv.).
I. Distribution of the Land among the
(i). Possession of the Two and a Half Tribes, x111 -xxi “‘ .
(ii.) Possession of Caleb, . . . . . . . . . xiv.
(iii.) Possession of the Nine and a Half Tribes, xv.-xix.
(iv.) The Cities of Refuge, . . . . . . . . . xx.
(v.) The Cities of the Levites, . . . . . . . . . xxi.
2. Dispute about an Altar on the Border (xxii).
(i) The Changes, . . . . . . . . . . I -2 0.
(ii) The Clearance, . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-29.
(iii) The Conclusion, . . . . . . . . . . 30-34.
3. Discourse and Death of Joshua (xxiii.-xxiv).
(i,) The First Address, . . . . . . . . . . . . XXlll “‘ .
(ii.) The Second Address, . . . . . . . . . xxiv. I -2 8.
(iii.) The Three Graves, . . . . . . . . . Xxiv. 29-33.
Keyword-DECLENsION. CHAPTERS : 21.
DATE : 1426-1096 B.C. ; 330 Years.
T HIS Book takes its name from a characteristic
of the period between the death of Joshua
and the accession of Saul, namely, the rule of
Judges, or saviours, whom God raised up to
deliver His oppressed people. Of these there were
fifteen, Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah-Barak,
Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan,
Elan, Abdon, Samson, Eli and Samuel. There were
three leading types, the Warrior-Judge, as Gideon
and Samson ; the Priest-Judge, as Eli; and the
Prophet-Judge, as Samuel. The chief of these
Judges were Deborah, Gideon, Samson, and
The period of the Judges cannot be determined
with any precision ; calculations have a varying
margin of more than a century. We cannot con-clude
that all these Judgeships were consecutive ;
indeed, it is ahnost certain that some of them were
– contemporaneous ; but we may reckon about 330
years for this period.
Nothing is known as to the authorship of the
Book, though tradition ascribes it to Samuel.
Clearly it is a compilation, and may not have taken
its present form until several centuries after the
events which it records.
The main narrative is in iii. T-xvi. 31, and I Sam.
i.-vii.; and chapters xvii.-xxv., with RUTH, are
undated episodes of the early days of the Judges,
inserted between the histories of Samson and
JUDGES is one of the saddest books in the Bible,
telling, as it does, of repeated apostasy, chastise-ment,
and mercy. Rebellion, retribution, repen-tance,
and rest, are the dominating notes in this
minor music. JOSHUA treats of the heavenlies, but
JUDGES of the earthlies ; the one is of the Spirit,
and the other is of the flesh. In the one is a song
of joy, and in the other a sob of sorrow. In the
one is victory, and in the other, defeat. In the one
is progress, and in the other, decline : in the one,
‘faith, and in the other, unbelief : in the one freedom,
and in the other bondage. JUDGES teaches us,
on the one hand, not to presume, and on the other
hand, not to despair..RUTH
Keyword-REsToRATIoN CHAPTERS : 4.
T HIS is one of the only two books of the Bible
which bear the name of a woman, and in many
respects they present remarkable contrasts. The
one is of a Gentile woman, Ruth, who was brought
into the midst of Jews, among whom she hence-forth
lives her life ; and the other is of a Jewish
woman, Esther, who is taken into the midst of
Gentiles, where, with equal fidelity and grace, she
plays the part ordained for her by God. RUTH is
a lovely pastoral idyll, the tale of a friendship
between two women, and the grand climax up to
which all is working is the birth of a baby. After
reading JUDGES xvii-xxi., RUTH is like a lovely lily
in a stagnant pool, Here, instead of unfaithfulness,
is loyalty, and instead of immorality, is purity.
Here, instead of battlefields are harvest fields, and
instead of the warrior’s shout is the harvester’s
Ruth’s protestation of love for Naomi is as
eloquent a passage as can be found in the whole
range of world literature (chapter i. 16, 17).
The story has a typical significance, which may
5’ 3.RUTH 57
be discerned in the meanings of the names which
occur : Bethlehem, House of Bread ; Elimelech,
My God is Ring ; Naomi, Sweet (3) ; Mahlon,
Song ; Chilion, Perfection ; Ruth, Satisfied ; Orpah,
skull (?) ; Boaz, Strength. These three women
represent-a saint backsliding, Naomi ; a sinner
rejecting blessing, Orpah ; and a sinner believing
and blessed, Ruth. Boaz may be regarded as a
type of Christ, as Lord of harvest (ii. 3), Dispenser
of bread (iii. IS), Kinsman-Redeemer (ii. 20),
Giver of rest (iii. I), Man of wealth (ii. I), and our
This Book is one of the Megilloth or Festal
Rolls, one of which was publicly read at each
festival, RUTH being read at the Feast of Pentecost.
One of the designs of the Book is to trace the descent
of David, and to show that the Gentiles are not
outside the scope of redeeming love.
The analysis of RUTH is included in that of
JUDGES..Analysis of Judges and Ruth
I. INTRODUCTION (i.-iii. 6).
I. Retrospective (i. I-ii. IO).
(i.) The Failure of Israel, . . .
(ii.) The Rebuke of the Angel, . . .
(iii.) The Death of Joshua Recalled,
2. Prospective (ii. II-iii. 6).
(i.) A Summary of the Period, . . .
. . . . . . 1.
. . . . . . ii. 1-s.
. . . . . . ii. 6-10.
. . . . . . ii. 11-23.
(ii.) A Summary of the Enemies, . . . . . .
II. THE HISTORY (iii. 7-xvi. 31).
iii. 7-11. I. First Cycle, . .
Enemy,. . .
Peace, . . .
2. Second Cycle, . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peace, . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
(iii. 31, Shamgar delivers from the Philistines).
3. T&d Cycle, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subjection, 20 Years.
Deliverer, Deborah and Barak.
Peace, . . . 40 Years.
iv. I-V. 31..ANALYSIS OF JUDGES AND RUTH jg
4. Fourth Cycle, . ,. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subjection, 7 Years.
Peace, . . . 40 Years.
5. Fifth Cycle, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Usurpation of Abimelech, 3 Years.
Judgeship of Tola and Jair, 45 Years.
6. Sixth Cycle, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subjection, 18 Years.
Peace, . . . 31 Years.
7. Seventh Cycle, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subjection, 40 Years.
Peace, . . . 20 Years.
III. APPENDIX (xvii.-xxi.) RUTH.
I. Micah and the Da&es (xvii.-xviii.).
(i.) Micah and his Gods, .,. .,. . . .
(ii.) The Danite Migration, . . . . . . . . .
2. A Levite’ s Concubine (xix-xx).
(i.) The Outrage at Gibeah, . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) The War with Benjamin, . . . . . . . . .
3. The Story of Ruth.
Fidelity and Morality.
(i.) The Fvlion to Moah of the Elimelech
(ii.) The RRek&urk to J~&I of’ ‘Naor;;i’ wii ’
(iii.) The Ryientik &&g ‘,f Bd& ani’
(iv.) The Redlmd;ibn b;‘bosz if Bfi&lech’i’ Inheritance, . . . . . . . .
vi. r-viii. 32.
viii. 33-x. 5
x. 6-xii. IS.
. . . xm.-xvi.
xvii. . . . xvlll.
Keyword–KINGDOM. CHAPTERS: 31.
DATE : 1150 (?) -1055 B.C. ; 95 Years.
I N this record ends what Prof. R. Moulton calls
incidental history, and commences what he
calls regular history. The long period of the
Judges, with its unsettled Government, terminates
with the judgeship of Samuel, and five centuries
of Monarchy start (1095~586 B.C .). The Book
may be divided into three unequal parts by a group-ing
of its chief characters, Eli, Samuel, Saul, and
David, but it should be discerned that these parts
overlap. In all likelihood chapters i-xxiv were
written by Samuel, and xxv-xxxi by Nathan and
Gad (x, 25 ; I Chron. xxix. 29).
The Warrior-Judges have passed, and a Priest-Judge
has come, Eli, to be followed by a Prophet-Judge,
Samuel, and with him the period of the
Judges ends, and the Order of the Prophets begins
(Acts xiii. 20 ; iii. 24). Until now the priest had
been prominent, and from now the prophet is
distinguished. By the former, the people drew
nigh to God, and by the latter God drew nigh to
the people. Christ is both Prophet and Priest,
60.I SAMUEL 61
the former, when here on earth, and the latter,
now in Heaven. This Book is rich in character
ELI was probably contemporary with Samson,
and he ministered from the Sanctuary in Shiloh
for forty years. When Samuel was born Eli was
physically old and spiritually weak, and his sons
“were sons of Belial ; they knew not the Lord ”
(chapter ii. 12).
SAMUEL is one of the greatest of the Hebrew
worthies, whose influence lay not in military
exploits, nor in diplomatic skill, nor in political
shrewdness, but in unswerving integrity and
splendid loyalty to God (chapter xii. 1-3). He is
the third of the great leaders whom God raised up
for Israel-Abraham, Moses, Samuel, and he is
the first of three great transition-period leaders.
He saw the outgoing of the Theocracy and the
incoming of ,the Monarchy. Jeremiah saw the
outgoing of the Monarchy and the incoming of
the Dependency, and Paul saw the outgoing of
Judaism and the incoming of Christianity.
SAUL is a strange character, exciting in us both
admiration and pity ; a man whom Samuel sternly
rebuked (chapter xv. 20-23), and whom David
lavishly praised (2 Sam. i. x9-27) ; a man whose
morning was bright, but soon became overcast,.62 I SAMUEL
and whose sun set in blackest clouds. Follow
carefully his rise, his reign, and his ruin. Read
Browning’s “Saul. ”
DAVID is one of the greatest characters of all
time, having regard to his influence upon history,
national and spiritual. In this Book we see him as
shepherd lad, minstrel, armour-bearer, captain,
king’s son-in-law, king designate, psalmist, and
fugitive. He was thrice anointed, and was the
founder of the royal line of which the Ring of
JONATHAN is a choice soul, the two chief features
of whose story are, his self-suppression, and his
love for David (chapters xviii, xx ; 2 Sam. i. 26).
Other noteworthy features of this Book are the
founding of prophetic schools, the commencement
of the Monarchy, the defeat of the Philistines by
the slaying of Goliath, the Song of Hannah, the
first occurrence of “Messiah” (chapter ii. IO Heb.),
the campaigns against the Ammonites, Amalelzites,
and Philistines, and the battle at Mount Gilboa,
with which the historical part of Chronicles begins
(chapter x)..Analysis of r Samuel
I. ELI AND SAMUEL (i.-vii).
I. Contrasted Family Life in Shiloh (i-iii.).
(i.) ELKANAH AND HIS SON. Righteous.
(a) The Birth of Samuel, . . . . . . (i. I-ii. 11).
(b) The Ministry of Samuel, . . . (ii. 18-21, 26).
(c) The Call of Samuel, . . . . . . (iii. 1-21).
(ii.) ELI AND HIS SONS. Wicked.
(a) Their Sin,
(b) Their Sentence, :::
. . . . . . (ii. 12-17 ; 22-25).
. . . . . . (ii. 27-36).
2. The Pbilistines and the Ark of God (iv.-vii).
(i.) THE PHILISTINES VICTORIOUS , . . . iv.-vii. I.
(a) The Ark Taken . . . .,. . . . iv.
(b) The Ark Held, . . . . . . . . . V.
(c) The Ark Returned . . . . . . vi. I-vii. I.
(ii.) THE PHILISTINES DEFEATIID, . . . . . . vii. 2-17.
(a) The Dedication at Mizpeh . . . 2-6.
(b) The Victory of Israel . . . . . . 7-12.
(c) The Judgeship of Samuel . . . 13-17.
II. SAMUEL AND SAUL (viii.-xv.).
I. Saul’ s Election to the Throne (viii-xii.).
(i.) Israel’s Demand for a King, . . . VU1 ‘ *‘ ,
(ii.) Israel’s Request Granted, . . . . . . ix.-xi.
(a) Saul Selected, . . . . . . . . . ix.
(b) Saul Appointed
(c) Saul Confirmed
. . . . . . X:
. . . . . . ~1.
(iii.) Israel Addressed by Samuel, . . . xii.
2. Saul’s Rejection by the Lord (xiii.-xv.).
(i.) His Sinful Impatience, . . . . . . . Xl&
(ii.) His Insensate Zeal, . . . . . . . . . xiv,
(iii.) His Miserable Hypocrisy, . . . . . xv.
SAUL AND DAVID (xvi.-xxxi.).
I. David as a Shepherd (xvi.-xvii.).
(i.) David and Samuel, . . . . . .
(ii.) David and Saul, . . . . . . . . .
(iii.) David and Gohath, . . . . . .
2. David as a Courtier (xviii.-xix.).
(i.) The Friendship of Jonathan, . . .
(ii.) The Devotion of Israel, . . . . . .
(iii.) The Love of Michal, . . . . . .
(iv.) The Jealousy of Saul, . . . . . .
3. David as a Fugitive (xx.-xxxi.).
Jonathan’s Faithfulness to David,
David’s Wanderings, . . . . .
David and Nabal, . . . . . . . . .
David’s Wanderings, . . . . . .
Saul and the Witch of Endor, . . .
. . . xvi. 1-13.
. . . xvi. 14-23.
. . . xvii.
.*. xviii. 1-g.
. . . xviii. 10-16.
. . . xviii. 17-30.
. . . xix. 1-24.
. . . xx.
. . . xxi.-xxiv. . . . xxv.
. . . xxvi.-xxvii. . . . . . . XXVIII.
David and the Philistines and Amale-kites,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix.-xxx.
Death of Saul and Jonathan, . . . . . . xxxi..2 SAMUEL
Keyword-CoNSoLrDATIoN. CHAPTERS : 24.
DATE : IOSS-1015 B.C. 40 Years.
PARALLEL HISTORY : I Chronicles xi.-xxix.
T HIS is a record of greatest importance, and of
thrilling interest. In these historical Books,
1-2 SAMUEL, 1-2 KINGS, is discernible a dramatic
development ; Samuel supersedes Eli, Saul super-cedes
Samuel, David supersedes Saul, and David’s
sons supersede their father. The Hebrew Mon-archy
proper began with David, and in his reign
it reached its highest development. He unified the
nation, obtained for it a royal capital, subdued its
enemies, and extended the kingdom from the
Red Sea to the river Orontes, and from the Mediter-ranean
to the Euphrates. He created a national
consciousness, and brought prosperity by extend-ing
trade. It has been well said that “four streams
of influence have come to us from his times.
First, by establishing the City of David he set in
motion all that Jerusalem has meant in war and in
song. Secondly, he founded a dynasty, and the
sanctity, the authority, the splendour of the House
of David have moulded the hopes of Israel and
5 65.66 2 SAMUEL
the forms of Christian faith through all subsequent
generations. Thirdly, his reign was marked by
a signal development of poetry and music ; he is
credited with the orchestration of wind, stringed,
and percussion instruments ; and with nobler
music the psalms of worship became more num-erous
and significant. Fourthly, about this time
public records were kept with systematic care ;
Samuel left written documents (I Sam. x. 29,
David appointed court recorders and scribes,
Nathan the prophet wrote history (I Chron.
xxix. 29). Under David the harassed tribes
became a conquering, self-conscious nation, and
music, song, history, and prophetic dreams sprang
to life” (C. A. Dinsmore). The narrative is full
of graphic and convincing detail, and is written
in the best style of classical Hebrew. It begins
with one of the most perfect elegies in any language,
David’s lament over Saul called “The Song of the
Bow, ” and let us remember it was written over
three thousand years ago, by a young man just
In the Hebrew Bible First and Second SAMUEL
are one book, as are First and Second KINGS ; and,
indeed, the four tell one story, the Story of the
Monarchy from its Rise to its Fall. David’s history
begins in I SAMUEL and ends in I KINGS, and is.2 SAMUEL 67
divisible into four parts : his Education (I Sam.
xvi-xxxi) ; his Election (2 Sam. i-x) ; his Ejection
(2 Sam. xi-xviii), and his Exaltation (2 Sam xix-1
Kings ii. I I) ; or, his Testings, Triumphs, Troubles,
and Testimonies. David came to the throne,
conquered from the throne, fled from the throne,
and was established on the throne, stages which
tell of preparation, subjugation, retribution, and
restoration. As a king, David’s Home Policy was
the centralisation of power and worship, in which
. he succeeded by taking Jerusalem and bringing
the Ark to it ; and his Foreign Policy was the
subjugation of all enemies, and in this also he
succeeded (chapter viii). Solemn indeed is the
story of his fall and its consequences, whereby he
has made “the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme ”
for three thousand years. But profound was his
repentance, and out of that “eater” has come the
“meat” of Psalms xxxii and li. The great shepherd
became a great soldier, and the great sinner became
a great saint..Analysis of 2 Samuel
I. DAVID KING OVER JUDAH, IN HEBRON.
7 Years. Chs. i.-iv.
I. David and the Dead (Ch. i.).
(i.) A False Account of Saul’s Death, . . .
(ii.) David’s Lamentation for Saul and
Jonathan, . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Two Kings Crowned (Ch. ii. I-II).
(i.) David over Judah, . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) Ish-bosheth over Israel, . . . . . . . . .
3. War Between Judah and Israel.
(Chs. ii. rz-iv. 12).
(i.) Joab and Abner, . . . . . . ,.. . . .
(ii.) Abner and David, . . . . . . . . .
(iii.) Joab, David and Abner, . . . . . . . . .
(iv.) Ish-bosheth and his Murderers, . . . . . .
. . . i. 1-16.
. . . i. 17-27.
. . . ii. 1-7.
. . . . ii. S-II.
. . . ii. 12-32.
. . . iii. 1-21.
. . . iii. 22-39.
. . . iv. Z-12.
II. DAVID, KING OVER ALL ISRAEL, IN JERUSALEM.
33 Years. Chs. v.-2 Kings ii. II.
I. The Triumphs of the King (Chs. V.-X.).
(i.) ESTABLISHMENT OF THE THRONE, . . . . . . V.-vii.
(a) The New Capital and First Con-quests
(b) The Establishment of Worship in
(c) God’s Covenant with David (vii.).
(ii.) EXTENSION OF THE KINGDOM, . . . . . .
(a) David’s Foreign Conquests (viii.).
(b) David and Mephibosheth (ix.).
(c) Defeat of the Syrians and Ammon-ites
. . . viii–x..ANALYSIS OF 2 SAMUEL 69
2. The Troubles of the King (Chs. xi.-xix.).
(i.) His Terrible Sin, . . . . . . . ..xl.
(ii.) His Profound Sorrow . . . . . . . xii.; Psalm li.
(iii.) His Manifold Suffering, . . . . . . . . . “’ “.. WI.-xv111
(a) /Unnon’sIncest andDeath(xiii. I-33).
(b) Absalom’s Flight and Return
(xiii. 34-xiv. 33).
(c) Absalom’s Revolt and David’s
Flight (xv. 1-18).
(d) David’s Friends and Foes (xv. rg-xvi.
(e) Absalom’s Counsellors (xvi. IS-xvii.
(f) Absalom’s Death and David’s La-ment
(xvii. 24-xix. 7).
(f) The Return of David to the Throne
3. The Testimonies of the King (Chs. xx.-2 Kings ii. II).
(i.) The Final Discipline, . . . . . . . . . xx., xxi., xxiv.
(ii.) The Final Songs, . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii.-xxiii. 7.
(iii.) The Final Charges, . . . . . . . . . z Kings i.-ii. II..I KINGS i-xi
Keywmd-Gum~. cHAPlms. II.
DATE: 1015-97s B.C. 40 Yeam
PARALLEL HISTORY : 2 chronick8 i.-ix.
T HE United Kingdom lasted for one hundred
and twenty years, having three kings who
each reigned for forty years (Iogg-975 B.C.). Of
these, the first was of the tribe of Benjamin, and
the other two of the tribe of Judah, so that the
predicted Messianic line began with David (Gen.
xlix. IO). The record of his closing days is in
I Kings i-ii. II, where we read of Adonijah’s
attempt to seize the throne, of the coronation of
Solomon, and of David’s charge to his son and
Then follows the record of Solomon’s reign
(1015-975 B.C.), in chapters i-xi, and 2 ChrOn.
i.-ix. These few chapters contain events of great
historical and spiritual significance.
Solomon was a strange character, and he may be
regarded in various ways, personally, officially, and
typically. Viewed personally, he was characterised
by wisdom and wickedness : greatly gifted intel-lectually,
he was very weak ethically. His mind
70.I KINGS i.4. 71
and his morals were not on the same level. Viewed
officially, his great work was twofold, the material
development of the Kingdom, and the erection of
the Temple. The Solomonic Temple was one of
the most magnificent structures of the ancient
world, and it has been computed that the value of
the materials used in the building of it would not
be less than ~I~~,~~o,ooo. Viewed typically, it
is not difficult to see an anticipation of Christ’s
Millennial Kingdom, when, after the extirpation of
all His foes, there will be peace. Psalm lxxii,
which is attributed to Solomon, reflects this view.
Solomon’s wisdom, and work, and waywardness
unite to make him an outstanding character, whose
reign and his father’s constitute the golden period
of the Jewish State..Analysis of 1 Kings i.-xi, and 2 Chron. i.-ix
I. APPOINTMENT OF SOLOMON TO THE THRONE.
(Chs. i.-ii. 9).
