An Interpretation of the English Bible NUMBERS to RUTH


An Interpretation of the English Bible

NUMBERS to RUTH

by B. H. CARROLL
Late President of Southwestern Baptist
Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas

Edited by
J. B. Cranfill

BAKER BOOK HOUSE
Grand Rapids, Michigan

New and complete edition
Copyright 1948, Broadman Press
Reprinted by Baker Book House
with permission of

First Printing, September 1973

PHOTOLITHOPRINTED BY GUSHING _ MALLOY, INC.
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

CONTENTS

THE BOOK OF NUMBERS
I. Chronological Analysis 1
II. Introduction 9
III. From Setting Up of the Tabernacle to the First March 15
IV. From Sinai to Kadesh-Barnea 21
V. Events at Kadesh-Barnea 28
VI. Aftermath of the Breach of the Covenant at Kadesh 35
VII. From Kadesh_Barnea to Moab 42
VIII. Balaam: His Important Prophecies, His Character,
and His Bible History 48
IX. Israel’s Sin and Phinehas’ Act of Righteousness,
and Other Things 55

THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY
X. General Introduction 63
XI. The Analysis: Some Objections Answered 71
XII. First and Second Oration, Part I 81
XIII. Second Great Oration, Part II 91
XIV. Thrid, Forth and Fifth Orations 101
XV. The Song, Prayer and Benediction of Moses 109

XVI. The Character and Greatness of Moses 118
XVII. The Homiletic Value of Deuteronomy 128

THE BOOK OF JOSHUA
XVIII. Historical Introduction 135
XIX. Jehovah’s Charge to Joshua 145
XX. The Miraculous Passage of the Jordan and Events
at Gilgal 157
XXI. The Fall of Jericho, Ai, Ebal, and Gerizirn 166
XXII. Conquest of the Northern Tribes; Allotment of Territory; Establishment of a Central Place of Worship 177
XXIII. Brief Review; Return of Warriors of the Two
and a half Tribes 186

THE BOOK OF JUDGES
XXIV. Introduction 195
XXV. Introduction {Continued) and Outline 203
XXVI. Events Preceding the Judges and Some Special
Deliveries 210
XXVII. Deborah and Barak. Deborah’s Song 220
XXVIII. Deborah’s Song (Concluded) , Midian and
Gideon 231
XXIX. The Story of Abimelech, the Usurper, and of
Jepththah 239
XXX. Samson 248
XXXI. Micah and the Danites, Outrage of the Men of
Gibeah, and the National War Against Benjamin 259
XXXII. The Book of Ruth – A Catechism 269

THE BOOK OF NUMBERS
I
CHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

I. The itinerary from Egypt to Sinai, Numbers 33:1_15,
connecting with Exodus 12:37 to 19:2.

II. All the events and legislation in chapters 7_9, connect
in order of time with Exodus 40 as follows: second year, first
month, first day, the book of Exodus closes with setting up
the tabernacle which Moses could not enter until dedicated.
The Next Twelve Days.
1. The offerings of the princes, Numbers 7:1_86.
2. The dedication, Numbers 7:87_88.
3. Moses now enters and hears the voice, Numbers 7:89.
4. Purification of the tribe of Levi for service, Numbers
8:1_26.
Fourteenth Day.
1. Observance of the Second Passover, Numbers 9:1_5.
2. Occasion of the Provision for the Little Passover, Num_
bers 9:6_14.

III. The Legislation in Numbers 5_6 connects in order of
time with Leviticus and these two chapters of Numbers with
Leviticus cover all the rest of the first month – say
Sixteen Days.
1. Lepers put out of the camp, Numbers 5:1_4.
2. Restitution in case of trespass, Numbers 5:5_10.
3. The trial of Jealousy, Numbers 5:11_31.
4. The law of the Nazarite, Numbers 6:1_21.
5. Form of the high priest’s benediction, Numbers 6:22_27.

IV. First Nineteen Days Second Month, devoted to prep_
aration for first march to Promised Land, Numbers 1_4; 9:
15_23; 10:1_10,14_32.

1. Terminal dates of this section, Numbers 1:1, and 10:11.
2. Numbering the warriors of the twelve secular tribes,
603,550, Numbers 1:1_46.