I. Usurpation of Adonijah : i. 1-31.
2. Ordination of Solomon’: i. 32-53.
3. Instruction of Solomon : ii. r-g.
II. ESTABLISHMENT OF SOLOMON ON THE THRONEl.
(Ch. ii. 10-46).
4. Execution of his Foes : 10-46.
III. THE WISDOM AND WEALTH OF SOLOMON.
5. Revelation to Solomon : iii. 2 Chron. i. 7-13.
6. Reputation of Solomon : iv.
IV. THE TEMPLE AND HOUSE OF SOLOMON.
7. Preparation for the Temple : v. 2 Chron. ii.
8. Construction of the Temple : vi., vii. z Chron iii.-v. I.
g. Dedication of the Temple : viii. 1-21. z Chron. v. z-14.
IO. Supplication of the King : viii. 22-53. 2 Chron. vi. 12-42.
II. Benediction of the King : viii. 54-61. 2 Chron. vi. I-II.
12. Jubilation of the King and People : viii. 62-66. 2 Chron.
13. Consecration of the Temple : ix. r-g. 2 Chron. vii. 11-22.
14. Possessions of the King : ix. 10-28. 2 Chron. viii.
1-j. Inspection by the Queen of Sheba : x. 2 Chron. ix.
V. THE SIN AND FALL OF SOLOMON.
16. Declension of the King : xi. 1-13.
17. Division of the Kingdom : xi. 14-43.
72.I KINGS xii.-2 Kings xviii. 12
Keyword-DISRUPTION. CHAPTJWi : 28.
DATB : 975-721 B .C . 2 5 4 YearS.
PARALLEL HISTORY : 2 Chronicles x.-xxviii.
HE United Kingdom record ends at I Kings
xi, with the death of Solomon, and the
Divided Kingdom record is in I Kings xii. 1-2 Kings
xviii. 12, together with the parallel chapters in
2 Chronicles. This part of the history of the
Monarchy should be kept distinct from what
preceded and what follows it, that is, from the
United Kingdom on the one hand, and the Single
Kingdom on the other hand. The story covers
over two and a half centuries, during which time
the kingdom was divided into two parts, which
are spoken of as Judah, the Southern Kingdom,
with its capital at Jerusalem ; and Israel, the
Northern Kingdom, with its capital, tirst at
Shechem, and then at Samaria. The Tribes of Judah,
Benjamin, and Levi remained loyal to the Davidic
House, and the others seceded, and established a
new kingdom, a new centre and object of worship,
a new order of priests, a new altar of sacrifice, and
a new festal month.
73.74 I KINGS xii.-2 KINGS xviii. 12
The way in which this part of the history is
arranged makes analysis difficult, so I have felt it
best to tabulate the seven salient facts, the name
of each king, when he began to reign, the length
of his reign, the kingdom to which he belonged,
his character, and the parallel references, relating
also to the history and the prophets of the period.
In this way the alternating records are given
The division of the kingdom which was pre-dicted
(I Kings xi. 26-40), was due to the idolatrous
disloyalty of the Nation, and for this sin both parts
of the kingdom were sent ultimately into cap-tivity
; Israel to Assyria, in 721 B.C. ; and Judah
to Babylonia, in 586 B.C.
During the two and a half centuries of their
parallel history, three periods are to be distinguished
by the relation of the kingdoms to one another.
From Rehoboam to Asa in the South, and from
Jeroboam to Omri in the North, a period of fifty-seven
years (975-918 B.C., I Kings xii. I-xvi. 28),
they were antagonistic to one another. Then,
by the marriage of Jehoshaphat’s son (South)
with Ahab’s daughter (North), the kingdoms were
allied to one another for seventy-nine years (918-
839 B.C. ; I Kings xvi. 29-2 Kings xiii. 9). And,
finally, from Amaziah to Hezekiah in the South,.I KINGS xii.-2 KINGS xviii. 12 75
and from Joash to Hoshea in the North, a period
of one hundred and eighteen years, they were
again antagonistic to one another (839-721 B.C. ;
2 Kings xiii. IO-xviii. 12).
When reading the record of this history certain
facts should be borne in mind. In the Southern
kingdom there was but one dynasty, the Davidic,
but in the Northern kingdom there were nine
dynasties. In the South were nineteen kings and
one queen ; in the North were nineteen kings.
In the South some of the rulers were good, some
unstable, and some bad ; but in the North, all
were bad. In the South were three religious
revivals, in the reigns of Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah,
and Josiah ; but in the North there were no re-vivals.
The tribes in the South were taken into
Babylonian captivity by Nebuchadnezzar ; and
the Tribes in the North, into Assyrian captivity
The Foreign Powers that came into touch with
the South or the North in this period were Assyria,
Egypt, Babylonia, and Syria.
The best kings of Judah were Asa, Jehoshaphat,
Hezekiah, and Josiah, and the worst were Ahaz
and Manasseh. It should be observed that each
of the best kings made a serious mistake ; Asa,
by his alliance with Syria against Israel ; Jehosha-.76 I KINGS xii.-2 KINGS xviii. 12
phat, by his alliance with the House of Ahab ;
Hezekiah, by his friendliness to the Babylonian
messengers from Merodach-Baladan ; and Josiah,
by his march against Pharaoh Necho, of Egypt.
This Divided Kingdom period was distinguished
by prophetic ministry ; oral, by Elijah and Elisha,
and by minor prophets, Ahijah, Iddo, Shemiah,
Jehu, Hanani, Azariah, Jahaziel, and Eliezer : and
oral or (and) written ministry by Joel, Jonah, Amos,
Hosea, Isaiah and Micah. It was distinguished
aIso by miracles, of which there were seven in the
days of Elijah, and eleven in the days of Elisha.
The Northern Kingdom did not advance the
Messianic purpose, but the Southern Kingdom did.
The Davidic succession was maintained, and by the
prophets, a true witness was kept alive. Jehovah
was patient with His people, albeit He visited
them in judgment for their sins..Analysis of I Kings xii. 1-2 Kings xviii. 12
and 2 Chron. x.-xxviii.
REHOBOAM AND JEROBOAM (I Kings xii. I-Ig ; 2 Chron. x.)
King. Data. Years. Kingdom.Chmacter. Record +
Rehoboam, 975 I7 South Bad. I Kg. xii. 20-24; xiv.
21-31; 2 Chr. xi.-xii.
Jeroboam, 975 2I North Bad I Kg. xii. 25-xiv. 20.
Abijam, . . . 958 2 South Bad I Kg. xv. 1-8 ; 2 Chron. . . . xm.-xiv. Ia.
Asa, . . . . . . 956 40 South Good I Kg. xv. g-24 ; 2 Chr.
Nadab, .*. 954 I North Bad I Kg. xv. 25-31.
Baasha, … 953 23 North Bad I Kg. xv. 32-xvi. 7.
Elah . . . 930 I North Bad I Kg. xvi. 8-Ioa.
Zhnri . . . g2g 7 days North Bad I Kg. xvi. Iob-zo
Omri, . . . 929 I2 North Bad I Kg. xvi. 21-28.
Ahab, . . . 917 22 North Bad I Kg. xvi. zg-xxii. 40,
MINISTRY OF ELIJAH (I Kings xvii-z Kings ii.).
Jehoshaphat, 916 24 South Good I Kg. xxii. 2-33,41-50.
a Chron. xvii.-xxi. 3
Ahaziah, . . . 897 I North Bad I Kg. xxii. 51-2 Kg.
MINXI’RY OF ELISHA (2 Kings ii.-xiii.).
Joram, . . . 896 12 North Bad 2 Kg. iii.-viii. 15.
Jehoram, . . . 892 7 South Bad 2 Kg. viii. 16-24.
2 Chron. xxi. 4-20.
Ahaziah, . . . 885 I South Bad 2 Kg. viii. 25-29 ;
2 Chron. xxii. r-g.
Jehu . . . 884 28 North Bad 2 Kg. ix.-x. 36.
Athaliah, . . . 884 6 South Bad 2 Kg. xi; 2 Chron.
Jehoash . . . 878 40 South Good 2 Kg. xii.; 2 Chr. xxiv.
77.78 I KINGS xii.-2 KINGS xviii. 12,2 CHRON. x.-xxviii.
MINISTRY OF JOEL.
(2 Kings XII.-XVII. 7 ; 2 Chron. xxiv.-xxvi.). . . . .
King. Date. Y,wrr. Kingdom. Character. Record.
Jehoahaz, . . . 856 17 North Bad 2 Kg. xiii. 1-9.
Joash . . . 839 16 North Bad. 2 Kg. xiii. 10-25.
h%INISTRY OF JONAH (2 Kings Xiii., Xiv.).
Amaziah . . . 838 29 South Good 2 Kg. Xiv. 1-20 ;
2 Chron. xxv.
Jeroboam II., 823 41 North Bad 2 Kg. xiv. 23-29.
INTEIWlGNUM OF II-12 YEARS.
MINISTRY OF AMOS (2 Kings xiv. II-XV. 7),
Azariah, . . . 809 52 South Good 2 Kg. xiv. 21, 22; xv, 1-7; 2 Chron. xxvi. Zachariah, . . . 772 1/2 North Bad 2 Kg. xv. 8-12.
Shalhun . . . 772 1/12 North Bad 2 Kg. xv. 13-16.
Menahem . . . 772 IO North Bad 2 Kg. xv. 17-22.
MINISTRY OF HOSEA (2 Kings xiv. 23-xvii).
Pekahiah, . . . 762 2 North Bad 2 Kg. XV. 23-26.
Pekah, . . . 760 20 North Bad 2 Kg. XV. 27-31.
Jotham, me* 757 15 South Good 2 Kg. xv. 32-38 ;
2 Chron. xxvii.
h5lNISTRY OF ISAIAH.
(2 Kings xv.-xx ; 2 Chron. xxvi.-xxxii.).
Ahaz, . . . 742 16 South Bad 2 Kg. xvi. ; 2 Chron.
xxviii.; Isa. vii.-xii.
&TERREGNUM OF ABOUT 9 YEARS.
Hoshea, *** 730 9 North Bad 2 Kings xvii.
MINISTRY OF IMICAH.
(2 Kings xv. 32-xx ; 2 Chron. xxvii.-xxxii.).2 KINGS xviii.-xxv.
Keyword-DowNpALL. cHAPTFm: 8.
DATE : 721-586 B. C. 135 Years.
PARALLEL HISTORY : z Chronicles xxix. I-xxxvi. 21.
HIS important period of the Monarchy’s
history falls into two unequal parts. First,
from Judah’s first reformation, under Hezekiah,
to the close of Amon’s reign ; 721-640 B.C., eighty-one
years : and second, from Judah’s final reforma-tion,
under Josiah, to the overthrow of the kingdom
and end of the Monarchy ; 640-586 B.C., fifty-four
years, That is to say, after rhe people of Israel
had been removed to Assyria, the kingdom of
Judah continued for one hundred and thirty-five
years, during which time two great efforts were
made to turn the people from idolatry. These
efforts seemed for a while to be successful, but
repentance was not deep, and so, in spite of the
ministry of the prophets, the kingdom ran on to its
Hezekiah, who reigned for twenty-nine years,
is more unreservedly commended than any other
king of Judah, and the history and literature of
his reign occupy 77 chapters of the Bible. It was
his lot to be placed between a wicked father and a
79.wicked son. The three great events of his reign
were : Judah’s deliverance from the Assyrian
invasion, his own sickness and recovery, and the
religious reformation which he led.
His son, Manasseh, and grandson, Amon, were
both bad ; the former reigned longer than any other
king. Fifty-seven years after Hezekiah’s death
his great-grandson, Josiah, made another and final
effort to bring the nation back to God, but in vain.
The outstanding event in his reign was the dis-covery
in the Temple of the Book of the Law, and
the transient revival in this reign was the result
of that discovery.
Isaiah was the great prophet in Hezekiah’s time,
and Jeremiah, the great prophet from Josiah’s time.
Other prophets of the Single Kingdom period were
Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, and Habakkuk.
The great foreign figures of this period were
Shahnaneser, Sennacherib, Merodach-Baladan,
Esarhaddon, Pharaoh-Necho, and Nebuchad-nezzar,
records of whom are to be found in the
The outstanding battle was at Carchemish in
6o5 B.C., in which the Babylonians conquered the
The Monarchy and the Dependency periods
overlap for twenty years (606-586 B.C.), that is to.2 KINGS xviii.-xxv. 81
say, though the last three kings were Jews, they
had their throne by the will of foreign Powers, first
Egypt, and then Babylon. And it is important to
see that in this score of years three prophesied events
commenced : the SERVITUDE, 70 years, 606-536 B.C.
(Jer. xxix. IO) ; the EXILE, 50 years, 586-536 B.C. ;
and the DESOLATION, 70 years, 586-516 B.C. (Jer.
xxv. I-II). Twenty years of what is commonly
regarded as the captivity, were, in fact, not in the
period of the exile, but of the servitude.
It was when Nebuchadnezzar first attacked
Jerusalem, in the reign of Jehoiakim, 606 B.C.,
that Daniel and the other three Hebrews were
removed to Babylon ; and when he made the second
attack, in the reign of Jehoaichin (598 B.C.), Ezekiel
and Mordecai were taken..Analysis of 2 Kings xviii.-xxv.
King. Date. Years. Kingdom. Character. Record.
Hezekiah, . . . 726 29 South Good 2 Kings xviii.-xx ;
2 Chron. xxix.-xxxii.;
Manassch, . . . 697 55 South Bad 2 Kgs. xxi. 1-18;
2 Chron. xxxiii. r-20.
MINISTRY OF NAHUM
(2 Kings xxi.-xxiv, 7; 2 Chron. xxxiii.-xxxvi. 8.)
Amon, . . . 642 2 South Bad 2 Kgs. xxi. 19-26.
z Chron, xxxiii. 21-25
Josiah, . . . 640 3r South Good 2 Kgs. xxii.-xxiii. 30 ;
2 Chron. xxxiv., xxxv.
MINISTRY OF ZEPHANIAH.
(2 Kings xxii.-xxiv. 7 ; 2 Chron. xxxiv.-xxxvi. 8.)
MINISTRY OF JEREMLAH.
(2 Kings xxii.-xxv ; 2 Chron. xxxiv.-xxxvi. 21).
Jehoahaz, . . . 609 t South Bad 2 Kgs. xxiii. 31-34.
2 Chron. xxxvi. 1-4.
Jehoiakim . . . 6og II South Bad 2 Kgs. xxiii. 3pxxiv. 7.
2 Chron. xxxvi. 5-8.
MINISTRY OF HABAKKUK.
(2 Kings xxiii. 3r-xxiv. 16 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi. I-IO.)
MINISTRY OF DANIEL.
(2 Kings xxiii. 35-xxv. 30 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi. s-23.)
Jehoiachin, . . . 598 4 South Bad 2 Kings xxiv. 8-16.
2 Chron. xxxvi. g, IO.
Zedekiah, . . . 598 II South Bad 2 Kgs. xxiv. r7-xxv. 21
2 Chron. xxxvi. 11-21.
Jeremiah lii. 1-30.
82.ANALYSIS OF z KINGS xviii.-xxv. 83
MINISTRY OF EZEKIEL.
(2 Kings xxiv. 17-xxv. 30 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi. II, 572 B.C.)
MINISTRY OF OBADIAH (586 B.C.).
The Lamentations over the Ruins of Jerusalem.
z Kings xxv. 22-26 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 17-21.
Governorship of Gedaliah. 2 Kings xxv. 22-26.
Restoration of Jehoiachin. 2 Kings xxv. 27-30 ; Jer. Iii. 31-34..1-2 CHRONICLES
Keyword-Worn-m. CHAPTERS: 65.
NLESS the viewpoint of these two Books is
understood, there can be no true appreciation
of them. Like the Books of SAMUEL and KINGS,
they were originally one Book, and they appear at
the end of the Hebrew Bible, in the third division
which is known as the PSALMS. The Hebrew
title is WORDS OF DAYS, that is, Journals ; the
Septuagint title is OMISSIONS, because they were
regarded as supplementing what had already been
written ; and the present title, CHRONICLES, dates
from the time of Jerome (4th cent. A.D.), and
this last is, perhaps, the best description of these
That these Writings are a compilation must be
evident to the most superficial reader ; nor are we
left in ignorance of the sources, for no fewer than
twelve are named in the text. (See I Chron.
ix. I ; xxix. 29 ; 2 Chron. ix. 2g ; xii. 15 ; xx. 34 ;
xxiv. 27 ; xxvi. 22 ; xxxii. 32 ; xxxiii. 19.)
This fact does not permit of our thinking of an
author, but only of a compiler of the CHRONICLES.
The material was collected and selected with a
84.1-2 CHRONICLES 85
specific end in view, and it appears to have been
done with great care. Not without good reason
the compiler of these records is supposed to be
Ezra (cf. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 22,23, with Ezra i. I, 2).
The scope of the record is noteworthy. It begins
with Adam (I Chron. i. I) and ends wirh the
Decree of Cyrus in 586 B.C.; that is, it embraces the
whole sweep of Bible history in an epitomized
form, and represents a period of not less than
3500 years. This fact alone gives uniqueness to
the CHRONICLES, and invests them with peculiar
interest. Considering, then, the title, the form, the
compiler, and the scope of these Books, we must
enquire as to their object. This can be determined
only by a careful comparison of them with the other
historical Books representing the same period.
By such a comparison with the Books of SAMUEL
and KINGS, we observe that in the CHRONICLES
there are (a) identical passages, (b) omissions, and (c)
additions ; and when we look for an explanation
of these, we find it in the essentially Levitical
character of the Writings. Parallels, omissions, and
additions are all in pursuance of a design, and that
is to show the theocratic character of the nation’s
calling, to show that only as God is reverenced and
obeyed can the nation prosper and fulfil her high
destiny..86 1-2 CHRONICLES
For this reason, after the genealogies, which
give the sacred line through which the Messianic
promise was transmitted for over three and a half
millenniums, the annals of Judah only are given,
from the time of the Disruption, because Judah
was the royal tribe, of which the Christ was to come.
The history of the Northern Kingdom is omitted
by the chronicler.
Then, again, all that pertains to worship is here
emphasised ; the Temple and its services, priests,
Levites, singers, and the hatefulness of idolatry.
It is shown that the troubles of the nation were
due to their disregard of the claims of Jehovah, and
their prosperity was due to their return to Him.
The KINGS are political and royal, but the CHRON-ICLES
are sacred and ecclesiastical.
There are some numerical inconsistences in these
records, due, no doubt, to the imperfect state of
some of the Hebrew manuscripts, but the alleged
many contradictions and errors cannot be proved.
Although we show the paralle1 passages in KINGS
and CHRONICLES in the 2 KINGS Analysis, we here
present an analysis of each of the latter records..Analysis of I Chronicles
1. GENEALOGICAL TABLES (L-ix).
I. The Primeval Period, . . . . . . . . . . . . . i. I-23.
Adam to Abraham.
2. The Patriarchal Period, . . . . . . . . . i. 24-ii. 2.
Abraham to Jacob.
3. The National Period, . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii. s-ix. 44.
Posterity of Jacob’s Sons.
II. KINGS OF ISRAEL (x.-xxix.).
I. The End of Saul’ s Reign (x.).
2. The Whole of David’ s Reign (xi.-xxix. 30).
(i.) PROMINENT EVENTS, . . . . . . . . . . . XL-xxii.
(a) His Followers (xi.-xii).
(6) His Enterprises (xiii.-xvii).
(c) His Conflicts (xviii.-xx.).
(d) His Failure (xxi.).
(e) His Charges (xxii.).
(ii.) DIVISIONS OF THE PEOPLB . . . . . . . . . . xxm -xxvii. ‘ .‘ .
(a) Levites (xxiii.).
(b) Priests (xxiv.).
(c) Singers (xxv.).
(d) Porters (xxvi.).
(e) Soldiers (xxvii. r-24).
(f) Stewards (xxvii. 25-31).
(g) Counsellors (xxvii. 32-34). . . . (iii.) FINAL HAPPENINGS, . . . . . . . xxvm-xxix.
(a) David’ s Charges (xxviii. ~-xxix. 5).
(I) To the Officers (xxviii. r-8).
(2) To Solomon (xxviii. 9-21).
(3) To the People (xxix. r-5).
(b) The Worship of Giving (xxix. 6-25).
(c) The End (xxix. 26-30).
3. The Beginning of Solomon’ s Reign (Ch. xxix. 22b-25).
87.Analysis of 2 Chronicles
I. THE REIGN OF SOLOMON (i.-ix.).
I. The Beginning (i. 1-13).
(i.) His Act of Worship, . . . . . . .’
(ii.) His Choice of Wisdom, . . .
2. The Progress (i. I+ix. 12).
(i.) The Riches of Solomon, . . .
(ii.) The Treaty with Hiram, . . .
(iii.) The Temple and its Furniture,
(iv.) The Dedication of the Temple,
(v.) The Prayer of Solomon, . . . .
(vi.) The Fire of Acceptance, . . .
(vii.) The Offerings and the Feast,
(viii.) Divine Promises and Warnings,
(ix.) Various Acts of Solomon, . . . .
(x.) The Queen of Sheba, . . .
3. The End (ix. 13-31).
(i.) His Wealth and Power, . . .
(ii.) His Death and Burial, . . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
ii. 1-18. . . . 111. I-V. I.
v. 2-vi. II.
II. THE IUNGS OF JUDAH (x.-xxxvi. 21).
I. REHOBOAM, x.-Xii. . . . . . .
2. ABIJAIi~ . . . xiii. . . . . .
3. AsA,… . . . Xiv.-Xvi. . . .
4. JEHOSHAPHAT, xvii. I-xxi. 3. . . .
5. JEHOR~M, . . . xxi. 4-20. . . .
6. AHAZIAH, . . . xxii. r-g.
7. ATHALIAH, . . . xxii. IO-xxiii. . 8. JEHOASH, . . . xxiv. . . . .
9. AhUxIAH, . . . xxv. . . . . . .
I Kgs. xii. 1-24 ; Xiv. 21-31.
I Kings xv. 1-8.
I Kings Xv. 9-24.
I Kings xxii. 2-30.
2 Kings viii. 16-24.
2 Kings viii. qix. 29.
2 Kings Xi.
2 Kings Xii.
2 Kings xiv. 1-20..ANALYSIS OF 2 CHRONICLES 89
N8KE Reference PsralIel
IO. UZZIAH, . xxvi. , , . . . 2 Kings xv. 1-7.
II. JOTHAN, . . . xxvii. . . . . . . 2 Kings xv. 32-38.
12. a, . . . xxviii. . . . . . . 2 Kgs. xvi. ; Isa. vii.-xit.
13. HEZEKIAH, . . . xxix.-xxxii. .,. 2 Kgs. xviii.-xx.; Isa. xxxd- xxxix.
14. hhrussmi, xxxiii. I-20. . . . 2 Kings xxi. 1-S.
15. AMON, ,.. xxxiii. 21-25, 2 Kings xxi. 19-26.
16. JOSIAH, . . xxxiv.-xxxv. . 2 Kings xxii-xxiii. 30.
17. JEHOAHAZ, . . . xxxvi. 1-4, . . . 2 Kings xxiii. 31-34.
I 8. JEHOIAXIM, xxxvi. S-8, . . . 2 Kgs. xxiii. 3pxxiv. 7,
19. JEHOIACHIN, xxxvi. g-10, . . . z Kings xxiv. S-16.
20. ZEDEKIAH, . . . xxxvi. 11-21, . . . 2 Kings xxiv. 17-xxv. 21.
The Decree of Cyrus, xxxvi. 22-23, Ezra i. I-4.
Keyword-REcoNsTRvcTIoN. CHAPTERS : IO.
DATE : 536-458. 78 Years.
HE closing verses of 2 CHRONICLES are also the
opening verses of this Book, and there are
other evidences of the same compiler. The period
represented is from the close of the captivity to the
reformation under Ezra in 458 B.C.
Ezra appears as the writer of chapter ix., and,
in all likelihood was the compiler of the whole
Book, though in parts of it he is spoken of in the
It is important to observe that this Writing is a
compilation, and not a single narrative, and it is
interesting to see what are its component parts.
Of its 880 verses, rag are narrative, I I r are registers,
44 are letters, 3 are a proclamation, 3 are an excerpt,
and IO are a prayer. Furthermore, it should be
noted that chaps. iv. g-vi. 18 ; vii. 12-26, are in
The Books of CHRONICLES , EZRA, ESTHER, and
NEHEMIAH are ecclesiastical history, concerned
almost exclusively with the institutional religion
of Judah, and, although there may have been later
additions to this history, it may well have been
given its present form by Ezra, who was an in-structor
in the Law of God.
The Babylonian Empire was succeeded by the
Medo-Persian Empire in 536 B.C., whereupon
Cyrus offered the Jews their liberty (i. 2-4), and
the number of those who availed themselves of the
privilege under the leadership of Zerubbabel and
Jeshua is recorded in ch. ii. of this Book. In
keeping with the religious purpose of this history,
we are told that the first thing they did was to build
the altar of Burnt Offering, and then the Temple
(iii.). The work was hindered by opposition (iv.),
but in consequence of the inspirational ministries
of Haggai and Zechariah the Lord’s House was
completed in 516 B.C., twenty years after the return
from Babylon (vi. IS). With this chapter (vi.) ends
the first division of the Book, and between it and
the next chapter (vii.) is a period of 58 years,
516-458 B.C., to which belongs the story of ESTHER.
Also in this period occurred the battles of Mara-thon,
Thermopylae, and Salamis ; and the deaths of
Confucius and Buddha.
In the second division of the Book (chs. vii.-x.)
is the personal history of Ezra’s journey to Jeru-salem,
with commission from Artaxerxes Longi-.92 EZRA
manus in 458 B.C., and his exertions for the reforma-tion
of the people.
During the period covered by chapter iv. of
EZRA belong chapters x-xii, of DANIEL. The things
to be specially noted in this record are : the Decree
of Cyrus (i. 2-4) ; the erection of the altar and
foundation of the Temple (iii.) ; Haggai and Zecha-riah
(v. I) ; the letter of Darius (vi. 6-12) ; Ezra’s
prayer (ix. 6-15) ; the Gentile kings, Cyrus (i.),
Darius I (vi.), and Artaxerxes (vii.)..Analysis of Ezra
I. I WE RETURN FROM CAPTIVITY, UNDER
Chapters i.-vi. 20 Years.
I. Restoration of the Jews &-ii.).
(i.) RESTORATION. The Decree of Cyrus, . . . i.
(ii.) REGISTRATION. The Return of the Cap-tives,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii.
2. Opposition to the Work (iii.-iv.).
(i.) RECONSTRUCTION. The Sacrifices Renewed
and the Temple Foundation Laid,… iii.
(ii.) OPPOSITION. The Samaritans Resist, and
the Work of Building Stopped, . . . iv.
3. Dedication of the Temple (V.-vi.>.
(i). INVBSTIGATION, The Inquiry of Tatnai
and the Decree of Darius, . . . . . . v.
(ii.) CONSUMMATION . The Completion of the
Temple and Observance of the Pass-over,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi.
( “Haggai, ” and “Zechariah ” i.-viii. here.)
(Between Chapters vi. and vii., 38 years. Book of Esther).
II. RETURN FROM CAPTIVITY, UNDER EZRA.
Chapters vii.-x. r Year.
I. The Proclamation of Artaxerxes,
2. The Liberation of the Jews,
3. The Intercession of Ezra, . . .
4. The Reformation of the People,
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . vii. . . . . . . Vlll.
. . . ix.
. . . x..ESTHER
KeyWOrd-fiOVIDENCE. CuAPTERs: IO.
DATE : 484-465 B.C. 20 Years.
HEN this story was written, and by whom,
are unknown. Its place is between chapters
six and seven of the Book of Ezra, and it represents
a period of about twenty years (484-465 B.C.).
Without justification, it has been spoken of as
“full of improbabilities or impossibilities, ” and as
being “the most unchristian of Old Testament
books. ” It and RUTH are the only books in the
Bible which bear the name of a woman.
The narrative owes much, it would seem, to
Persian records. Evidence of this may be seen in
details, such as the names of Haman’s sons, in
Esther being called “the queen, ” and Mordecai,
“the Jew, ” and in the particulars which are given
about Ahasuerus. There are references to Persian
etiquette ; many Persian customs and phrases are
explained, and the Persian king is referred to over
one hundred and eighty times.
It is said that the name of God does not occur in
the story, a statement which both is and is not
94.true. God is here in mystery, though not in
The objection to the Book, that the Divine
name does not occur in it, itself gives us the key
to it. God’s actions are manifest, but He Himself
is veiled. Further, it has been shown that the
incommunicable Name, or Tetragrammaton,
Y.H.V.H., which stand in the Hebrew for Yahweh
(Jehovah), occurs in this narrative four times in
acrostic form, and at the critical points in the story
(i. 20 ; v. 4, 13 ; vii. 7), a fact which cannot possibly
be of chance, but of Divine design, and which
demonstrates, as hardly anything else could, the
outstanding truth of Divine providence.
Comparatively speaking, not many of the captive
Jews returned under the Edict of Cyrus, not more
than 50,000, and, perhaps, 6oo when Ezra returned
about seventy years later. Most of the captives
were born in Babylonia, and the conditions of life
and business for them there were such as to dis-incline
them to cross the desert and begin all over
again in the land of their fathers. Had they all
gone back under Zerubbabel, the Book of Esther
could not have been written. Several things in the
story should be specially noted. (I) Ahasuerus is
the Xerxes of classic fame (484-464 B.C.), who
attacked the Greeks by land, and lost at Ther-.96 ESTHER
mopylae ; and by sea, and lost in the battle of
Salamis. It was on his return from these defeats
that he married Esther. (2) The institution of the
Feast of Purim (ix. 26). (3) The characters of the
cousins Mordkcai and Esther, and of Haman.
(4) The lessons of providence and retribution..Analysis of Esther
I. THE GRAVE DANGER TO THE JEWS.
I. The Deposition of Vashti, ……
t. The Exaltation of Esther, ……
3. The Plot against Xerxes, ……
4. The Malice of Haman, ………
5. The Appeal of Mordecai, ……
. . . 1:
. . . ii. 1-20.
. . . ii. 21-23. . . . . . . 111.
. . . iv.
II. THE GREAT DELIVERANCE
OF THE JEWS.
I The Venture of Esther, ……… . . . v. I-8.
2. The Design of Haman, …… . . . v. g-14.
3. The Recognition of Mordecai, …… . . . vi. I-I2a.
4. The Downfall of Haman, …… . . . vi. rzb-vii. IO.
5, The Avengement of the Jews, …… ..* viii.-ix. 16.
6. The Feast of Purim, ……… . . . ix. 17-32.
7. The Greatness of Mordecai, …… . . . X.
Keywurd-RmWRMnTloN. CHAPTERS : I3*
DATE : ~5q.a~. 25 Years.
N NEHEMIAH, as in EZRA, there are parts which
are written in the first person, and, no doubt,
Nehemiah himself was the author of these, though
there is evidence of much later addition (eq.,
Jaddua, xii. 11, 22, 351-331 B.C.). with this Book
Old Testament history ends.
Zerubbabel went to Jerusalem in 536 B.C., and
effected religious reforms. Eighty years later, in
458 B.C., Ezra went to Jerusalem and effected
ethical reforms. Twelve years later, in 445 B.C.,
Nehemiah went to Jerusalem and effected civil
reforms. From Zerubbabel’s return to Nehemiah’s
was about ninety years. Of the twelve years
between Ezra’s and Nehemiah’s returns, Prof.
Sayce says : “Megabyzos the satrap of Syria, had
successfully defied the Persian king, and forced
him to agree to his own terms of peace, thus giving
the first open sign of the internal decay of the
Empire. It is possible that the disaffection of the
satrap may account for the silence in Scripture as
to the events which followed Ezra’s reform. De-prived
of the royal support, he would no longer be
able to maintain himself as governor in face of the
opposition he was certainly to experience from the
Samaritans. It would also account for the condition
in which we lind the Jews when the Book of Nehe-miah
opens. The walls of the city are still unbuilt,
Ezra has ceased to be governor, the people are in
great afhiction and reproach, the Arabs are en-camping
close to Jerusalem, Sanballat and his
allies are all-powerful, and priests and laity alike
have gone back to their heathen and foreign wives. ”
The story in NEHEMIAH is full of rapid movement
and vigorous energy. Action and unction every-where
characterise it, because there move to and
fro two men on whom in a wonderful degree
rested the Spirit of God. The narrative opens in
the twentieth year of the reign of Artaxerxes
Longimanus, and ends in the reign of Darius II.
In this Book we have excellent autobiography.
Nehemiah is a great character, courageous, reso-lute,
and energetic ; an untiring worker, and a
model organizer. Dr. A. T. Pierson has analysed
his method under five points-division of labour,
adaptation of work and worker, honesty and
economy in administration, co-operation in labour,
and concentration at any assaulted point. Nehe-.100 NEHEMIAH .
miah’s personal diary in chs. i.-vii., should be
Outstanding passages are those which record
Nehemiah’s conflict with his enemies ; his great
lead as a governor (v.) ; the reading of the Law
(viii.) ; the prayer of the Levites (ix.), and the
correction of abuses (xiii.). In this enterprise
Malachi was to Nehemiah what Haggai and
Zechariah had been to Ezra..Analysis of Nehemiah
I. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WALL (Chs. I.-vii).
I. Preparation for the Effort (i.-ii.).
(i.) News from Jerusalem, . . . .
(ii.) Nehemiah’s Prayer, . . . . . . . .
(iii.) Request and Response, . . . . .
(iv.) Arrival at Jerusalem, . .
Reconstruction of the Wall (iii.).
(i.) The Work Organised.
(ii,) The Labour Distributed.
Opposition to the Project (iv.-vi. 14).
(i.) External Difficulties, . . . .I
(ii.) Internal DifBculties, . . .
Completion of the Task (vi. Is-vii. 3).
(i.) Enemies Discouraged, . . .
(ii.) Gates Guarded, . . .
. . .
. . .
. IV., vi. 1-14.
II. THE CONSECRATION OF THE PEOPLE.
Revlval of Religion (viii.).
(i.) The Book of the Law Read, . . viii. 1-12.
(ii.) The Feast of Tabernacles Kept, viii. X3-18.
Confession pf the People (ix.).
Renewal of tho Covenant (x.).
III. THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE WORK.
Distribution of the People (xi.-xii. 26).
Dedication of the Wall (xii. 27-xiii. 3).
Correction of Abuses (xiii. 4-31).
..THE POETICAL WRITINGS
SONG OF SONGS
LAMENTATIONS.THE POETICAL WRITINGS
E have included only the PSALMS, the SONG
OF SONGS, and LAMENTATIONS in this group,
but very much of what passes for prose in the
Scriptures is in reality poetry, This is true of large
portions of the PROPHETICAL WRITINGS, and parts of
the GOSPELS and of the EPISTLES. Furthermore,
poetry is to be found scattered throughout the
prose of the Old Testament, as for example in
Gen. iv. 23,24 ; Exod. xv, ; Num. xxi. 14, 15, 17,
I8 ; 27-30 ; Judges 5 ; 2 Sam. i. 17-27. Poetic
forms are manifold, and in the Scriptures are many
of these, as, for example, the Ode, the Elegy, the
Lyric, the Idyll, the Epic, and the Drama. JOB
is dramatic, the PSALMS are lyrical, and the SONG
OF SONGS is elegiac.
English poetry depends largely for its effect
upon the recurrence of sound, but Hebrew poetry
cultivates the recurrence of thought. This is the
parallelistic method, and is of many varieties, such
as the synonymous, antithetic, synthetic, intro-verted,
iterative, responsory, alternate, and cli-105.106 THE POETICAL WRITINGS
macteric, all of which forms are to be found in the
Psalter. The acrostic device is also found in Hebrew
poetry, in LAMENTATIONS , and some of the Psalms.
Poetic form in the Scriptures is important for
interpretation, and unless the structure of a passage
is discerned, its meaning may easily be missed.
Let us remember also that poetry must be read as
poetry, and not as history, or as doctrine..THE PSALMS
Keyword–ExpERImc& HYMNS : 150.
HE Psalter is the hymn book of the Hebrews,
and a hymn book does not lend itself to
formal analysis. Each Psalm may do so, to some
extent, but the whole collection allows only of
certain classifications, which, however, are of
The Psalter is in five parts or books, each of
which, except the last, ends with a doxology of a
liturgical character. These divisions are : i.-xii.;
xiii.-lxxii.; lxxiii.-lxxxix.; xc.-cvi.; cvii.-cl.
Of the ISO Psalms, IOO are, by their titles,
related to authors. Of these 73 are assigned to
David, IO to the School of Korah, 12 to the School
of Asaph, 2 to Solomon, I to Ethan, I to Heman,
I to Moses, and 50 are anonymous. The LXX
mentions Jeremiah as the author of Psa. cxxxvii.,
and Haggai and Zechariah as the authors of Psalms
cxlvi. and &vii.; and it is quite likely that Ezra
IO7.108 THE PSALMS
wrote Psalm cxix., and that Hezekiah wrote
Psalms cxx.-cxxxiv. (Isa. xxxviii. 20). These
particulars provide a basis for investigation as to
It is impossible with any precision to fix dates
to most of the Psalms, but it may with confidence
be stated that the great Song period in Israel’s
history was the three hundred years from David’s
time to the time of Hezekiah. In the Psalter are
Songs which belong to the period before and after
this, but the majority are to be placed within those
All the Psalms have some title except the fol-lowing
thirty-four : i., ii., x., xxxiii., xliii., lxxi.,
xci., x&i.-xc&., xcix., civ.-cvii., cxi.-cxix., cxxxv.-cxxxvii.,
cxlvi.-cl. Of those titled, fourteen bear
the name of David, and claim to be related to
certain events in his varied career (vii., lix., lvi.,
xxxiv., lii., Ivii., cxlii., liv., xviii., lx., li., iii.,
Ixiii., xxx.). It should be known that though these
prefixes may be helpful, they are not authoritative.
Anywhere in the Bible, Divine names or titles.THE PSALMS 109
represent Divine qualities, attributes, and atti-tudes,
and their occurrence has both a chronological
and a theological value. The following chart shows
what Divine names or titles occur in the Psalter,
Book. I. zz. zzz. IV. V.
ADON, …… 2 I – I 5
ADONAI, …… 13 18 IS I I2
JAI& …… – – 2 7 32
JEHOVAH, … 275 32 44 106 236
EL, …… 18 16 20 9 10
ELOHIM, …… 50 198 60 18 30
ELOAH, …… I I – – 2
ELYON, …… 3 4 5 4 I
SHADDAI, … – I I I -PSALMS,
. . . . . . I-41 42-72 73-89 go-106 107-150
The Hebrews never thought of God in an
abstract way ; to them He was a Divine Being,
living and active, transcendent and yet immanent.
They believed also that God was One, and was
from everlasting. On God’s Personality, Unity,
and Eternity the Bible revelation rests, and this
triple truth is in the very substance of the Psalms.
C L A S S I F I C A T I O NS . -These
Hebrew Songs may be classified in many
ways, and such groupings are eminently suggestive.II0 THE PSALMS
and instructive. The
Messianic Psalms, . . . i.e.,
Penitential Psalms,. . . ,,
Hallelujah Psalms, . . . ,,
Didactic Psalms, . . . ,,
Pilgrim Psalms, . . . ,,
Prayer Psalms, . . . ,,
Royal Psalms, . . . ,,
Devotional Psalms,. . ,,
Morning Psalms, . . . ,,
Evening Psalms, . . . ,,
Meditation Psalms, ,,
Trouble Psalms, . . . ,,
Prophetical Psalms, ,,
Historical Psalms, . . . ,,
following are a few suggested
16,22,24,40, 68, 69, x18.
6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143.
106, III, 112,113,117,135,146-150.
I, 5, 7, IS, 17, 50, 73 94, IOI.
17, 86, go, 102, 142.
3, 16, 54, 61, 86, 28, 41, 59, 70,
67, 122, 144.
3-5, Ig, 57, 63, 108.
4, 8, 143.
16, 56, 60.
4, 5, II, 28, 41, 55, 59,64, 109,
120, 140, 143.
2, 16, 22, 40, 45, 68, 69,72, 97,
78, 105, 106.
Some, if not all, of the above classifications lend
themselves to profoundly instructive development,
from which I select one for the purpose of illus-tration,
the Messiah (pages IIZ, 113).
That there is a prophetic element in the Psalter
will not seriously be called into question, for
indeed, as Westcott says : “A Divine counsel was
wrought out in the course of the life of Israel.
We are allowed to see in ’ the people of God ’ signs.THE PSALMS I II
of the purpose- of God for humanity. The whole
history is prophetic. It is not enough to recognise
that the Old Testament contains prophecies ; the
Old Testament is one vast prophecy. ”
We may say that the three strands which make
the web of Hebrew prophecy reIate to the
Messiah, Israel, and the Gentiles. All three are
found in the Psalter, and it must be evident that
they are vitally related to one another. Messiah
is the hope of the world, and Israel is the medium
of the Divine revelation and mission, “the instru-ment
for accomplishing the world-wide extension
of His Kingdom. ”
The time is predicted when ati nations shall
acknowledge Christ’s sovereignty (xxii. 27 ; Ixv.
2, 5 ; Ixvi. 4 ; Ixviii. 29-33 ; Ixxxvi. g ; cii. 15, 22 ;
cxxxviii. 4). Examine carefully these and kindred
That this consummation is to be reached through
Israel does not need to be argued. Whatever may
be one’s view of the Messianic Kingdom of the
future, whether it be regarded as visible, or as only
spiritual, no one can question that Israel, through
whom Christ came, and from whom we have
received the Bible, has been chosen of God for its
realisation, and there is abundant evidence in the
Scriptures that this race has been preserved by.II2 THE PSALMS
God for the fuhilment of the Abrahamic covenant
(lxviii.; lxxxviii.; cii. 13-16 ; xcvi.-xcviii.). This
implies, of course, Israel’s own restoration and
felicity in the future, of which Psalm cxxvi.,
beyond any past fulfilment, may be regarded as a
But behind and beneath Israelitish and Gentile
prophecy is Messianic prophecy, of which the
Psalter is full. We have Christ’s own warrant for
looking for Him in the Psalms, for He said : “All
things must be fulfilled which were written in . . .
the l?salms concerning Me ” (Luke xxiv. 44), and
on several occasions He interpreted of Himself
passages in the Psalter. Compare, e.g., Psalm
cxviii. zz with Matt. xxi. 42 ; and Psalm cx. I
with Mats. xxii. 42-45 (et al.). Christ’s Apostles
also make this use of the Psalms, cf. Acts iv. II
and I Peter ii. 7, with Psalm cxviii. 22 ; John ii. 17,
with Psalm lxix. g ; and Matt. xiii. 35, with Psalm
lxxviii. 2 (et al.).