3. Order of their encampment, Numbers 2.
4. The tribe of Levi exempted from secular and war service
and tribal inheritance and appointed to a religious serv_
ice because about to be exchanged for the firstborn of
the secular tribes – the firstborn being Jehovah’s, chap_
ters 1:47_54, and 3:1_13.
5. Census of male Levites from one month old and upward
as basis for proposed exchange, number 22,000, 3:14_16,
39.
6. Census of firstborn males of the twelve secular tribes as
the other basis for proposed exchange – number 22,273,
3:40_43.
7. Redemption price of the secular excess, 273, 3:44_51.
8. Special charge of all Levites, by families, in marching
and camping and their order of encampment, 3:17_38.
9. Second census of male Levites for the hard service of
marching and camping – this time from thirty years to
fifty – number 8,580 – and the distribution of duties by
families, chapter 4.
10. Signals of marching and camping:
(1) The pillar of cloud, 9:15_23.
(2) The trumpets, 10:1_10.
(3) The ark, 10:33.
(4) The words of Moses, 10:35_36.
11. Regular order of marching and camping, 10:14_28.
12. The invitation to Hobab – his service and the promised
blessing, 10:29_32. (Note the great pulpit theme, 10:29.)

V. Forty_eight Days.
From Sinai to Kadesh_barnea, Numbers 10:11_33, and
chapters 11_12; 23:16_18.

1. Distance – 150 miles at least.
2. Time of starting – 10:11,
Time in day marches (Deuteronomy l:2)=== eleven days.
Time in resting at Kibroth (II: 20) = thirty days.
Time in resting at Hazeroth (12:14_15) =_ seven days.
Time total forty_eight days at least, probably more.
3. Character of the way, Deuteronomy 1:19; 8:15; 32:10.
4. The Itinerary, Numbers 33:16_18.
5. Events by the way:
At Taberah, 11:1_3.
(1) This is a mere night encampment at close of first
or second day’s march.
(2) The sin of murmuring against God, its punishment
by fire and the intercession of Moses.
At Kibroth, 11:4_34.
(3) The place – in the edge of the wilderness of Paran –
three days’ journey from Sinai – about thirty miles
from Sinai, 10:12,33.
(4) Time, thirty days 11:20.
(5) The sin of loathing God’s provision and lusting
for the food of bondage, 11:4_6.
(6) Description of the manna and how prepared for
food, 11:7_9.
(7) Displeasure of Moses and his appeal to Jehovah,
11:10_15.
(8) Jehovah in reply to the appeal of Moses provides
and qualifies seventy executive officers to assist Moses in
administration, as he had previously appointed and qual_
fied seventy Judges to assist him in judicial matters, II:
16_17,24_25.
(9) The strange case of Eldad and Medad, and its
lesson that neglect of some technical forms does not in_
validate God’s appointment nor restrain his Spirit, 11:26.
Compare 2 Chronicles 33:18_20.
(10) Joshua’s mistaken jealousy and the larger spirit
of Moses, 11:27_29. Compare Mark 9:38_40, and Acts
11:17. (Note the great pulpit theme 11:29, but who is
able to preach just right on 11:26_28; 2 Chronicles 33:
18_20; Mark 9:38_40; Acts 11:17?)
(11) Jehovah grants and punishes the wicked lusts of
the people, 11:18_20,31_34.
(Note that their sin was rejection of Jehovah, 11:20.)
(Note the origin of the saying, „No man can eat a quail a
day for thirty days consecutively.”)
At Hazeroth, 11:35 to 12:15.
(12) No note in the text of how many days’ march from
Kibroth – perhaps four.
(13) The great sin of Miriam and Aaron against Moses
and God and its punishment and healing on the inter_
cession of Moses.
(14) Time at least seven days.
(Note the author’s explanation of Moses’ Cushite wife.)
The March from Hazeroth to Kadesh, 12:16.
Time, perhaps four days.
No event recorded.
VI. Events and Legislation at Kadesh_barnea, chapters
13_19.
Time indefinite, Deuteronomy l:46== forty_two days
specified.
The place –in northern edge of the Wilderness of Paran
(12:16), called also Rithmah, Numbers 33:18, on the
southern border of the Promised Land, 34:4, in the hill
country of the Amorites, Deuteronomy 1:20, west of
the Arabah. (See Kadesh_Barnea, by H. Clay Trum_
bull, for exact location and description.)
1. The case of. the spies.
(1) Who suggested sending the spies, Deuteronomy
1:22? It would have shown greater faith to obey God’s