The Messianic reference in some of the Psalms
must be obvious to all who read, but far more
numerous are references which are not so obvious,
but which the New Testament warrants us in
regarding as Messianic.
These references tell of His Manhood, viii. 4, 5
(Heb. ii. 6-8) ; His Sonship, ii. 7 (Heb. i. 5) ;.THE PSALMS rr3
CX. i. (Matt. xxii. 42-45) ; His Deity, xlv. 6, II
(Heb. i. 8) ; His Holiness, xlv. 7 ; lxxxix. 18, 19
(Heb. i. 9) ; His Priesthood, cx. 4 (Heb. v. 6) ; His
Kingship, ii. 6 ; Ixxxix. 18, 19, 27 (Acts v. 31 ;
Rev. xix. 16) ; His Conquests, cx. 5, 6 (Rev. vi.
17) ; His Eternity, lxi. 6, 7 ; xlv. 17 ; ixxii. 17 ;
cii. 25-27 (Heb. i. IO) ; His Universal Sovereignty,
lxxii. 8 ; ciii. 19 (Rev, xix. 16) ; His Obedience
xl. 6-8 (Heb. x. 5-7) ; His Zeal, lxix. 9 (John ii.
17) ; His Sufferings, lxix. 9 (Rev. xv. 3) ; His
Betrayal, xli. 9 (Luke xxii. 48) ; His Death,
xxii. 1-21 (Gospels) ; His Resurrection, ii. 7,
xvi. IO (Acts xiii. 33-36) ; His Ascension, lxviii.
18 (Eph. iv. 8) ; and His Coming again to judge,
xcvi.-xcviii. (2 Thess. i. 7-9). These, and other
such references, may be classified in various ways,
but, in the main, the Messianic prophecies tell of
His Person, God, and Man ; of His Character,
Righteous and Holy ; of His Work, Death and
Resurrection ; and of His Offices, Priest, Judge,
and Ring. A mine of instruction on this whole
subject will be found in Bishop Alexander’s Bamp-ton
Lectures (1876), “The Witness of the Psalms
to Christ and Christianity. ”
In addition to the above are other values in the
Psalter which it will be most profitable to trace-8.114 THE PSALMS
literary, imaginative, ethical, prophetical, religious,
and devotional values. No part of Holy Scripture
has made a more universal appeal than has the
Psalter, and it is noteworthy that out of a total
of 283 direct citations from the Old Testament
in the New, 116 are from the Psalms. Here, as
Calvin has said, “The Holy Spirit has represented
to the life all the griefs, sorrows, fears, doubts,
hopes, cares, anxieties, in short, all the stormy
emotions by which human minds are wont to be
agitated. ” Other parts of Divine revelation re-present
God as speaking to man, but here, man is
represented as speaking to God. As a devotional
handbook there is nothing like it, or better, in the
As a guide to the reading of the Psalms, the
following subject-titles may prove helpful :
1. Two Portraits. 2. God’ s King. 3. God My Help. 4. Before Going to Bed. 5. Talk and Walk. 6. Appeal and Answer. 7. Not Guilty. 8. Man the Viceroy of God. g. Tgickydghteous and the
IO. The Perils of the Pilgrim.
II. Why Flee?
12. God’ s Words and Man%. 13. From Sighing to Singing.
14. 1s. 16. ’ 17. 18.
23. 24. 25
The Natural Man. God’ s Guests. God-satisfied. At the Throne of Grace. The Hebrew Te Deum.
God Hath Spoken. Before the Battle. After the Battle. The Sob and the Song. All I Want. Holy Worshippers. The Simple Trust of an Uplifted ‘ Soul. The Claim to Integrity..THE PSALMS 115
27. Faith and Fear.
28. Answered Prayer. 29. A Terrific Thunderstorm. 30. Deliverance and Gratitude. 31. Mingled Emotions.
32. The Way and Blessedness of Forgiveness. 33. The God of Creation and of History. 34. Thanksgiving for Deliver-ance.
35. A Cry for Help. 36. Blackness and Brightness. 37 A Problem of Providence Propounded. Sin, Suffering, and Sup- plication. Trust in Trial. Reminiscence and Request. Triumph Over Trouble. Laughter Through Tears.
Int&ctual agd Mora?Per-A’g?
Rock-Safe. The Great King. Broken Bondage. Worthless Worldly Wealth. A Vision of Judgment. Sorry. The Treacherous Tongue. The Futilitv of Evil. Deliverance for the Devout. An Ode of the Oppressed. Peace in a Plight. The Faith of a Fugitive. The Character and Destiny of Wicked Judges. Inward Victory over Out- ward Enemies. The Land is for the Loyal. A King in Exile. Waiting on God. A Song of Satisfactior. Tongue Tangle. The Divine Favoul
99. :03. 01.
The Only True God. Thy Kingdom Come. The Mighty Conqueror. Innocent Suffering. Make Haste. Bright Old Age. The Reign of the Righteous
King. The Test of the T h e Mvstcrv End. of God’s
Inaction. _ God’s Judgment in History. The Overthrow of the
Mighty. Consolation by Recollection. The Past Soeaks. Hope in Despair. Prayer for the Recovery of a Lost Past. What Might Have Been. The Judge of the Judges. God’s Enemies are Doomed Longings Satisfied. A Doubt at the Heart of an Assurance. Tried but Trusting. The Coming Kingdom. On the Brink of Despair. Hope Rests on Promise in a Time of Trouble. God and Man. The Reward of Trust. Moral Differentiation. The Lord is King. Perplexity takes Refuge in Prayer. Privilege and Peril. A Missionary Melody. The King and the Kingdom. T~row~~~l Kmg is
The Character of the King. The God to Praise. Integrity Within and With- out. The Transient Life and the Abiding Lord..116 THE PSALMS
103. The World Within. 128.
104. The World Without. 129. 105. How the Lord Treated Israel. How Israel Treated the 1 130. 106. Lord. 107. A Song of the Redeemed.
108. Praise for Victory. 109. Solemn Execration.
110. The Priest-King.
III. The Lord Who is to be Feared.
112. The Man who Fears the Lord. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127.
Glory and Grace. A Song of the Exodus. God and Idols. Gratitude for Deliverance. A Universal Choir. A Choral Hosanna. The Law of the Lord. Peace versus War. The Keeping God. Love of the Lord’s House. Uplifted Eyes. Mercy Remembered. Confidence in God. Seedtime and Harvest. Toil and Home.
133. 134. 135. 136.
140. 141. 142.
143. 144. 145.
147. What God has Done and Does. 148. A Universal Sym hony. 149. The Song of the amts. & ISO. Hallelujah.
Family Felicity. The Vindication of the Rjghteous. W;pto,B,nd Watching for
The Guiet Soul. &aye; and Promise. Fraternal Unity.
The Night Watch. A Call to Worship.
Motives for Worship. Babylon and Jerusalem. Royal Thanksgiving. Mysterious Man and the Mighty God. A Cry for Deliverance. Prayer Concerning a Plot. Nigh unto Despair. A Claim of God. From Darkness to Dawn. God’s Greatness and Good- ness. Why God Should be Trusted..THE SONG OF SONGS
Keyword-LOVED. CHAPTERS 8.
T HIS Book has always been ranked among the
Canonical Writings of the Old Testament, and
the universal voice of antiquity ascribes it to
Solomon. In the Hebrew Canon the Song belongs
to the third division, the Hagiographa, and is the
first of the five Megilloth, or “Rolls, ” the others
being RUTH, LAMENTATIONS , ECCLESIASTES, and
Peculiar difficulties beset the interpretation of
the Writing, and we should at least be tolerant of
wide differences of opinion. It is never referred
to in the other Books of the Old Testament, nor
in the Old Testament Apocrypha, nor in the New
Testament, nor in Philo, nor in Josephus ; and
the name of God does not appear in it. I am
only stating these facts, and not drawing any
inferences from them.
Many interpretations have been assigned to this
Biblical Epithalamium, which may be summarised
as follows :
I. That it was written to celebrate the marriage
of Solomon with Pharaoh’s daughter.
2. That it is an account in song of how Solomon
117.118 THE SONG OF SONGS
wooed and won a fair maiden from the Lebanon
hills, and of their mutual love.
3. That it sets forth the true devotion of a youth
and a maiden in humble life, in spite of the attempt
made by Solomon to turn the heart of the latter
4. That it is a collection of several independent
poems (Budde distinguishes twenty-three) treating
of the subject of love.
5, That it is not historical, but allegorical,
depicting (i.) the history of the Jews from Abraham
to the Messiah ; (ii.) the deliverance of Israel from
Egypt, their wilderness wanderings, and their
entrance into Canaan ; (iii.) the union of Jehovah
with ancient Israel ; (iv.) the union of Christ and
the Church ; and (v.) the love-life of the soul and
Difficulties accompany each of these interpreta-tions,
and it is not possible for us to say what the
design of the author was, but that need not interfere
with our discerning a value or values in the Song.
Our view is that here, as in JONAH, we have allegory
emerging from history. As to the history, we take
the view, influentially held, that in the Song there
are not two, but three, chief characters, Solomon,
Shulamith, and a shepherd lover. The story
briefly is this : A beautiful country girl from.Shulam (i.e., Shunem, 5 miles north of Jezreel)
was surprised by the king on one of his journeys to
the north (vi. II~), was brought to Jerusalem and
placed in the royal palace (i. qb, 5), where, as the
poem opens, the ladies of the harem (“daughters
of Jerusalem, “) are singing the praises of Solomon.
The king himself makes great efforts to win the
affection of the Shulamite (i. g, etc.) ; but she
remains faithful to the memory of her shepherd
lover (i. 7, etc.), who at last appears, and is allowed
by the magnanimous monarch to return to his
mountain home with his bride (viii. sff).
The climax of this story in viii. 6, 7, George
Saintsbury has called perfect English prose.
As to the allegory, what is literal may well point
to something spiritual, and the Song has always
been read in this way by mystic saints, such as
Bernard of Clairvaux, who preached eighty-six
sermons on the first two chapters, and McCheyne,
and Spurgeon. If we regard the king in the poem
as the World, the shepherd-lover as Christ, and the
Shulamite as the individual soul, we shall not fail
to be helped.
In the face of all the world’s allurements we are
expected by our Lord, tbe “Lover of our souls, ”
to be faithful to Him, and one day He will consum-mate
His love for us in glory..Analysis of the Song of Solomon
A.-LOVE’S FIRST ENTRANCING DAYS.
Chapters i. 2-v. I.
PART I. The Wedding Day (i. 2-ii. 7).
I. The Bridal Pair and the Daughters of
Jerusalem approaching the Palace . . .
2. The Apologies and Memories of the
New Queen, . . . . . . . . . . .
3. In the Banqueting House.-The Love
of Espousals, . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. In the Bridal Chamber.-The Felicity
of Wedlock, . . . . . . . . . . . .
PART II. The Courtship Days (ii. &iii. 5).
5. Reminiscences of a Visit of the Beloved
at the Springtide of Love, . . . . . .
6. Reminiscence of a Dream Experience of
the Yearning of Love, . . . . . .
PART III. The Betrothal Day (iii. 6-v. I).
7. The Marriage Procession and Royal
Entry, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. The Bridegroom’s Commendation of the
Bride, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
g. The King’s Invitation to his Spouse and
her Reply, . . . . . . . . . . .
B.-LOVE’S DEEP ABIDING JOYS.
Chapters v. t-viii. 14.
PART IV. The Troubled Dream (v. 2-vi. 3).
IO. The Transient Cloud of Estrangement,. . .
II. The Bride’s Description of her Lover, . . .
i. Is-ii. 7
. . . 111. I-5.
iv. 7-v. I.
v. g-vi. 3..PART V.-The Bride is Praised (vi. 4-vii. IO).
12. The Beloved’s Commendation, . . . vi. 4-9.
13. The Companions and the Shulamite, . . . vi. 10-13.
14. The Dance of Mahanaim, . . . . . . vii. 1-S.
IS. The King and the Bride, . . . . . . vii. 6-10.
PART VI.–The Invitation to the King (vii. x1-viii. 4).
16. The Bride’s Longing for her Country
Home, . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..,
17. The Bride’s Yearning for the Noblest
Love, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PART VII.-The Renewal of Love in the Old
Home (viii. 5-14).
18. The Bride’s Response to the Bride-groom’s
Recollections, . . . . . .
19, The Bride’s Affirmation and Reward of
Virtue, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20. The Bride’s Surrender and Entire De-votion,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21. The Bride’s Last Song to the Bride-groom’s
Heart, . . . . . . . . . . ,.,
Keyword-DIscoNsOLATE. CHAPTHS : 5.
HIS is an Acrostic Dirge, written by Jeremiah,
rhapsodic in character, and of great beauty
The occasion of it was the destruction of Jeru-salem
and its Temple by Nebuchadnezzar in
586 B.C. The Writing is one of the “Rolls ” (see on
SONG of SONGS).
Its form is well worthy of careful examination.
There are here five complete poems, represented
by our chapters. In each of the first, second,
fourth, and fifth are 22 verses, corresponding to the
number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, and in
the third are three times twenty-two. In the first:
second, and fourth poems, each verse begins with
a letter of the Hebrew alphabet in order (as, e.g.:
I, a ; 2, b ; 3, c ; etc.), and in poem three there are
three verses to each letter (as, e.g., 1-3, a, a, a ; 4-6,
b, b, b, etc.), and in poem five, though there are
just the 22 verses, the acrostic is dropped. Further,
in the first and second and third poems there are
three clauses to each verse, but in the third poem
there is an acrostic initial to each clause. The
122.THB LAMENTATIONS I23
fourth poem has only couplets ; and the fifth drops
both acrostic structure and dirge rhythm (see
Moulton’s Modern Reader’s Bible). Taken to-gether,
these poems enforce the exhortation of
Heb. xii. 5, and were designed to teach the Jews
neither to “despise the chastening of the Lord,”
nor to “faint” when “rebuked of Him ” (cf. Luke
“Jeremiah’s vision of Jerusalem wasted and
Babylon exulting should be compared with John’s
vision of Babylon destroyed and the New Jerusalem
revealed in triumph and heavenly beauty (Rev.
xviii., xxi., xxii.). Better to be one with Jerusalem
in afflictions that issue in glory, than one with
Babylon in the pride that ends in shame. ”.Analysis of the Lamentations
I. THE CONDITION OF MISERY IN ZION.
I. The Prophet’s Description, . . . . . . I-II
2. The People’s Reflection, . . . :.. 12-22.
II. THE CAUSE OF ZION’S OVERTHROW.
I. What the Lord wrought against her, .., I-IO.
2. Why the Lord wrought against her, . . . 11-22.
III. THE DESIGN OF ZION’S AFFLICTION
I. Calamity and Consolation,. . . . . . . . . I-39.
2. Confession and Confidence, . . . . . . 40-66.
IV. ZION’S REMEMBRANCE OF FORMER DAYS.
I. The Contrast between her Past and
Present, . . . . . . . . . . . . I-15.
2. The Character and Doom of her Foes, ,.. 16-22.
V. THE APPEAL OF ZION TO GOD.
I. Her Case Stated, . . .
2. Her Cause Pleaded,
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . . 1-18.
. . . 19-22..THE WISDOM WRITINGS
ECCLESLWJES.THE WISDOM WRITINGS
FOUR types of mind are recognised in t he
Bible, which account for four kinds of litera-ture-
the priest, the poet, the prophet, and the
philosopher (cf. Jer. xviii. IS). It is the last of
these we are now to consider, from whom we
receive the Wisdom Literature.
“Side by side with prophets defending the
theocracy, and singers taking their inspiration from
the Temple service, with historians compiling
annals of kings, and scribes expounding the Law,
there was a class of wise men, who had habits of
thought and forms of literature peculiar to them-selves
” (Prof. R. Moulton). This type has adorned
the letters of every great people, as may be seen by
reference to Ptahhotep in Egypt, Epictetus in
Greece, Marcus Aurelius in Rome, Alexander
Pope in England, and Benjamin Franklin in
America. We need not be surprised then, to find
Wisdom Literature in the Bible. It is found
in brief in scattered places in the form of Riddle
(Judg. xiv. x4), Fable (Judg. ix. 8. IS), Maxim
127.128 THE WISDOM WRITINGS
(Eccles. iv. g-12), Epigram (Prov. xxiii. r-3),
Sonnet (Prov. iv. Io-Ig), Dramatic Monologue
(Prov. i. 20-33), and Proverb (Prov. xxii. I) ; and
in elaborated form in JOB and ECCLESIASTES, and
in the non-canonical books ECCLESIASTICUS and the
WISDOM OF SOLOMON. Nor is this kind of literature
confined to the pre-Christian period, for it is
represented in the New Testament by parts of the
Sermon on the Mount, the Parables, and the
Epistle of JAMES. In all likelihood there were of
old, schools of wisdom in which the ancients taught
their pupils (cf. I Sam. xxiv. 13 ; Job xii. 12), and,
it would appear, wise men sat for this purpose at
the gate of the city (Prov. xxxi. 23). Pre-eminent
among the wise was Solomon, who is said to have
composed roq Songs and 3000 Proverbs (I Kings
Prophet, priest, and philosopher approached
the same subject from different angles. Of right-eousness,
the prophet would say, “It is just” ;
the priest would say, “It is commanded ” ; but the
philosopher would say, “It is prudent”. Of sin,
the prophet would say, “It is disobedience ” ;
the priest would say, “It is defilement”; but the
philosopher would say, “It is folly”. The Wise
Men were observers of life, and the Wisdom Books
are the product of their analytic observations. To.THE WISDOM WRITINGS 129
remember this will help us to understand why
there is scarcely any reference in these Writings to
Israel, or the Temple, or the Messianic Hope
(cf. Prov. viii. 22-31).
The simplest form of wisdom in the Bible is in
what we call the Book of PROVERBS ; and the most
elaborate form is in ECCLESIASTES , where reflective
analysis is turned upon the sum of things, and in
JOB, where we have dramatised a philosophical
discussion on the Problem of Suffering. JOB may
equally well be classified as a poetical Writing, for
it contains specimens of all the three main elements
of poetry-epic, lyric, and dramatic composition.
Keywmd-Tmm. CHAPTERS: 42.
HE author of this Writing is unknown, as are
the time of writing and the period in which
Job lived. That the hero of the poem was a real
person and not the creation of imagination is
evident from such references as Ezek. xiv. 14, 20 ;
Jas. v. II ; as also from internal evidence.
The dramatic form in which the story is cast in
no way invalidates its historical trustworthiness.
So little is there in the poem to indicate the age
in which Job lived that opinions have varied by
as much as one thousand years. Some take the
view that he lived before Abraham, and would
place the story between the eleventh and twelfth
chapter of GENESIS ; and others would place him
in the captivity or post-captivity period. This
shows that the value of the Writing is quite jnde-pendent
of date, and is indeed, as to its great
The first thing that claims our attention is the
form of the story. There are epid and lyric elements
in the composition, but the poem is a magnificent
drama, in which no element of dramatic effect is
wanting. The analysis which follows make this
This book might well be placed with the Poetical
Writings, for, as to its form, it is a poem, but having
regard for its theme, we place it with the Wisdom
Writings, with the PROVERBS and ECCLESIASTES.
These three Books deal with the fundamental
principles of the Bible, and of all religious phil-osophy.
PROVERBS declares that wisdom, or
“fear of the Lord,” is the true blessedness. To
this proposition there appear to be two exceptions ;
the one is set forth in JOB, and the other in ECCLESI-ASTES.
In JOB we see a man who “was perfect and
upright ; one that feared God, and eschewed
evil, ” and yet he suffered great adversity. In
ECCLESIASTES we see a man, Solomon, who from
being the wisest of men, became the worst, who
did not fear God, and yet prospered. Solomon’s
conclusion was, “All is vanity ;” but Job’s con-clusion
was, “The fear of the Lord, that is wis-dom”
(Job xxviii. 28 ; cf. Prov. i. 7 ; xv. 33). The
mistake of Satan was in thinking that Job served
God for what he could get. The mistake of Job’s
wife was in thinkmg that with the loss of the visible
and human all $as lost. The mistake of Job’s
friends was in thinking that Job’s suffering was the
direct outcome of his sin. The mistake of Elihu was.JOB
in thinking that he was right, and that all the others
were wrong; and the mistake of Job was in thinking
that God was unkind. The problem of pain is not
solved in this Book, but we are shown what kind
of a God God is. We are shown first His power in
creation, and man’s weakness ; and then, His wisdom
in government, and man’s ignorance. At the end
of the mighty Drama, Satan is routed, the friends
are rebuked, and Job is rewarded. “The Eternal
does not answer our insistent questions ; God does
not explain, but He does give to the anguished
spirit such a sense of the Divine greatness that
questioning ceases in the peace of submission. ”
Then, the Poem has manifold values. There is a
philosophic value in its discussion of the under-lying
meaning of life as a whole ; a scientific value
in its observation of nature; a prophetical value in its
authoritative Divine message ; a biographical value
in its delineation of character; a rhetorical value in
its many and marvellous speeches ; a historical value
in its references to places, people, and customs ;
a literary value in its whole conception and form ;
a providential value in its view that God allows His
people to suffer for their good ; a spiritual value
in its revelation of another world and super-human
beings ; and a practical value in its teaching on
fearing and trusting God..JOB I33
The theme of the Drama is “The Mystery of
Suffering, ” or “The Problem of Pain, ” and in the
discussion of this are introduced God, Satan, Job,
the friends, and Elihu. The prose Prologue begins
with Job and God, and the prose Epilogue ends
with them, and between the Prologue and the
Epilogue is the Drama, describing the struggle.
The Book, it has been said, is a key to the whole
Bible, and to man’s history from creation to com-pleted
redemption. (I) Man unfallen and tried ;
(2) sinning and suffering ; (3) seeking human help
in legality, morality, philosophy ; (4) needing and
receiving a revelation from God ; (5) humbled,
penitent, believing ; and (6) restored to a better
estate than at first.
The Poem teaches that suffering is not always
penal and retributive, but may be, and sometimes
is, disciplinary and educative.
Of Job, Thomas Carlyle has said J
“I call this Book, apart from all theories about it,
one of the grandest things ever written with pen.
One feels, indeed, as if it were not Hebrew ; such
a noble universality, different from noble patriotism
or sectarianism, reigns in it. A noble Book, all
men’s Book ! It is our first, oldest statement of the
never ending problem-man’s destiny. and God’s
ways with him here in this earth. And all in such.Analysis of Job
THE PROLOGUE (i.-ii. PROSE).
I. Job’ s Circumstances Before his Trial (i. 1-5).
2. The First Assault (i. 6-22).
(i.) Satan and Jehovah, . . . .., . . .
(ii.) Job’ s Awictions and Integrity, . . . . . .
. . . i . 6-12.
. . . i. 13-22.
3. The Second Assault (ii. I-IO).
(i.) Satan and Jehovah, . . . .,.
(ii.) Job’ s Afflictions and Integrity, .
. . .
… ii. 1-6.
. . . ii. 7-10.
4. The Coming and Conduct of Job’ s Friends (ii. 11-13).
THE DRAMA (iii.di. 6).
I. The Lamentation of Job (iii.).
(i.) “Why was I born ? ” … . . .
(ii.) “Why did I not die in infancy?”
(iii.) “Why is life prolonged ? ” ,.
. . .
. . .
. . . 20-26.
2. The Discussion of the Friends (iv.-xxxi.).
(i .) %ST CYCLE, . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eliphaz (iv.-v.). Job (vi.-vii).
Bildad (viii.). Job (ix.-x.).
Zophar (xi.). Job (xii.-xiv).
. . . iv,-xiv.
(ii.) SECOND CYCLE, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv.-xxi.
Elipkaz (xv.). 3ob (xvi.-xvii.).
Bildad (xviii.). Job (xix.).
Zophar (xx.). Job (xxi.).
r3c.(iii.) THIRD CYCLE, . . . . . . x x i i .-x x x i .
Eliphaz (xxii.) Job (xxiii.-xxiv.).
Bildad (xxv.). Job (xxvi. r-xxvii. IO).
Zophar (xxvii. II-xxviii. 28).
3. The Intervention of Elihu (xxxii.-xxxvii.).
INTRODUCTION : Ch. xxxii. I-_$.
(i.) His Speech to the Three Friends, . . . xxxii. 6-22.
(ii.) His Speech to Job ,… _.. ._. . . . . . . XXxlIl.
(iii.) His Speech to the Three Friends, . . . xxxiv.
(iv.) His Speech to Job ,… . . . . . . . . . xxxv.- xxxvii.
4. The Revelation of Jehovah (xxxviii.-xlii. 6).
Jehovah (xxxviii.-xl. 2). Job (xl. 3-5).
Jehovah (xl. ~-XL), Job (xlii. 1-6).
THE EPILOGUE (xlii. 7-17. PROSE).
1. Jehovah’ s Wrath and Witness (xlii. 7-g).
2. Job’ s Prayer and Prosperity (xlii. Io-I7j..PROVERBS
Keyword-CONWCT. CHAPS: 31.
IN approaching this Work we must recognise that
it is different and distinct from any other Book
in the Bible. It is not history, nor poetry, nor
rhapsody, nor prophecy, nor law, nor ritual, nor
story, nor dogma ; and although it belongs to the
Wisdom Literature, it differs from the other
Wisdom Books, JOB and ECCLESIASTES. It is
unfortunate, to say the least, that this Work is
divided into chapters and verses, for this artificial
arrangement buries literary form and hinders the
All that we know of this is what may be learned
from PROVERBS itself, where are named, as re-sponsible
for the various collections : Solomon
(i. I; xxv. I) ; The Wise (xxii. 17) ; Men of
Hezekiab (xxv. I) ; Agur (xxx. I) ; and King
Lemuel and his mother (xxxi. I), Solomon we
know, and among “the men of Hezekiah ” were
probably Isaiah and Micah (cf. 2 Chron. xxxi.
13), but of the others we have no information.
We must distinguish between the time of the
writing of these Proverbs and the time of their
being collected and edited. The reference to
Hezekiah and his wise men “copying out ” proverbs
of Solomon (xxv. I), indicates that in Hezekiah’s
time wisdom lore was being collected, and it may
be that some editing was done by Ezra. In any case,
these collections are the product of the Wisdom
Schools (see Introduction on the Wisdom Writings),
and extend over a long period.
The Book of PROVERBS no more lends itself to
formal analysis than does the Psalter, because
of its diversified contents ; it must suffice therefore
to introduce it according to its character.
Like the Books of Moses, the Psalter, and the
Historical Books of the New Testament, PROWRBS
is in five niain parts, with an introduction, as
INTRODUCTION (i. r-6).
Indicating the practical purpose the Collection is in-tended
PART I. Chs. i. 7-ix. 18. Proverbs of Solomon (i. 1).
The value and attainment of true wisdom.
PART II. Chs. x. r-xxii. 16. Proverbs of Solomon.
On practical morality.
PART III. Chs. xxii. 17-xxiv. 34. Proverbs of the Wise.
Admonitions on the study of wisdom.
PART IV. Chs. xxv.-xxix. Proverbs of Solomon selected
by the men of Hezekiah.
Ethical and Economical.
PART V. Chs. xxx.-xxxi. Words of Agur and of King Lemuel.
Enigmatical and Domestic..PROVERBS I39
The method and -form of these Sayings are
matched to the design, which is to state truth SO
briefly and vividly that it can easily be remembered.
In pursuance of this, three devices are adopted :
antithesis, as in xvi. 22 ; comparison, as in xvii. IO ;
and imagery, as in xxvii. 15. The Unit Proverb
is employed in chs. x. r-xxii. 16 ; and there are
here 375 of these in couplet form, each quite
distinct, though having a common thought-basis.
The Proverb Cluster is employed, that is, an
aggregation of Unit Proverbs on a common theme,
as on Fools (xxvi. 3-12).
The Epigram is employed, that is, a Unit Pro-verb,
organically enlarged, as on the Transitoriness
of Riches (xxiii. 4, 5).
The Dramatic Monologue is employed, wherein
wisdom is personified, as in Wisdom’s Cry of
Warning (i 20-33).
And the Sonnet is employed, as in The Com-mandment
and its Reward (iii, I-IO).
Of Part II, chs. x. ~-xxii. 16, Professor Nourse
has said : “These are not mere popular sayings, but
products of fine literary workmanship. . . . What we
have to do with here is the choicest product of the
Wisdom ‘Schools, and presupposes long training.140 PROVERBS
and practice before such art could be brought to the
degree of perfection we see exhibited in PROVERBS. ”
The topics treated in this wonderful collection
are many. Wisdom, Sin, Goodness, Wealth, the
Tongue, Temptation, Pride, Humility, Justice,
Friendship, Human Freedom, Idleness, Poverty,
Education, Forgiveness, Folly, Love, Marriage,
Family Life, Pleasures, Diligence, Dishonesty,
Revenge, Strife, Gluttony, Success, are all dealt
with in fmal forms of expression, and dynamically.
There are here also wonderful cameo pictures
of social types :
“The prating fool, winking with his eye ; the
practical joker, as dangerous as a madman casting
firebrands about ; the talebearer, and the man who
‘ harps upon a matter,’ separating chief friends ;
the whisperer whose words are like dainty morsels
going down into the innermost parts of the belly ;
the backbiting tongue, drawing gloomy looks all
around as surely as the north wind brings rain ; the
false boaster, compared to wind and clouds without
rain ; the haste to be rich ; the liberal man that
scattereth and yet increaseth, while others are
withholding only to come to want ; the speculator
holding back his corn amid the curses of the people ;.PROVERBS r4r
the man of wandering life, like a restless bird ; the
unsocial man that separateth himself, foregoing
wisdom for the sake of his own private desire ; the
cheerfulness that is a continual feast. ”
Social problems are also to be found here, such
as the relations of husband and wife, of master and
servant, of parents and children, of rich and poor.
Also many human experiences are reflected in
these proverbs, such as care, joy, feebleness,
satiety, sorrow, and so on ; and although not much
is said about religion, it is clear that the morality
of these sayings is based upon it. Vice is con-demned
and virtue commended, by appeals to the
highest motives (cf. v. 21 ; xv. II ; xvi. 6 ; xix. 29 ;
xxiii. 17-19 ; xxvi. 10).
The design of these Proverbs is stated at the
outset (i. 1-6). The fundamental note of wisdom is
“the fear of the Lord” (i. 7, g, IO ; xv. 33). The
teaching is positive and practical. Existing religious
institutions, the Law, priests, and sacrifices are not
in view, but the tone of the teaching is definitely
monotheistic ; there is here no scepticism, but a
sincere belief in God, and in His wise and just
government of the world. If the teaching seems to
be utilitarian, it is because no other than this life.142 PROVERBS
was in the view of the writers ; they had not the
New Testament outlook upon the future.
We must be careful not to assume that all these
Proverbs are of unlimited and universal applica-tion
; on the contrary, we can find in the Scriptures
many exceptions to what is here affirmed ; for
example, ch. x. 27, with Gen. iv. 8, and 2 Sam. I.
23 ; and xvi. 7, with Acts xiv. rg. Most of the
teaching of the Scriptures is relative, not absolute ;
and regard must always be had for whether this
life only, or the next also, is in view..ECCLESIASTES
Keyword-VANITY. CKAPTERS : 12.
T HIS Book is the most mysterious in all the
Bible. It has been called “the sphinx of
Hebrew literature, with its unsolved riddles of
history and life.” About no Biblical Writing has
there been such diversity of opinion as to the
Book’s authorship, date, motive, and place. The
Solomonic authorship has been, and is, stoutly
defended and denied. Dates assigned for the Book
range over nearly a thousand years. Dogmatism
and scepticism have alike claimed the author as their
champion. And as to plan, some regard the Book
as a formal treatise, and others regard it as a col-lection
of unconnected thoughts and maxims, like
Pascal’s “Pensees, ” or Hare’s “Guesses at Truth. ”
The consideration of these matters lies outside
the scope of this publication, and I have felt it
best just to give a detailed analysis of the Work as
it appeals to me, and to leave the reader to form
his own conclusions.
Four things may safely be said of the Book :
(I) that it belongs to the Wisdom Literature ; (2)
that its theme is “The Quest for the Chief Good “;
(3) that it writes “Vanity ” on all things “under the
sun” ; and (4) that the final verdict of the Book is
that to fear and obey God is the whole duty of man.
Of ECCLESIASTES , Mr. E. C. Stedman says :
“Whether prose or verse, I know nothing grander
in its impassioned survey of mortal pain and
pleasure, its estimate of failure and success ; none
of more noble sadness ; no poem working more
indomitably for spiritual illumination. Here, as
nowhere else, immortal poetry has been made out
of the body’s decay (xii. 1-7). ”.Analysis of Ecclesiastes
R-rut : i. I. Theme : “THE CHIBP GOOD” (vi. 12).
I. lYEIF, ‘PROBLBM STATED (i. 2-11).
The wearisome monotony of all things human and earthly.
II. THE PROBLEM STUDIJZD (i. rz-xii. 8).
PART I.-Inductions (i. n-vi. 12).
(i.) Koheleth’s EXPBRIENCBS, . . . . . . . . .
(a) The Quest by Wz’sdotn and Pleaswe,
By Wisdom (i. 12-18).
By Pleasure (ii. I-II).
(b) The Wise and Foolish Compared, ,..
Wisdom is better than Folly (ii. 12-13)
The Wise and the Foolish have the
same end (ii. 14-17).
The Wise Man leaves his Gains to
the Fool (ii. 18-23).
i. 12 – ii. 26.
i. 22 -ii. 11.
C) The Conclusion of the Matter (ii. 24-26)
(ii.) Koheletli’s OBSERVATIONS, . . . . . .
(a) The Divine Order and Human Im-potence
iii. r -vi. 12.
The Providence of Times and Seasons
(iii. 1-8). Four pairs of contrasts.
The Uncomprehending Longing of
Man (iii. g-11).
The Need of a Practical Philosophy
(iii. 12-15) : Make the Best of
the Present (iii. 12-13). Recog-nise
Immutable Law (iii. 14, 15).
The Alternating Hope and Despair of
Man (iii. 16-22).
Hope that there will be Retributive
Justice (iii. 16, 17).
Despair because of the Uncertain
Future (iii. 18-21).
The Practical Conclusion (iii. 22).
Hindrances to the Attainment of the
Chief Good (iv. 1-16).
Oppression (iv. 1-3).
Envy (iv. 4-6).
Loneliness (iv. 7-12).
Vicissitudes (iv. 13-16).
Reflections on Certain Phases of Life
On Religion (v. 1-7).
On Politics (v. 8, 9).
On Riches (v. 10-17).
Conclusions Drawn from these Re-flections
(v. IS-vi. 12).
The Desirability of Moderation
Prosperity without Power to Enjoy
The Insatiableness of Desire (vi. 7-g).
The Vanity of Life (vi. 10-12).
PART n.-Deductions (vii. I-xii. 7).
(i.) A RETROSPECTIVE Vmw, . . . . . . . . . vii. r-ix. 18.
(a) Some Practical Rules of Life (vii. 1-14).
Seriousness is better than Gaiety
Impatience is a Root Evil (vii. 8-10).
There is Wisdom in Resignation to
Providence (vii. 11-14)..ANALYSIS OF ECCLESIASTES I47
(b) Exhortation to Oppmtunism (vii.
Concerning Righteousness and
Wickedness (vii. 15-20).
Concerning Conduct and Censure
(vii. 21, 22).
Dissatisfaction with this Advice
(vii. 23, 24).
(c) A Verdict on Women and Men
(vii. 25, 26).
The Snare of Woman (vii. 25-29).
The Perversion of Man (vii. 27-29).
(d) A Policy of Submission Enjoined
To Rulers (viii. 1-5).
To Providence (viii. 6-9).
(e) Perplexing Anomalies in God’ s Moral
Government (viii. IO-IS).
The Godless and the Righteous
(viii. 10, II).
Faith in Justice at Last (viii. 12-14).
Meanwhile Accept things as they are
(f) The Mystery of Providence further
Contemplated (viii. r6-ix. 18).
No human wisdom can fathom Pro-vidence
(viii. 16-ix. I),
A like fate befalls all men (ix. 2-6).
Enjoy life while you may (ix. 7-12).
Wisdom is not always rewarded
On Wisdom and Folly (ix. 17-18)..148 ANALYSIS OF ECCLESIASTES
(ii.) A PROSPECTIVE VIEW, . . . . . . . . . . . . x. I-xii. 7.
(a) Observations on Wisdom and Folly
A little folly mars wisdom (x. 1-3).
Wise conduct under foolish rulers
Proverbs commending Prudence
Sagacity and Loquacity (x. II-IS).
Foolish rulers and wise subjects
(b) How Wisely to Order One’s Days
(xi. I-xii. 7).
Do good, and worry not about re-sults
Live the present in the light of the
future (xi. 7-xii. 7).
III. THE PROBLEM SOLVED (xii. S-14).
I. The Preacher’ s Theme, ………… xii. 8
2. The Preacher’ s Method, ………… xii. g-11.
3. The Preacher’ s Advice, ………… xii. 12.
4. The Preacher’ s Verdict, ………… xii. 13, 14..THE! PROPHETICAL WRITINGS
T HERE is a sense in which the whole of the
Old Testament is prophetical. Bishop Westcott
has said : “The Old Testament is one vast pro-phecy.
The application of prophetic words in each
case has regard to the ideal indicated by them, and
is not limited by the historical fact with which they
were connected. But the history is not set aside.
The history forces the reader to look beyond. ”
It is most important to bear this in mind, lest, on
the one hand, we imagine that the prophets spoke
to their own generation only, or, on the other hand,
that they spoke to a future generation mainly.
Neither of these views is correct. The prophets
were first fort/z-tellers, addressing messages to their
own people, concerning themselves, or other
peoples, and then, they were fore-tellers, because
their day was only a moment in the progress of a
Divine plan. The prophets had both insight and
fores@&, and foresight because of their insight.
Theirs was a manifold function, for they combined
in themselves preacher, teacher, statesman, re-.152 THE PROPHETICAL WRITINGS
former, and herald. They appeared at times of
crisis in their nation’s history as the champions
of righteousness ; they were essentially the moral
conscience of their age. The prophets were men
of their time, and for all time. “Holy men of God
spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit”
(2 Peter i. 21). They were conscious of the fl
of inspiration, for one of their commonest phrases
is, “Thus saith the Lord,” but they were also
conscious that what they said had a significance
beyond their apprehension (I Peter i. IO, 11).
The historico-predictive themes of Hebrew
prophecy are, Israel, the Gentile nations, and the
Messiah, and in the Hebrew seers we have a unique
group of men, and a unique literature. It has well
been said that “nowhere is there to be found a
succession of men like them in character, in
vision, in eloquence. They were a composite of
oracle, reformer, poet, and statesman. They
uttered truth in ecstasy ; the soberest judgments of
a statesman was spoken with the passion of a
reformer and with the lyrical cadence of poetry. ”
There is in the Old Testament an unmistakable
development of the prophetic consciousness and
message, and while the priestly factor was always
present in the life of Israel, the prophetic factor
became dominant..THE PROPHETICAL WRITINGS 153
Prophets and prophecy preceded the time of
Samuel (Deut. xviii. 15-22), but with him schools
of prophets began (I Sam. x. IO). They were not
a succession as were the priests (cf. Amos vii. 14),
but they did become an Order. Their earliest
work was oral, and is exemplified in the ministry
of Moses, Samuel, Elijah, Elisha, and many minor
seers ; and their latest work was literary, that is,
they left written records of their preaching, and,
probably, in an instance or two, the message was *
written only, and not preached.
In the Hebrew Bible the Prophets are in two
groups. The Former Prophets are the historical
Writings, JOSHUA, JUDGES, 1-2 SAMUEL, 1-2 KINGS ;
and the Latter Prophets are, ISAIAH, JEREMIAH,
EZEKIEL, and the twelve Minor Prophets. The
Book of DANIEL is partly historical, and partly
prophetical and apocalyptical, but it was never
classified with the prophets, but with another group
of Books called “The Latter Writings ” (Dan.;
Ezra ; Nehemiah ; 1-2 Chronicles). In the following
pages the Prophetical Books are presented in their
chronological order so far as our knowledge allows.
One advantage of this is in that it enables us better
to locate the prophets historically, and also better to
follow the development of their teaching..JOEL
Keyword-VIsITATIox CHAPTERS : 3.
Prophet No. I. Southern Kingdom. Pre-Exilic.
Pre-Assyrian Period. DATE : 838-756 B.C.
OEL is the name of fourteen men mentioned in
the Bible. It is compounded of two Divine
names, Yahveh (Jehovah) and El, and it means
“The Lord is God. ”
The author of this Writing ministered either
early or late in relation to the writing prophets.
Both views are contended for. Recent scholarship
is almost unanimous in assigning a post-exilic date,
the fourth century, or later ; but there are good
reasons for the view that Joel was the earliest of the
literary prophets, and ministered in the reign of
Amaziah or Uzziah, that is, between 838-756 B.C.
The point of controversy is that he does not mention
the Assyrians and Babylonians, and therefore must
have written either before they became formidable,
or after they had ceased to be so. If we accept the
early date for this Prophecy, Joel was contemporary
with Jonah, Amos, and Hosea. In any case, his
message is to Judah, and not to Israel.
The style is elegant, clear, and impassioned, and
must be given a high place in Hebrew literature.
The Book falls into two main parts. In the first,
Joel speaks, and in the second, Jehovah. The first
part is historical, and the second, prophetical. The
first tells of desolation, and the second of de-liverance.
The interpretation of the locusts may be actual,
allegorical, or apocalyptical. Without doubt it is
the first, and in all likelihood the other two also, the
one pointing to an invasion of the land by hordes of
enemies, and the other making the locusts emblems
of world forces which shall appear in the last days.