command immediately and trust to him, Deuteronomy
1:21. Both God and Moses let them have their way,
Numbers 13:1.
(2) The spies examine all the Promised Land and find
it as Jehovah had reported it, but in their report ten of
them speak evil of the land and magnify the power of
the enemies holding it, and minimize the power of Israel
and openly distrust God, 13:4_33. (Note the great pulpit
theme of unbelief and cowardice in verse 33.)
2. The second great breach of the covenant, God’s threat of
destruction, the intercession of Moses, the mixed pardon
and penalty, 14:1_35.
3. The fate of the ten cowards and the good destiny of the
two faithful ones, 14:36_38.
4. The people’s great sin of presumption and its result, 14:
39_45.
5. Prospective legislation which inspires hope of yet reach_
ing the Promised Land, chapter 15.
6. The sin and punishment of Korah and his company and
the memorial thereof, 16:1_40.
7. Continued rebellion of the people, its punishment and
atonement by Aaron, 16:41_50.
8. The rod of Aaron and its preservation as a token, and
the despair of the cast_off people, chapter 17.
9. Special charge of the Levites and provision for their
support, chapter 18.
10. The red heifer, or the water of purification, chapter 19.
(Compare this typical element of regeneration with
Psalm 51:2; Ezekiel 36:25; Zechariah 13:1; John 3:5;
Ephesians, 5:26; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 9:13, and note that
regeneration always consists of two parts: First, cleans_
ing by the Spirit’s application of Christ’s blood; and,
second, renewing of the heart and mind. See author’s
sermon on the „Human Side of Regeneration” in his
first volume of sermons.)
VII. The long silent period of the wanderings, about thirty_
seven years.
1. The itinerary, Numbers 33:19_36.
2. The covenant being broken, circumcision, its token, not
observed, Joshua 5:2_9.
3. That generation being outcasts, Jehovah commanded no
sacrifices (Jeremiah 7:22) and they offered none but
served idols (Amos 5:25, and Acts 7:42_43).
4. Yet for the sake of the coming generations, Jehovah cared
for them, Deuteronomy 2:7; 29:5_6; Nehemiah 9:19_21.

VIII. Events at Kadesh_barnea once more. Several
months, commencing with the first month in the fortieth year,
20:1; 33:38.
1. The reassembling at Kadesh, 20:1.
2. Death of Miriam in the place where she had sinned
thirty_seven years before, 20:1.
3. A second rebellion at Kadesh, 20:2_6.
4. The sin of Moses and Aaron in smiting the rock and its
chastisement announced, 20:7_13. (Compare this pas_
sage with 20:24; 27:14; Deuteronomy 1:37; 3:26_27;
Psalm 106:32_33, and analyze the sin of Moses.)
5. The attack on Israel by the Canaanites and their sub_
sequent doom, 21:1_3.
6. Passage through Edom refused, 20:14_21.
IX. Over thirty days from Kadesh to Mount Hor in the
border of Edom. The death of Aaron and the appointment of
Eleazar as high priest, 20:22_29; 23:37, 39.
X. Time five months exactly. (Compare 33:38; 20:29;
Deuteronomy 1:3.) From Mount Hor, around Edom, to the
banks of the Jordan opposite Jericho – the events by the way – the events and legislation there:
1. The itinerary, 33:41_49. (Compare Numbers 21:10_35;
Deuteronomy 2:1_37.)
2. The Brazen Serpent 21:4-9.