The outstanding passages are those which relate
to the locust invasion (ii. I-II), the outpouring of
the Holy Spirit (ii. 28-32 ; cf. Acts ii. r&21), and
the final felicity of Judah (iii. 18-21).
Other things to note are, references to (‘the Day
of the Lord” ; references to Tyre, Zidon, Pales-tine,
Grecians, Sabeans, Egypt and Edom ; and
ch. i. 4 with ch. ii. 25..Analysis of Joel
I. MSTORICAJ..-JOEL SPEAKS.
Chapters i. I-ii. 17.
Key : DI!.~OLATION.
I. The Fact of Desolation (i. IGO).
Locusts Relentless in the Country.
(i.) THE SITUATION , . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hear (2). Tell (3). The Tale (4).
. . . I-4.
(ii.) THE EXHORTATION, . . . . . . . . .
Drunkards (5-7) ; Virgin Zion (8-10) ;
Husbandmen (II, 12) ; Priests (13~14)
. . . S-14.
(iii.) THE SUPPLICATION, . . . . . .
A Fear (IS) ; A Plea (16-18.)
A Hope (Ig, 20).
2. The Means of Desolation (ii, 1-17).
Locusts Resistless in the City.
(i.) THB SITUATION, . . . . . . . .
The Day of the LORD (I-2a).
The Camp of the LORD (2b-Io).
The Word of the LORD (I I).
(ii.) THE EXHORTATION, . . . . . .
A Call to Penitence (12-14)~
A Call to Prayer (Is-I7a).
(iii.) TI-B SUPPLICATION , . . . . . .
. . . a.. 15-20.
…… I7b..ANALYSIS OF JOEL
II. PROPHETICAL.-JEHOVAH SPEARS.
Chapters ii. IS-iii. 21.
K e y : DEL~RANCE.
I. The Promise of Present Blessing (ii. 18-27).
(i.) Reversal of Conditions, . . . . . . . . . . 18-20.
(ii.) Recovery of Joy, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-27.
2. The Promise of Future Blessing (ii. z8-iii. 21).
(i.) Its Initiation, . . . . . . . . . . . .
In a mighty visitation of the Spirit.
. . . ii. 28-32.
(ii.) Its Progression, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii. 1-17.
In the utter route of all enemies.
(iii.) Its Consummation, . . . .,. . . .
In a restored and established nation.
. . . iii. 18-21..JONAH
Keyword-Cor&uIssIoN. CHAPTERS : 4.
Prophet No. 2. Northern Kingdom. Pre-Exilic.
Assyrian Period. DATE : 840-784.
ONAH, which means “dove,” was a real person
and not a creature of human fancy, The son of
Amittai, of the tribe of Zebulun, he lived at Gath-hepher,
in the province of Zebulun, and was a
prophet of the Northern Kingdom. We learn from
2 Kings xiv. 25 that he exercised his ministry
during the reign of Jeroboam II (823-782 B.C.), and,
it would seem, it was at his instigation that the
coast of Israel was restored, and in his time the
people attained to a height of prosperity which
has no parallel in the history of this kingdom. Of
himself and his work we know no more than this,
and what is recorded in the Book before us. His
contemporaries were Joel, Amos, and Hosea.
This Book is not really a prophecy, but the
history of a prophet. With the exception of chapter
ii., it is straight-forward narrative, telling of Jonah’s
commission to Nineveh, and what he did with it,
Two opposite views are held of the historicity
of the Book. On the one hand it is regarded as “an
19.imaginative work with a moral lesson, and that the
ancient prophet is chosen as its hero for his known
anti-Assyrian bias. ” On the other hand, it is
regarded as genuinely historical, and it is claimed
that Jesus believed it to be so (Matt. xii. 39-41 ;
xvi. 4 ; Luke xi. 29, 30). In spite of all that has
been said to the contrary, we take this latter view.
The object of the Writing seems to have been to
correct the extreme form of Jewish nationalism
which then prevailed, and to proclaim the mercy of
God for Gentiles as well as for Jews. That the
Book may, and indeed, does, have an allegorical
significance, we do not question. It is prophetic in
outlook and catholic in spirit. Its subject is not a
“whale,” but Foreign Missions. The Book illus-trates
Faber’s great lines :
“There’s a wideness in God’s mercy
Like the wideness of the sea
There’s a kindness in His justice
Which is more than liberty. n
The miraculous element in it is only such as
inheres in all Israel’s history, authenticating the
revelation which was given to them:
In JONAH “the religious spirit of the Old Testa-ment
reaches its purest and amplest expression. ”
Of it Charles Reade has said, ‘JONAH is the most
beautiful story ever written in so small a compass..160 JONAH
It contains 48 verses and 1328 English words. . . .
There is growth of character, a distinct plot worked
out without haste or crudity. Only a great artist
could have hit on a perfect proportion between
dialogue and narrative. ” We agree that Jonah was
“a great artist,” but do not believe that he “hit on”
the product of his genius, but rather that the Holy
Spirit employed the ability He had given to him.
Things to specially note are, the miraculous element
in the story ; the characterization of the heathen
mariners (i. 5-16) ; Jonah’s prayer (ii. x-g), trace
its clauses in the Psalms ; what is said of Nineveh
(iii.) ; Jonah’s reason for fleeing (iv. 2) ; the number
of young children in Nineveh (iv, II) ; the patience
and mercy of God throughour..Analysis of Jonah
I. THE DIVINE COMMISSION.
Chapters i. r-iii. 2.
I. The First Call, . . . …
2. The Flight, . . .
3. The Storm, . . . . . .
4. The Chastisement, . . .
5. The Prayer, . . . . . .
6. The Second Call, . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
…. i. I-2.
…. i. 3.
…. i. 4-r4.
…. i. 15-17.
. . . . ii. I-IO .
…. iii. 1-2.
II. THE NATIONAL CONSEQUENCE.
Chapter iii. 3-10.
I. The Prophet’ s Message ,…
2. The Immediate Effect, . . .
3. The Royal Edict, . . .
4, The Heathen’ s Hope, . . .
5. The Averted Judgment,
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
III. THE PROPHET’S COMPLAINT.
I. Jonah’ s Indictment, . . .
2. Jehovah’ s Remonstrance,
3. The Miracle-Parable, . . .
4. The Divine Rebuke, . . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
Keywmd-~HRBATENED. CHAPTERS: 9.
Prophet No. 3. Northern Kingdom. IJre-Exilic.
Assyrian Period. DATE: 810-785.
MOS means “bearer” or “borne” (by God),
and he is the author of the Book which has
his name (vii. 8 ; viii. I, 2). If the date of JOEL is
late, and not early, as we have supposed, then,
Amos began a new era of prophecy, in that he was
the first to write his messages. According to the
chronology adopted here, he was contemporary
with Joel, Jonah, and Hosea. He tells us that he
was a herdman from the region of Tekoa, and while
pursuing his daily round of duties he was, like
Elisha, called to the high dignity of the prophetic
ministry. He was not of the schools of the pro-phets,
that is, he had no professional training,
neither was he in the line of the prophets (vii. 14,
IS). His experience teaches us that God’s agents
are determined by the law of His choice, and not
by any human succession or profession. His
manner of life is reflected in the illustrations he
employs, the bird in the nest, two men meeting in
the desert, a shepherd snatching from the mouth
of a lion two legs and the piece of an ear, sycamore
trees, grasshoppers, a basket of summer fruit, the
waggon loaded with sheaves, cattle-driving, corn-winnowing,
and so on. But though Amos had no
academic training, as we would say, it has been said
that in vigour, vividness, and simplicity of speech
he was not surpassed by any of his successors.
The Book consists of a series of Oracles (i. 3-
ii. 16), a series of Sermons (iii. ~-vi. 14), and a
series of Visions (vii. I-IX. IO), with an Introduc-tion
and a Conclusion.
The style of Amos is elaborate and finished, and
he is not limited to one literary form. The first
part of his message is in the form of lyric
prophecy (i,-ii.), and here is a free interchange
of rhythm and recitative, of poetry and prose.
The poetic refrains tell of ideal transgressions and
doom, and the prose portions tell of actual sins and
sorrows. Mark the formula (i. 3, 4) which is eight
times repeated. The second part of the message
(iii.-vi.) is in the form of discourse, and here there
are five speeches on the sin and doom of Israel.
Each ends with a “therefore,” the first three be-ginning
with “Hear ye this word,” and the last two
with “Woe. ” The third part (vii.-ix.) is in the
form of dramatic vision, five visions, with narrative
Amos charges Israei with avarice, injustice,
uncleanness, and profanity (ii. 6-12), and they
excused themselves on the ground that they were
the chosen people (iii. 2). The prophet’s reply is
that their relation to God is an aggravation of their
offence. In the midst of Israel’s compromise and
corruption the prophet proclaims the sovereignty
of God, the God of all creation (i. 2 ; iv. 13 ; v. 8).
The threats of doom are interspersed with
exhortations to “seek the Lord” (five times), and
with the promise of a better day to dawn (ix.
II-IS). Things to regard specially in this Book
are its style, figures of speech, autobiographical
material, the political and religious situation at
home and abroad, the story of Amaziah’s opposi-tion,
and references to places and peoples..Analysis of Amos
PROLOGUE (i. I).
The Prophet, and the Time of his Prophecy.
I. DECLARATION OF SIN AND JUDGMENT AGAINST
EIGHT NATIONS (i. 2-ii. 16).
I. Damascus (3). 3. Tyre (9). 5. Ammon (13). 7. Judah (4).
2. Gaza (6). 4. Edom (II). 6. Moab (I). 8. Israel (6).
II. EXPANSION OF THE SIN AND JUDGMENT OF
D~scouasa I .-The Prophet is appointed to predict judgment (iii.).
DISCOUXW 2.-The rejection of repeated warnings should lead
them to prepare for judgment (iv.).
DISCOURSE 3.-If they had sought the Lord, the “Day of the Lord ”
would not have overtaken them, but now Assyria will usher
in that Day (V.-vi.).
III. VISIONS OF THE SIN AND JUDGMENT OF
ISRAEL (vii.-ix. IO).
I. Tms DEVO~JIUNG LOCUST. Prayer and Answer (vii. 1-3).
2. THE CONSUMING FIRE. Prayer and Answer (vii. 4-6).
3. Tnx SEARCHING PLUMBLINE. No Prayer and Answer (vii. 7-11,
12-17). Historical Narrative.
4. THB BA.SKBT OF Sum FRUIT. Judgment : Its Consummation,
Cause, and Character (viii.).
5. Trm LORD BETIDE THE ALTAR (ix. I-IO).
EPILOGUE (ix. II-IS).
The Ultimate Restoration of Israel.
Keywordl-ESTRANGEMENT. Cmmms: 14.
Prophet No. 4. Northern Kingdom. Pre-Exilic.
Assyrian Period. DATE : 810-725 B.C.
OSEA, Hoshea, Joshua, and Jesus are identical
in derivation, and mean “Salvation” (cf.
Matt. i. 21). Hosea’s contemporaries were Joel,
Jonah, Amos, Isaiah, and Micah. As, in the South,
Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah reigned
during his ministry, it would seem that he pro-phesied
across a period of from sixty to seventy
years, a longer time, probably, than any other
prophet. He, too, ministered in the prosperous and
corrupt reign of Jeroboam II. He is the first, but
not the last, prophet whose personal history is
made a symbol to his countrymen.
Unlike those of Amos, Hosea’s language and
style are difBcult and abrupt. “He flashes forth
brilliant sentences, but writes no great chapters. ”
Here are not the imagination, the fire, and the vivid
concreteness of Amos, but in some respects he is
deeper ; indeed, it has been said that his religious
message is one of the most profound and spiritual
in the Old Testament. The Book falls into two
main parts. The first part is personal (i.-iii.), and
the second is national (iv.-xiv.), The faithless
wife in the first division has her counterpart in the
faithless people in the second ; and the faithful
husband in the one, answers to the faithful Lord
in the other.
Hosea’s motif is not common in literature. Much
has been written of the loyalty of a pure woman to
an unfaithfi.tl husband, but little of the loyalty of a
strong man to an unfaithful wife. A comparison
is found in Tennyson’s treatment of Arthur’s
forgiveness of Guinevere :
“Lo ! I forgive thee, as Eternal God
Forgives : do thou for thine own soul the rest. n
In the study of this Book three things must be
First, the PERSONAL NARRATIVE (i.-iii.), with
its reference to the husband, the wife, and the
children. Consider carefully the names of the
children : Jezreel, “God will scatter” ; Lo-Ru-hamah,
“Unpitied ” ; and Lo-Ammi, “Not my
People” (cf. I Peter ii. 10).
Second, the NATIONAL INTERPRETATION (iv.-xiv),
with its dominating notes, Transgression,
Visitation, and Restoration. Israel was situated
midway between Egypt and Assyria, and in the
kingdom two factions existed, one favouring.168 HOSEA
alliance with the one Power, and the other, with the
other Power. Special reference to this is found
in chapters iv. ~-xi. II. In Hosea are nine brief
allusions to Judah, and no predictions concerning
the Gentiles. The sins charged against the people
are lying, perjury, drunkenness, lust, robbery,
murder, treason, and regicide. The worship of
Jehovah was corrupted with idolatry and profaned
Third, the SPIRITUAL APPLICATION (i.-xiv.).
If Amos emphasises the “severity ” of God, Hosea
emphasises His “goodness” (Rom. xi. 22). There
are passages here which, for pathos and love, are
unrivalled (ii. 14, IS, 19,20 ; iii.; xi. 3,4, 8 ; xiv.).
This Book emphasises the shame of sin, the fruit
of backsliding, the love of the Lord, and the con-ditions
of restoration. Special chapters are the third
and the fourteenth. In chapter iii. is a remarkable
prophecy, verse 4, telling of the present, and verse
5, of the future of God’s people, Israel. Chapter
xiv. is the greatest in the Bible for the backslider.
Mark carefully the speakers in the several verses :
Prophet, 1-3 ; Lord, 4-7 ; Ephraim, 8a ; Lord, 8b ;
Ephraim, 8c ; Lord, 8d ; Prophet, 9.
The leading note of Hosea’s utterances is an
impassioned tenderness, in harmony with the
personal experiences which he describes..Analysis of Hosea
I. PERSONAL AFFLICTION (i.-iii.).
The Faithless Wife and her Faithful Husband.
I. The CHILDREN,01 Signs, . . . . . . . . . … i. I-ii. I.
(i.) First Sign : Gomer.
(ii.) Second Sign : Jezreel.
(iii.) Third Sign : Lo-ruhamah.
(iv.) Fourth Sign : Lo-ammi.
2. The WIFE, or Backsliding, . . . . . . . . ii. z-23.
(i.) The Grievance of Love.
(ii.) The Severity of Love.
(iii.) The Goodness of Love. . . . 3. The HUSBAND , or Deliverance, . . .
(i.) Command, . . . . . .
(ii.) Obedience, . . . . . .
(iii.) Significance, . . . . .
. . . . . . 111.
. . . . . . I.
.., . . . 2,s.
. . . . 4,s.
II. NATIONAL REFLECTION (iv.-xiv.).
The Faithless Nation and the Faithful Lord.
1. The TRAN?,GRESSION of Israel is Prominent, . . iv.-viii.
Key : ii. 1-5.
2. The VISITATION of Israel is prominent, . .
Key : ii. 6-13.
(i.) Egypt. West.
(ii.) Assyria. East.
The RESTORATION of Israel is Prominent,
Key : ii. q-23. .
. . . ix.-Xi. II.
. . . xi. IZ-xiv.ISAIAH
Keyword–sALvATIoN. ClL4PTERs : 66.
Prophet No. 5. Southern Kingdom. Pre-Exilic.
Assyrian Period. DATE : 758-698.
HE name Isaiah means “Yahweh is Salvation,”
‘or “Salvation of Yahweh. ” The prophet
received his call in the last year of the reign of
Uzziah (756 B.C.), and continued until the time of
Hezekiah, a period of not less than forty years.
His contemporaries were Hosea and Micah. We
are told that he was married (viii. 3), and had two,
possibly three, sons (vii. 3 ; viii. r-4). The scene
of his labours was chiefly, if not exclusively, Jeru-salem.
He is rightly called the Evangelical Prophet,
and by common consent is one of the greatest of the
prophets in splendour of intellectual endowments.
He takes an unchallenged place among the very
great writers whom humanity has produced. His
power of vivid, luminous visualization of truth,
touched with extraordinary depth of emotion is
unmatched. He is equally distinguished for in-tensity
and for majesty of utterance. The chapters
of the second division of the Book easily take their.ISAIAH 171
place in the very great literature of the world.
Isaiah and Job are poets of superlative greatness.
The prophet stands midway between Moses and
Christ, and begins to prophesy 217 years after the
division of the United Kingdom. His ministry
includes the last years of the Northern Kingdom.
The Book falls into three distinct parts. The
first is Prophetic (i.-xxxv.) ; the second is Historic
(xxxvi.-xxxix.) ; and the third is Messianic (xl.-lxvi.).
The keynote of the first part is, we may say,
Condemnation ; of the second, Confiscation, and
of the third, Consolation. In the first part Assyria is
central ; in the third part it is Babylon, and the
second part points back to the one and forward to
the other. Isaiah says that he and his children were
for “signs” (viii. IS), and this is very suggestive.
Maher-shalal-hash-baz, means “speed to the spoil,
hurry to the prey, ” and represents chapters i.-xxxix.
; Shear-jashub means “a remnant shall
return,” and represents chs. xl.-lxvi.; and Isaiah,
which means “Salvation of the Lord, ” represents
the whole Book.
For about a century the Isaianic authorship of
chs. xl.-lxvi., has been not only questioned, but
denied, and such terms as “the Deutero-Isaiah,”
“the Babylonian Isaiah, ” and “the Great Unnamed”
have become commonplaces in this field of study..172
The question, as Prof. A. B. Davidson has said,
“is one of fact and criticism exclusively, and not a
matter either of faith or practice. ” It is most
important to observe the different view-points of
the two main divisions. In chs. Lxxxix., the
prophet is addressing his own generation, but, if
he wrote chs. xl.-lxvi., he is addressing a generation
a century and a half after his time, the captives in
Babylon. If prediction be once admitted as an
element in prophecy, the Spirit of God could well
have used Isaiah to speak to a distant generation.
The unity of the Book has been learnedly argued,
and certainly must not be airily dismissed.
What matters, of course, is the substance of this
great Book. In part one, mark specially the Great
Indictment (ch. i.) ; the Prophet’s Call and Com-mission
(ch. vi.) ; the Book of Burdens (xiii.-xxiii.)
; the Book of Songs (xxv.-xxvii.) ; and the
Book of Woes (xxviii.-xxxii.).
Part two (xxxvi.-xxxix.) is very valuable for the
light it throws on the character and time of Heze-kiah.
His Songs (xxxviii. 20) are, in all likelihood,
the Songs of Degrees, Psalms cxx.-cxxxiv.
Part three (xl.-lxvi.) is one grand Messianic
poem, the Rhapsody of Zion Redeemed, and is
peerless literature. It is in three divisions of nine
chapters each, and each division consists of three.ISAIAH 173
sections, and chapter liii. is the central chapter of
the central section of the central division, and the
central verses of this central chapter enshrine the
central truth of the Gospel (5, 6). These divisions
and sections are : A (a) xl.; (b) xli ; (c) xiii. I-xliii.
13 ; (a) xliii. I4-xliv. 5 ; (b) xliv. 6-23 ; (c) xliv. 24-
xlv. 25 ; (a) xlvi.; (b) xlvii.; (c) xlviii. B (a) xlix.;
(b) 1. ; (c) li. (a) lii. 1-12 ; (b) iii. I3-liii. ; (c)
liv. (a) Iv. ; (b) lvi. I-8 ; (c) lvi. 9-lvii. 21. C (a)
lviii.; (b) lix.; (c) lx.; (a) lxi. ; (b) lxii.; (c) lxiii.
1-6. (a) lxiii. 7-lxiv. 12 ; (b) lxv. ; (c) lxvi.
The greatest chapters are the sixth and fifty-third..Analysis of Isaiah
DMSION I.-PROPHETIC (i.-xxxv.).
Outlook : ASSYRIAN.
I. Prophecies Concerning Judah and Israel
(i.) The Great Indictment, and Prediction of
Judgment, . . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) The Prophet’s Call and Commission,
(iii.) A Time Promised of Restoration and
Thanksgiving,. . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Predictions Against Foreign Nations
. . . . vii.-xii.
THE BOOK OF BURDENS.
(i.) Babylon (xiii.-xiv. 27). (vi.) Babylon (xxi. I-IO).
(ii.) Philistia (xiv. 28-32). (vii.) Edom (xxi. II, 12).
(iii.) Moab (xv.-xvi.). (Viii.) Arabia (xxi. q-17).
(iv.) Damascus (xvii.). (ix.) Jerusalem (xxii.).
(v.) Egypt (xviii.-xx.). (x.) Tyre (xxiii.).
3. Announcements of Judgments and Deliverances (xxiv.-xxxv.).
(i.) A Picture of Universal Judgment, . . xxiv.
(ii.) THE BOOK OF SONGS, . . . . . . . . . xxv.-xxvii.
(a) Son&gmof r t$ Oppressed Delivered
(b) Song of th; Enemy Humbled (xxv. g-12).
(c) Song in the Land of Judah (xxvi.).
(d) Song of the Restored Vineyard (xxvii.).
[iii.) THB BOOK OF WO ES, . . . … . . . . . . XXVlIl.-xxxlu “‘ .
(a) Woe to the Crown of Pride (xxviii).
(b) Woe to Ariel (xxix. 1-14).
(c) Woe to the Deceivers (xxix. 15-24).
(d) Woe to the Rebellious Children (xxx.).
(e) Woe to them that go down to Egypt
(1) Woe to the Spoiler (xxxii.).
I74.(iv.) The Future of the Nations and of Israel
Contrasted, . . . . . . . . .
(a) Desolation (xxxiv.).
(b) Restoration (xxxv.).
DIVISION IL-HISTORIC (xxxvi.-xxxix.).
ICeynote : CONFISCATION .
Outlook : ASYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN .
I. Looking Backward : Assyrian (xxx&xxxvii.).
(i.) Hezekiah’s Trouble, . . . . . . . . . xxxvi.
(ii.) Hezekiah’s Triumph, . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvii.
2. Looking Forward : Babylonian (xxxviii.-xxxix).
(1.) Hezekiah’s Sickness, . . . . . . . . . xxxviii.
(ii.) Hezel&h’s Sin, . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix.
DIVISION IIL-MESSIANIC (xl.-lxvi.).
Keynote : CONSOLATION .
Outlook : BABYLONIAN .
I. The Deliverance, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl.-xlviii.
God and the gods : Israel and the Heathen
2. The Deliverer, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix.-lvii.
The Sufferings and the Glory of Jehovah’s
3. The DeRvered, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lviii.-lxvi.
The Faithful and the Unfaithful, and
their respective Ends compared..MICAH
Keywm-Am~ci~hlmT. CHAPTLRS : 7.
Prophet No. 6. Northern and Southern Kingdoms.
Be-Exilic. Assyrian Period.
DATB : 750-695 B.C.
M ICAH is a combination of three Hebrew
words which together mean “Who is like
Yah ! ”
THE PROPHET AND HIS TIME.
Of the man himself we do not know much, but
through the medium of his message we may judge
of his personal qualities, and of his power as a
preacher. His style is rapid, bold, and vivid. The
introduction tells us that he ministered in the days
of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of the Southern
Kingdom, and that means, during the reigns of
Pekah and Hoshea of the Northern Kingdom. These
reigns cover a period of fully sixty years, and these
were years of political unrest and social decay.
Micah is the only prophet whose ministry was
directed to both the Kingdoms, and the conditions
in each gave shape to his message. His contem-poraries
were Hosea, a prophet in the North, and
Isaiah, in the South, and he combined the dominant
176.notes of each, with striking contrasts of detail and
THE PROPHET AND HIS TASK.
Isaiah’s prophetism had in it a political element ;
he was concerned on account of the attempt of
Israel and Syria to force Judah into an alliance
with them against Assyria ; but Micah has nothing
to say about this. Isaiah was a prophet of the
Court and city, but Micah was a country prophet.
He was much occupied with the moral and social
condition of the people, and of this he writes graphic-ally.
No class was exempt from the prevailing
corrupting itiuences : princes, priests, prophets,
and people were all victims of social disorder and
moral decay (ii. 2, 8, g, II ; iii. 1-3, 5, II). Micah
shows that, notwithstanding this state of things,
they clung to religious ordinances and spiritual
forms, and he exposes the futility of this (vi. 7, 8).
THE PROPHET AND HIS TESTIMONY.
It was no easy task which Micah had, but he
brought to it strong qualities and a great belief in
God and righteousness. He tears aside the veil
which hid their sin and shame from view, and he
denounces their iniquities in scathing terms. In
short sharp sentences he brings his whip down
upon the venal judges, the corrupt priests, and the
12.hireling prophets, and makes them smart beneath
the lash. He tells them also of coming judgment
(iii. 12 ; iv. IO ; vi. 16). But, like his prophet
brothers, he looks beyond, to a time of restoration.
In the storm he sang a song ; in the night he caught
a glimpse of the morning. With his threats are
mingled promises (iv. 1-8 cf. I. g-16 ; v. 7, 8 ;
iii. 6,7, 12 ; with ii. 12 ; iv. IO ; v. 8, 6).
The classic passage in this Book is vi. 8 ; of
which Huxley wrote : “In the eighth century before
Christ, in the heart of a world of idolatrous poly-theists,
the Hebrew prophet put forth a conception
of religion which appears to me as wonderful an
inspiration of genius as the art of Phidias, or the
science of Aristotle. If any so-called religion takes
away from this great saying of Micah, I think it
wantonly mutilates ; while if it adds thereto, I
think it obscures the perfect ideal of religion. ”.Analysis of Micah
I. THE PEOPLE SUMMONED TO AlTEND (i.-ii.)
“HEAR, ALL YB PEOPLE ” (i. 2).
I. A Declaration of Impending Judgment, . . . i. 2-16.
2. A Rehearsal of the Reasons for this Judgment, ii. I – II.
3. A Promise of Blessing Beyond the Judgment, ii. 12, 13.
II. THE LEADERS SUMMONED TO ATTEND (iii.+.).
“HEAR, 0 HEADS OF JACOB” (iii. I).
I. The Sin of the Leaders, and the Consequence, iii.
2. A Promise of Restoration and Blessing, . . . iv. 1-8.
3. Israel’s sure Travail, but ultimate Triumph, . . . iv. g-v. IS.
III. THE MOUNTAINS SUMhXONED TO ATTEND (vi.-vii.).
“HEAR YE, 0 MOUNTAINS” (vi. r-g).
I. The LORD Expostulates with His People, . . . vi. 1-g.
2. The Indictment and Sentence against the People, vi. 10-16.
3. The Hope of the People, and the Answer of God, vii.
Keyword-DooM. CHAPTERS : 3.
Prophet No. 7. Southern Kingdom. Pre-Exilic.
Assyrian Period. DATE : 663-606 B.C.
AHUM, which means “Compassion, ” or “Con-solation,”
directs his message against Nineveh.
About 130 years before Jonah had delivered a
message there, and with what results we know
(Jonah iii. S-IO). Now, the doom of the city is
proclaimed. The dates between which Nahum
predicted are 663 B.C., when Thebes fell (iii. ~-IO),
and 606 B.C., when Nineveh fell ; in all likelihood
this prophecy belongs to the year 650 B.C., or
As to its literary form, Dr. R. Moulton says that
the Prophecy “hovers between the Doom Song and
the Rhapsodic Discourse ” ; and as to its quality,
De Wette observes that “It is a classic in all res-pects,
It is marked by clearness, by its finished
elegance, as well as by fire, richness, and originality.
The rhythm is regular and lively. ” How brilliant
and spirited is his description of a battle (iii. 2, 3).
Two things characterise the Prophecy ; first, the
180.prophet does not allude to the sin of his people,
nor to any impending wrath to be visited upon
them (cf. i. 12, 13, IS) ; and second, his gaze is
fixed upon the enemies of Judah. At the time of this
pronouncement Nineveh appeared to be impreg-nable,
with walls IOO feet high, and broad enough
for three chariots to drive abreast on them ; with a
circumference of 60 miles, and adorned by more
than 1200 towers. But what are bricks and mortar
.to God ! The mighty Empire which Tiglath-Pileser,
Shalmaneser, Sargon, Sennacherib, Esar-haddon,
and Asshur-banipal had built up, the
Lord threw down at a stroke, and that beyond all
recovery. In the second century after Christ, not
a vestige of it remained, and its very site was long
a matter of uncertainty.
This is a prophecy of doom, and we may not
look here for the spiritual element which we find
in HOSEA, MICAH, and ISAIAH, though the majesty
and mercy of God in i. 1-8, should be carefully
NAHUM is a Book which should bring much
comfort in these days to all lovers of righteousness.
In our time, as then, proud civilizations, so-called,
are .staking everything upon the strength of their
fighting power on land and sea and in the air, and
their boast, as we might expect, is characterized.Analysis of Nahum
I. JUDGMENT UPON NINEVEH DECLARED (i.).
I. The Character and Power of the Lord, . . .
2. The Destruction of Nineveh, and the Peace
of Judah, . . . . . . .
. . . . 1-8.
. . . . 9-15.
II. JUDGMENT UPON NJNEVBH DESCRIBED (ii,).
I. The Siege and Capture of the City, . . .
2. The Utter Sack of the City, . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1-8.
. . . . g-13.
III. JUDGMENT UPON NINEVBH DEFENDED (iii.).
I. Because of her sin she shall be overthrown,
2. Her great wealth and strength cannot s&ice
to save her, . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1-7.
. . . . 8-19..ZEPHANIAH
Keypad-VINDICATION. CHAPTERS : 3.
Prophet No. 8 Southern Kingdom. Pre-Exilic,
Assyrian Period. DATE : 630-610 B.C.
z EPHANIAH means “He whom Jehovah hides, ”
or “Jehovah is hidden. ” The prophet was,
most probably, the great-great-grandson of Heze-kiah,
and he prophesied in the early years of
Josiah’s reign, and his words promoted, no doubt,
the revival which took place in the eighteenth year
of that king’s rule. Zephaniah ministered between
Nahum and Jeremiah ; was contemporary with the
former, and, possibly, with the latter also. This
Prophecy reflects the dark days which followed the
reigns of Manasseh and Amon. It follows the main
prophetic line, denouncing sin, pronouncing judg-ment,
and announcing restoration. These predic-tions
refer not only to the Chosen People, but also
to the nations, as in ISAIAH and EZEKIEL. The whole
earth is the theatre where the Divine Judge displays
the grandeur of His law and the glory of His love.
The dominating note of this Book is “The Day
of the LORD, ” an expression which, in all the
Prophetic Writings, points to a time of judgment.
From a literary point of view, ZEPHANIAH is
much inferior to NAHUM, yet, its descriptions are
vivid. Two contrasted passages are worthy of
special attention, namely, i. 14-18, describing
judgment, and iii. 14-17, describing blessing..Analysis of Zephaniah
I. A DECLARATION OF RETRIBUTION (i.).
INTRODUCTION (I ).
!. The Scope of Judgment (2,3).
2. The Cause of Judgment (4-6).
(i.) Idolatry, . . . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) Oscillation, . . . . . . . . . . . .
(iii.) Apostasy, . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. The Subjects of Judgment (7-13).
(i.) Princes, . . . . . .
(ii.) Oppressors, . . .
(iii.) Merchants, . . . . .
(iv.) The Indifferent, . . .
. . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . . .
The Nature of Judgment (14-18).
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . 4, sa.
. . . 5b.
. . . 6.
. . . 8.
. . . 9, 10.
. . . II.
. . . 12, 13.
II. AN EXHORTATION TO REPENTANCE (ii. I-iii. 8a).
The Call to Judah (ii. 1-3).
The Doom of the Nations (ii. 4-15).
(i.) West : Philistines, . .
(ii.) East : Moabites and Ammonites,
(iii.) South : Ethiopians, .
(iv.) North : Assyrians, .
. . .
. . .
. . .
13-15..ANALYSIS OF ZEPHANIAH
3. The Sin of Jerusalem (iii. r-5).
4. The Fate of the Obdurate (iii. 6-8a).
III. A PROMISE OF REDEMPTION (iii. 8b-20).
I. The Conversion of the Nations (Sb-10).
2. The Restoration of Israel (11-13).
3. The Day of Jubilation (14-17).
4. The Reproach Rolled Away (18-20)..JEREMIAH
Keyword-WARNING. CHAPTERS : 52.
Prophet No. 9. Southern Kingdom. Pre-Exilic and Exilic.
Assyrian and Babylonian Periods. DATE : 627-585 B.C.
EREMIAH seems to mean “Whom Yah casts or
appoints. ” This Book is of immense importance,
alike on autobiographical, historical, and pro-phetical
grounds, but all we can do within our
present limits is to suggest how the study of it
may be approached.
THE TIME OF JEREMIAH.
In the prophetic office he was preceded by Joel,
Jonah, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, and Nahum ;
and he was contemporary with Zephaniah, Habak-kuk,
and Obadiah in the Land, and, for a time, with
Ezekiel and Daniel in the East. He saw five kings
upon the throne of Judah : Josiah, Jehoahaz,
Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah ; and he was
to Josiah what Isaiah had been to Hezekiah. Five
years after Jeremiah’s call the Book of the Law was
found in the Temple (2 Kings xxii.), the reading
of which led to widespread confession and apparent
reformation, but the work was not deep, and with
the death of Josiah, Judah’s last hope passed away.
The condition of things is reflected in chapters
x.-xii ; and it was at such a time as this that the
prophet was called to his thankless but necessary
THE PERSON OF JEREMIAH.
This Book has been called “A Prophetic Auto-biography,
” for, in these pages, the prophet himself
stands revealed ; timid, sensitive, sympathetic,
loyal, courageous, plaintive, retiring, tender, severe,
and patient. None of the other prophets comes so
near to us in a human way as Jeremiah, and as a
sufferer perhaps no other character comes so near
to the Man of Sorrows.
THE TASK OF JEREMIAH.
He was told at the beginning what he had to do
and what he might expect, and he was promised
Divine support (i. x0-19). He had in a decadent
age and to a stiff-necked people to proclaim un-welcome
truth, and he had his full share of the
consequences that generally accompany such a task.
His message passed through certain well-defined
stages. There is first the note of DENUNCIATION.
Jehovah had delivered this people from Egyptian
bondage, had led them through the wilderness, and
had wonderfully revealed Himself to them, and His.190 JEREMIAH
will for them, but they had forsaken Him, they had
walked after vanity and become vain. Following
on this is the note of VISITATION. Sin must be
punished ; with evil comes its inevitable and just
reward (xvi. g, 13 ; xxv. II).
But these people were “the dearly beloved of
Jehovah’s soul” (xxi. 7), and so there is added the
note of INVITATION. While there is life there is
hope ; upon repentance will come blessing. God
is both just and gracious ; and so the people are
called upon to amend their ways (vii. 3 ; xviiii. 7-10).
One other note is struck, the note of CONSOLA-TION.
Beyond rebellion will be repentance, and
glory will follow the gloom (xxx.-xxx%.). During
the storm a vision is caught of coming calm, the
dawning of a better day. These predictions include
the restoration from Babylonian captivity, but they
go beyond that, to the time of Christ’s next Advent
and the final recovery of Israel.
Tr-n BOOK OF JEREMIAH.
Much ingenuity has been spent in the endeavour
to place chronologically the various utterances of
this prophet, but finality in this need not be ex-pected.
It is clear that his messages are not in
chronological order in his Book, but seem to be
presented according to some group scheme. It.will be well, however, for us to re-arrange the
material so that we may follow the historical course
The ministry of Jeremiah falls into three main
divisions, separated by long silences, and corres-ponding
to the reigns of the three chief kings
under whom he prophesied, The first period was
under Josiah, and was mainly one of appeal, en-forced
by declaration of coming visitation. The
second period was under Jehoiakim, and was one
of warning, deepening into irrevocable judgment.
The third period was under Zedekiah, and was one
of reconstruction, seeking to establish a new order
amid the ruins of the old. These three periods
cover forty-five years ; the first, twenty years,
628-608 B.C.; the second, eleven years, 608-597
B.C. j and the third, fourteen years, 597-583 B.C.
The substance of Jeremiah’s messages in these
periods is indicated in the following analysis.
THE INTEREST OF JEREMIAH.
This Book yields to none in the BibIe in its
intensely human interest. There is a BIOGRAPHICAL
interest : the characters of the period-Jeremiah,
Baruch, Josiah, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah, Necho, Nebu-chadnezzar.
There is a HISTORICAL interest : the
stirring events of the period–finding the Book of.192
the Law, the Reformation, Battles of Megiddo and
Carchemish, Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion of Judah,
Jeremiah’s Rolls and Jehoiakim’s Vandalism, De-struction
of Jerusalem. There is a PROPHETICAL
interest-the seventy years’ captivity, the future
of Babylon and of Israel. There is a DOCTRINAL
interest-Jeremiah’s teaching on God, the Kingdom,
Sin, Repentance, Judgment, the Messiah, the New
Covenant, Personal Responsibility, Redemption,
Destiny. This is a Book to be known and loved..Analysis of Jeremiah
INTRODUCTION : Chapter i.
THE PROPHET’S CALL AND COMMISSION .
I. PROPHECIES BEFORE THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.
I. Prophecies in the Reign of Josiah.
(i.) FIRST MOVEMENT , . . . . . . . .
Judah’s Sin ; A Call to Repentance ;
Prediction of Judgment.
(ii.) SECOND MO-NT, . . . . . . . . .
Indictments, Threatenings, the Pro-phet’s
Grief, and Wailing called for.
(iii.) THIRD MOVEMENT, . . . . . . . . .
Idolatry, Disobedience, Treachery;
The Lord’s Disappointment with
. . . ii.-vi.
. . . vii.-ix.
. . . x.-xii
2. Prophecies in the Reign of Jehoiakim.
(i.) ORDER. Chs. xxvi.; xlvi.-xlix. 33; xxv.;
xxxvi. 1-8; xlv.; xxxvi. p-32; xiv.-xv.; . . . . . . xvi.; xvu.; XVIII.-XIX. 13; XIX. 14-xx.;
xxxv.; xxii.-xxiii. 8 ; xxiii. g-40 ; xiii.
(ii.) SUBSTANCE. Jeremiah predicts judgment
against the nations and Judah ; re-proves
false prophets ; foretells the
Babylonian invasion ; and suffers for
3. Prophecies in the Reign of ZedeMah.
(i.) ORDER. Chs. xxiv.; xxvii.; xxviii.-xxix.;
xlix.34-li.; xxi.; xxxiv.; xxxvii.-xxxviii.;
xxxix. 15-18 ; xxxii.; xxxiii.; xxx.;
XXXI.; xxxix. 1-14.
13 I93.194 ANALYSIS OF JEREMIAH
(ii.) SUBSTANCE. Great Prediction against
Babylon ; Jeremiah’s imprisonment ;
Prophecies of restoration ; Jerusalem
taken, and Zedekiah’s fate.
II. PROPHECIJZS AFTER THE FALL OF JERUSALJZM.
I. The Remnant in Judah, . . . . . . . . xl.-xliii. 3.
2. The Remnant in Egypt, . . . . . . . . . xliii. 4-xliv.
CONClJJSION: Chapter iii.
Keyword-Juwm. CHAPTBRS: 3.
Prophet No. IO. Southern Kingdom. Pre-Exilic.
Babylonian Period. DATE : 608-598.
H ABAKKUK, which means “Embracing,” was
contemporary with Jeremiah at home, and
with Daniel abroad ; and he prophesied, almost
certainly, in the reigns of Jehoahaz and Jehoiakim.
The state of things recorded in chapter i. 2-4,
reflects the conditions in Jehoiakim’s time, and the
threatened invasion of the Chaldeans answers to the
facts recorded in 2 Kings xxiv.-xxv.
The literary form of the Prophecy is unique
among the prophetic Writings. The prophet casts
his thought into a dramatic representation, with
Jehovah and himself as the speaker. His first com-plaint
is because of the apostasy of Judah, and his
second is that the Lord could and would use as
the instrument of chastisement such a wicked
people as the Chaldeans. The Divine reply to the
latter complaint is the heart of the Book (ii. 4).
It announces the Divine principle of righteousness
which, in effect, is “The unjust shall die : the just
195.shall live. ” This principle is applied, first to the
Chaldeans (ii. s-20), and then to Judah (ch. iii.).
In the first application a fivefold “Woe” is pro-nounced
against the Chaldeans, and the second
application is a sublime Theophany and its effect.
The text of the effect (iii. 16-19) is one of the finest
things in the Bible.
The central thought of the Prophecy is quoted
three times in the New Testament, but with
varying emphasis. In Rom. i. 17, the emphasis is
on “Just ; ” in Gal. iii. I I, it is on “Faith ” ; and in
Heb. x. 38, it is on “Live. ”
The Theophanic Ode (iii.) was set to music and
sung at public worship by the Jews..Analysis of Habakkuk
I. T H E COhWLAINT (i. I- II).
I. The Indictment against Judah (2-4).
2. The Invasion of the Chaldeans (~-II)*
II. THE APPEAL (i. rz-ii. 20).
I. The Remonstrance (i. x2-ii. I).
(i.) The Challenge,
(ii,) The Charge, . . . . . .
(i i i .) T h e ConcIusion, . .
. . .
. . . . .
i . 1 2 -1 4.
. i. 15, 16.
. i. r7-ii. r
2. The Reply (ii. 2-20).
(i.) The Principle of Righteousness An-
nounced to the Prophet, . . . . . . . . . 2-4.
(ii.) The Principle of Righteousness Applied
to the Chaldeans, … . . . . . 5-20.
III. THE SONG (iii.).
I. The Cry for Revival (2).
2. The Vision of Jehovah (3-15).
3. The Effect on the Prophet (16-q).
Keyword : DOMINION. CHAPTERS : 12.
Prophet No. II. God’ s Universal Kingdom. Exilic.
Babylonian and Medo-Persian Pen’ ods. DATE : 606-534 B.C.
ANIEL, which means “God is my Judge,”
spoke and wrote in exile, as did Ezekiel and
John. He, with others, was deported from Judah
in 606 B.C., being then about twenty years of age,
and three years later his recorded ministry began.
As this ministry continued into the Persian period,
Daniel must have been over ninety years of age at
his death. His contemporaries were Jeremiah,
Habakkuk, Ezekiel, and Obadiah.
This Book is not among the Prophets in the
Hebrew Bible, but is one of the five “Latter Writ-ings
” (Kethubim), the others being EZRA, NEHE-M
I AH, I and 2 CHRONICLES. In its contents the
Book is historical, prophetical, and apocalyptical.
About half of it is history, and about half is pro-phetic-
apocalypse. The first half is narration, and
the second half is revelation. It was written for
the Jews in captivity, and for generations unborn.
The subject is the Trend and End of “the Times
of the Gentiles ” (Luke xxi. 24), and the Universal
Kingdom of God’s Appointed King. The focus of
the Book is “the time of the end” (ii. 28, 29, 45 ;
viii. 17, 19, 23, et al.). The period covered is 72
years. In chs. i.-vi., Daniel is spoken of, third
person ; and in chs. vii.-xii., Daniel speaks, first
The chronological order of the chapters is, with
their dates : i. (606), ii. (603), iii. (?), iv. (?), vii.
(54% viii. (53% v. (53% ix. (537), vi. (537),
x. (533), xi. (533), xii. (533). Chapters ii. 4-vii. 28,
are in Aramaic, and i. 14. 3, viii.-xii., are in
The Book of Daniel is a Prophetic Philosophy
of History, and is the greatest book in the Bible
on Godless Kingdoms and the Kingdom of God.
These are portrayed in chapter ii., from the human
standpoint, by a dream ; and in chapter vii., from
the Divine standpoint, by visions. In the one
view the world’s kingdoms are likened to a powerful
Colossus, and in the other view, to four vicious
In addition to these two great revelations are
the vision of the Two Beasts in chapter viii., the
prophecy of the Seventy-Sevens in chapter ix.,
and the unveiling of the Scripture of Truth in
chapters xi. r-xii. 4.
The two heathen monarchs of the Book are.DANIEL
Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar. The Empires
introduced are the Babylonian, Medo-Persian,
Grecian, and Roman. The portrait of Daniel
himself is one of the values of the Book, and his
prayer in chapter ix. is one of its great passages..Analysis of Daniel
I. HISTORICAL (i.-vi.).
I. The Reign of Nebuchadnezzar (i.-iv.).
(i.) The King’s Food and the Faithful Jews, . . .
(ii.) Vision of the Image and its Meaning, . .
(iii.) The Golden God and the Faithful Jews, . . .
(iv.) Vision of the Tree and its Meaning, . .
ii. . . . 111.
2. The Reign of Belshazzar (v.).
(i.) The Feast and the Handwriting, . . . .
(ii.) The Interpretation and the Fulfilment, . . .
3. The Reign of Darius (vi.).
(i.) Daniel’s Office and his Danger, . . .
(ii.) Daniel’s Deliverance and his God, .
. . . I-15.
. . . 16-28.
II. PROPHETICAL. (vii.-xii.).
I. The Reign of Belshazzar (vii., viii.).
(i.) The Vision of the Four Beasts and its
Meaning, . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) The Vision of the Two Beasts and its
Meaning, . . . . , . .
. . . VUl.
2. The Reign of Darius (ix.).
(i.) Daniel’s Supplication, . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) Gabriel’s Revelation, , . . . . . . . ,
3. The Reign of Cyrus (x.-xii.>.
(i.) Vision by the Hiddekel, . . . . . . . .
(ii,) Prophecies concerning Persia and Grecia,…
(iii.) Prophecies concerning “the time of the end, * . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(iv.) Daniel, and the final Word, . . . . . .
xi. 34&i. 3.
Keyword–GLORY. ‘ ~APTJIRS: 48.
Prophet No. 12. Em’ lic. Babylonian Period.
DATB : sgz-572 B. C .
ZEKIEL, which means “God Strengthens, ”
was taken into Babylonian captivity with
Jehoiachim in 5gg B.C., being about twenty-three
years of age, and seven years later he began his
prophetic ministry and continued for twenty years.
Like Jeremiah, he was a priest as well as a prophet.
Of the three Major Prophets, Isaiah was the great
poet, Jeremiah was the great preacher, and Ezekiel
was the great artist. Isaiah had blown the silver
trumpet over Jerusalem, Jeremiah was playing the
mournful flute in Judah, and Ezekiel was striking
the iron harp by the Chebar. This prophet has not
the sustained flight of Isaiah, nor the tenderness or
Jeremiah, but there is a directness which is common
only to stern strong natures.
The style and method of Ezekiel are unique.
Symbolic action often supplies the text for his
message, as in the Mimic Siege of Jerusalem
In addition to this Emblem Prophecy, are Visions,
as in ch. viii. ; Similitudes, as in ch. xvi. ; Parables,
as in ch. xvii. ; Poems, as in ch. xix. ; Proverbs,
as in ch. xii. 22, 23 ; xviii. 2 ; Allegories, as in
chs. xvi., xxiii. ; and Prophecies, as in chs. vi.,
xx., xl.-xlviii. No artist has given us pictures SO
inspiring, so mysterious, so charming and SO
terrifying as these.
The dominating notes of his ministry are Sin,
Punishment, Repentance, and Blessing, To destroy
false hopes and to awaken true ones was the burden
of his soul.
The Book falls into three distinct parts. I,
Predictions before the Siege of Jerusalem : chs. I.-xxiv
; B.C. sgz-$38 ; 49 years. 2, Predictions
during the Siege of Jerusalem : chs. xxv.-xxxii ;
588-586 B.C. ; 2 years. 3, Predictions u&r the
Siege of Jerusalem : . . . . . chs. xxxm-xlvu ; 586-572
B.6 ; 14 years. The subjects treated in these parts
are, the Denunciation of Judah ; the Visitation of
the Nations ; and the Restoration of Israel.
The Book begins with Heavenly Glory, in the
Cherubic Vision (ch. i.) ; it ends with Earthly
Glory, in the vision of the New Order (chs. xl.-xlviii.)
; and in between, it tells of the Departing
Glory (viii. 4 ; ix. 3 ; x. 4, 18, rg ; xi. 22, 23). The
idea of Glory runs through the whole Prophecy,
and, in a sense, characterises it..204 EZEKIEL
Ezekiel has been called “the prophet of recon-struction,
” and this he was. He saw a great future
not for Judah only, but for the whole Nation, when
it shall have been reunited and purified (chs.
xxxvi.-xxxvii.). With Jeremiah, he shares in the
distinction of promulgating the doctrine of indi-vidual
responsibility, but he gives it an emphasis
which is all his own (cf. Jer. xxxi. 29, 30 ; Ezek.
xviii.)..Analysis of Ezekiel
I. DENUNCIATION OF JUDAH (i.-xxiv.)
Predictions BEFORE the Siege of Jerusalem.
4) years, 592-588 B.C.
I. The Prophet’ s Call and Commission @-iii.).
(i.) THE VISION, . . . . . . . . . . , . i. 1-28
(ii.) THE VOICE ,… . . . . . . . . . . . . ii.-iii.
a. Prophecies of Approaching Judgment (iv.-vii.).
(i.) Symbolically Presented, . . . . . . . . . iv., v.
(ii) Plainly Predicted, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vl., vu
3. The Moral Necessity for Judgment (viii.-xi.).
(i.) Judah’s Guilt and Punishment, . . . . . . viii,, ix.
(ii.) The Vision of the Cherubim, . . . . . . x.
(iii.) The Sin of the Princes and Hope of the
Penitent, . . . . . . . . . . . xi.
4. The Absolute Certainty of Judgment (xii.-xix.).
(i.) The Captivity Foretold, and the Leaders
Rebuked, . . . . . . . . . . . . xii.-xiv.
(ii.) Judah, Fruitless and Faithless, Exposed, xv., XVI.
(iii,) The Overthrow Described, Deserved, and
Lamented, . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. The Character of Judah the Cause of
(i.) Jehovah’s Goodness and Judah’s Guilt,
(ii.) The Unsheathing of Jehovah’s Sword, . . .
(iii.) The Sins of Jerusalem, Israel and Judah,
xx. 45-xxi. . . . . . XXII., Xxlll.
(iv.) The Degradation of the Daughters,
(v.) The Final Parable and Sign, . . .
. . .
. . .
. . . XXlU.
xxiv..II. VISITATION OF THE NATIONS (xxv.-xxxii.).
Predictions DURING the Siege of Jerusalem.
2 years. 588-586 B.C.
I. Against Ammon (xxv. 1-7). 4. Philistia (xxv. x5-17.,
2. Moab (xxv. 8-11). 5. Tyre (xxvi.-xxviii. 19).
3. Edom (xxv. 12-14). 6. Sidon (xxviii. 20-26).
7. Seven Predictions against Egypt (xxix.-xxxii.).
III. RBSTORATION OF ISRAEL (xxxiii.-xlviii).
Predictions AFTER the Siege of Jerusalem.
14 years. 586-572 B.C.
I. Predictions of New Life to be Bestowed.
(i.) The Watchman and the Shepherds, . . . xxx&-xxxiv.
(ii.) Restoration of I‘srael, Moral and Cor- porate, . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv.-xxxvii.
(iii.) Judgment against Gog and Magog, . . . . . . xxxvul.-xxxix.
2. Descriptions of the New Order to be
(i.) The Vision of the Temple, . . . . . . xl.-xliii. 12.
(ii). The People and the Temple, . . . . . . xliii. 13-xlvi.
(iii.) The Land and the Temple, . . . . . . &ii.-xlviii..OBADIAH
Prophet No. 13. Exilic. Babylonian Period.
DATB : 586-585 B.C.
0 BADIAH, which means “Servant of Jehovah,”
received this “vision” about the time of
Judah’s overthrow in 586. Of the prophet we know
nothing, and although his message is short it is
significant. His contemporary was Jeremiah. His
word is against Edom, as Nahum’s was against
Nineveh. The Edomites were the posterity of
Esau, and consistently were Israel’s enemies. The
quarrel between the two brothers was reflected in
their posterity. When Jerusalem fell, the Edomites
rejoiced (cf. Lam. iv. 21, 22 ; Psa. cxxxvii. 7).
The overthrow of this people, it is said, is certain
(r-g). They will be unseated from their security
(3, 4), plundered by enemies (5, 6), deserted by
allies (7), and stripped of wisdom and might (8, 9).
The reason for this is given (10-14) ; namely, for
her bitter hostility to Jacob her brother (IO), for
her shameful alliance with Judah’s foes (II), and
for the part she played at the time of Judah’s.overthrow (12-14). In consequence of this, Edom
will be overthrown ; her punishment will be
retributive (IS, 16).
On the other hand, Israel will be delivered, and
“possess their possessions ” (17-21). Some think
that the Prophet speaks here, not of the calamity
in 586 B.C., but of the capture and plunder of
Jerusalem by the Philistines and Arabians in 848-
844 B.C. Obadiah’s message is a rebuke of pride
and unbrotherliness, and an affirmation of the law
of retribution (cf. Jer. xlix. ; Ezek. xxv.).
In form the prophecy is lyric exultation with
Divine monologue..Analysis of Obadiah
I. THE DOOM OF EDOM (1-16).
I. The Certainty of the Overthrow, ………
2. The Reason for the Overthrow, ………
3. The Character of the Overthrow, ………
II. THE DELIVERANCE OF ISRAEL (17-21).
I. The Triumph of Israel, ………… 17-18.
2. The Possessions of Israel, ………… 1g,20.
3. The Establishment of Israel, ………… 21.
K~~W~Y.~-CONSIDER. CHAPTERS : 2.
Prophet No. 14. To the Jews. Post-Exilic.
Medo-Persian Period. DATB : 520.
T this point we enter upon a new prophetic
period. The history of the people of Israel, as
to government, is divisible into three periods :
(I) Israel under Judges, Moses to Samuel ; (2)
under Kings, Saul to Zedekiah ; and (3) under
Priests, Joshua to the Destruction of Jerusalem in
70 A.D. Viewed in relation to the captivity, the
periods are: (I) Pre-Exilic ; (2) Exilic ; and (3)
Post-Exilic. Or, viewed in relation to the world
Empires, the periods are : (I) the Assyrian ; (2)
the Babylonian ; and (3) the Medo-Persian. Haggai,
Zechariah, and Malachi ministered in the third of
each of these periods.
Haggai, which means “Festal, ” and who pro-phesied
in 520 B.C., was, no doubt, born in cap-tivity,
and returned to the Land under Zerubbabel.
The foundation of the Temple had been laid, but
the work had for long been at a standstill, and it
was to urge the people to complete it that Haggai
prophesied. His ministry lasted for about four
months, during which time he delivered four
messages, which are dated. Sixth month ; first
day ; i. 2-11. Seventh month ; twenty-first day ;
ii. 1-g. Ninth month ; twenty-fourth day ; ii.
10-19. Ninth month, twenty-fourth day ; ii. 20-23.
The message of the Book to us is : Do the duty
which lies to hand, with unwavering faith and steady
perseverance, in spite of opposition. “Be strong
and work. ”.Analysis of Haggai
I. THE WORD OF REPROOF (i.).
I. The Temple of the Lord is Unfinished, ……
2. The Trouble of the People is Explained, ……
3. The Testimony of the Prophet is Heeded, ……
II. THE WORD OF SUPPORT (ii. 1-9).
I. The Depression of the People, ………
2. The Promise of the Lord, …………
3. The Glory of the Temple, …………
III. THE WORD OF BLESSING (ii. 10-19).
I. The Diffusive Character of Evil,
2. The Uncleanness of the People, . .
3. The Certainty of the Blessing, . . . . . .
. . .
. . . 10-13.
. . 14-17.
. . 18, 19.
IV. THE WORD OF PROMSE (ii. 20-23).
Keyword-CoNsumnoN. Cmmms : 14.
Prophet No. IS. To the Jews. Post-ES&c.
Medo-Persian Period. DATE : 520-518.
ECHARIAH, which means “One whom
Jehovah remembers,” was contemporary with
Haggai, was his junior in years (ii. 4), and spoke
for the same purpose. He, too, no doubt, was born
in captivity, and returned under Zerubbabel. He
and Haggai both prophesied in the second year of
Darius Hystaspes, and their ministries were emi-nently
The Prophecy falls into two main divisions, chs.
i.-viii. and ix.-xiv. ; and each of these is in two parts.
The authorship of chs. ix.-xiv. is uncertain, and
in Matt. xxvii. 9, IO, a quotation from this division
is attributed to Jeremiah. The style differs from
that of chs. ~-viii ; the circumstances are wholly
changed ; visions have ceased, and prophecy rises
to a more solemn strain. The following analysis
indicates the subject of the four parts.
Zechariah saw eight visions in one eventful night :
The Angelic Horsemen (i. 7-17) ; The Four Horns
and t&e Four Smiths (i. 18-21) ; The Man with the
Measuring Line (ii.) ; Joshua the High Priest
(iii.) ; The Candlestick and the Olive Trees (iv.) ;
The Flying Roll (v. 1-4) ; The Ephah and the
Woman (v. S-11) ; and The Four Chariots and
Horses (vi. I-S).
The Symbolic Act which follows (vi. g-15), is
designed to show that the promised Branch will
exercise, as did Melchisedec, the double office of
Priest-Ring, when He returns to the earth to set
up His Millennial Kingdom. In chs. vii-viii., in
reply to an inquiry as to whether certain Fasts
were now to be observed (vii. I-3), a fourfold
answer is given : (I) They should discover their
motive in fasting, and remember the former years
(vii. 4-7) ; (2) the Lord requires inward righteous-ness
rather than outward forms (vii. 8-14) ; (3) the
Lord will restore to His people what they had lost
(viii. 1-7) ; and (4) the Fasts will be turned into
Feasts of gladness (viii. 8-23).
In division two (chs. ix.-xiv.) are two Burdens
(ix, I ; xii. I). The first Burden is to the effect that
Israel will be reunited and restored ; and the
second is to the effect that before this restoration
there will be judgment on Israel because of their
rejection of the Messiah ; but all their enemies.ZECHARIAH 2r5
will be overthrown, and they at last shall be charac-terised
by “Holiness unto the Lord. ”
Three great ideas characterise this Book, namely,
an universal purpose, a Messianic hope, and Divine
sovereignty..Analysis of Zechariah
I. THE CHOSEN PEOPLE AND THE TEhIPLE.
I. The Visions of the Seer &vi.).
(i.) A Warning Word, . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ii.) A Series of Visions, . . . . . . . . .
(iii.) A Symbolic Act . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. The Fasts and the Feasts (vii, viii.).
(i.) An Urgent Inquiry concerning Fasts,
(ii.) A Fourfold Answer introducing Feasts,
i. 74. 8.
II. THE lclESsIANIC KING AND THE KINGDOM.
I. The Final Restoration of Judah and Israel (ix.-xi.).
(i.) The Destruction of the Enemy, . . . . . . _ ix. 1-8.
(ii.) The Restoration of the People, . . . . .
(iii.) The Rejection of the Shepherd, . . . . . .
2. The World-Drama of Judgment and Re-demption
(i.) The Messianic Forecast, . . . . . . . .
(ii.) The Messianic Method, . . . . .
(iii.) The Messianic Triumph, . . . . . .
xiii. 7-xiv. 1s.
Keyword-APotiTASY. CHAPTERS : 4.
Prophet No. 16. To the Jews. Post-Exilic.
Medo-Persian Period. DATE : 433-397 B.C.
M ALACHI means “My Messenger, ” and
whether it is the name of the author of this
Book, or a title employed to express his mission,
is not certain (cf. iii. I). This is the last of the Old
Testament Prophecies. The setting of it is in the
stirring time of Nehemiah, and Malachi was to
that reformer what Haggai and Zechariah had been
Following on a period of religious revival (Neh.
x. 2%39), the people became religiously indifferent
and morally lax, and it is this state of things which
Malachi rebukes (cf. Neh. xiii. d-31).
The attitude of the people is exhibited in the
sevenfold “wherein” (i. 2,6,7 ; ii. 17 ; iii. 7,8, x3),
and the charge which Malachi brought against them
is fourfold, relating to things religious, moral,
social, and material. Religiously, they were guilty
of profanity and sacrilege ; morally, of sorcery,
adultery, perjury, fraud, and oppression ; socially,
they were untrue to their family responsibilities ;
and materially, they were “robbing God” of the
tithes due to Him.
The Prophecy ends with a reference backward to
Moses, and forward to
Baptist. The heart of
chapter iii. IO, 16-18.
Malachi’s message is
appropriate to-day, for
Elijah, that is, John the
hope in the Prophecy is
eminently necessary and
these abuses have their
equivalents in the modern Church. How prevalent
is “a form of godliness, ” the power being denied ;
how weak are multitudes of Christians with regard
to great moral questions ; how frequent is alliance
in marriage of saved and unsaved ; and how shame-fully
lax are Christians in the matter of giving of
their substance for the maintenance of God’s work.
To this situation Malachi still speaks.
At the end of the first Book of the Old Testa-ment
we read of a “coffin, ” and at the end of the
last Book we read of a “curse,” indicating that, till
then, all was failure ; but the Second Man, the
Lord from Glory, having come, the New Testament
opens and closes in better terms ; Grace triumphant
at last..Analysis of Malachi
I. RELIGIOUS DECLENSION (i.-ii. 9).
I. Expression of Jehovah’s love for Israel, . . . .,. i. r-5.
2. Expostulation with the Priests for their offences, . . . i. 6-14.
3. Execration of the Priests for their indifference, . . . ii. x-9.
II. SOCIAL DEBASEMENT (ii. 10-16).
Condemnation of the Priests and the People.
(a) For Alien Marriages.
(b) For Cruel Divorces.
III. MORAL DEFLECTION (ii. r7-iv. 6).
I. The Coining of the Lord for Judgment, . . .
2. The Charge preferred against the People, . . .
3. The Contrast between the righteous and the
wicked. . . . . . , , . . . . .
ii. 174. 6.
iii. q-iv. 6..Concluding Note
T HE period of about four centuries between the
Testaments is of immense importance for a
right understanding of the New Testament. The
Old Testament closed in the Medo-Persian period,
and the New Testament opens in the Roman
period, and between these is the great Grecian
period. Between the Testaments the seat of World
Empire moved from the East to the West, from
Asia to Europe. In this period arose Greek cities
in Palestine, bearing Greek names, and the Hebrew
Scriptures were translated into Greek (LXX).
Also in this period arose the sects of the Pharisees,
the Sadducees, and the Essenes, and the Sanhedrin
came into existence. In Malachi’s time the Temple
of Zerubbabel was standing, but in Matthew’s time,
the Temple of Herod. Synagogues also arose in
this period, which are so prominent in the New
Testament. To this period also we are indebted
for the fourteen Writings of the Apocrypha, some
of which, such as the two MACCABEES, the WISDOM
OF SOLOMON, and ECCLESIASTICUS , are of great
literary and historical importance. It was also in
this period that the doctrine of immortality was
220.CONCLUDING NOTE 221
taught by Plato. While these Apocryphal Writings
are not regarded as Holy Scripture, they must not
be neglected by the Bible student. Though we
have no inspired writings of this period, God was
not inactive, and the fulfilment of His redeeming
purpose was progressing towards “the fulness of
the time, ” when Christ would appear.
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