3. Quotations from a lost book, 21:14.
4. The well and the song, 21:16_18.
5. The fall of Sihon and another song, 21:21_32.
6. The fall of Bashan, 21:33_35.
7. The case of Balaam and his prophecies, chapters 22_24.
Compare Jude 2; 2 Peter 2:15; Revelation 2:14. (After
reading sermons on Balaam by Bishop Butler, Dr. Arnold,
Cardinal Newman, Spurgeon, and the author, noting the
several lines of thought, make your own analysis showing
the degree and sources of light, his spiritual state, his
great sin and character – then state the messianic element
in his prophecies.
8. (1) Balaam, failing to turn Jehovah against Israel by
divination, turns Israel against Jehovah by a terrible sin,
25:1_3, 6_15.
(2) Hanging the chiefs does not atone, 25:4.
(3) Slaying the guilty does not atone, 25:5.
(4) The sin culminates in an awful act of presump_
tion, 25:6.
(5) Atonement by Phinehas, 25:7_15. (Expound those
most remarkable passages in the Old Testament, Num_
bers 25:11_13; Psalm 106:30_31, and particularly make
clear this second case of „imputed righteousness” and
develop the atonement idea in the zeal of Phinehas and
find its antitype in Christ’s atonement.)
9. The second census, chapter 26.
10. Provision of inheritance for daughters without father or
brother, 21:1_11.
11. Joshua set apart as successor to Moses, 27:12_23.
12. The offerings day by day, sabbath by sabbath, moon by
moon, year by year, feast by feast, chapters 28_29.
(These chapters could be made into a calendar for the
Jewish Holy Year.)
13. Exceptions to the law of Vows previously given, 33.
14. Holy War against Midian led by Phinehas, who had
atoned for the sin of Israel, 31. (Particularly note the
character of this war, as the execution of a divine sen_
tence, led by a priest with only 12,000 men who suffer no
loss, and the devoted character of the spoils.)
15. The plea of Reuben and Gad for inheritance east of the
Jordan and the conditions under which it will be granted,
32.
16 The itinerary from Egypt to Jordan, whose several parts
have already been noted, 33.
17 The borders of the land, 34:1_12. (Compare the borders
here given with Genesis 15:18_21; Deuteronomy 1:7_8,
and other passages.)
18 Half_tribe of Manasseh to receive inheritance with Reu_
ben and Gad, and the appointment of twelve princes who,
with Joshua and Eleazar, shall divide the land, 34:16_29.
19. Directions for forty_eight Levitical cities, six cities of
refuge and laws defining privileges of refuge, 35.
20. Law for securing to the tribe inheritance already pro_
vided for daughters without father or brother.

II
INTRODUCTION
Numbers 1_4

We now commence the introduction to the book of Num_
bers. The first thing is the name. In the Hebrew there are two
names. One takes the first word and the other takes the first
most important word. In the Septuagint the name is Arithmoi;
in the Vulgate, Numeri, both meaning the same as our word
Numbers. These names are derived from the numbering re_
corded in chapter I and the second numbering thirty_eight
years later in chapter 26; the first, prior to the first start on
the great march, and the second, at the second start.
Next is the period of time covered by the book of Num_
bers. We will notice the following points: 1:1, „Second
year, second month, first day.” One year and one month
after leaving Rameses in Egypt, they leave Sinai. You have
another date, viz.: The death of Aaron, 20: 22; 33: 38.
Aaron’s death is in the fortieth year, and fifth month, the first
day, from the time they left Egypt and thirty_ninth year
from the time they left Sinai.
Next, Deuteronomy I, which commences the fortieth year
and the eleventh month, making exactly six months after
Aaron’s death before Deuteronomy commences. If you add
these periods together, they make thirty_eight years and nine
months. It takes them a little over a year at Sinai and then
nearly thirty_nine years to close up this book. Deuteronomy
occupies not over a month, bringing us to the death of Moses
forty years from the time they left Egypt.
I will give you a brief outline and then a more extended
outline of this book. The brief outline consists of only four

points:
1. Preparation for the march, extending from 1:1, to 10:10.
The preparation will include not only the census and some
legislation which follows it, but also some other things neces_
sary to the start.
2. The march from Sinai to Kadesh_barnea, close to the
border of the Holy Land 10:11 to 14 a brief period of time.
They had only three stopping places of any length, recorded
again in Numbers 33. That chapter gives the entire itinerary,
or order of the march, from the day they left Rameses in
Egypt to the time they reached the Jordan River.
3. Period of aimless wandering, chapters 15, 19, the longest
part of the book of Moses as to time, including the wanderings
and the legislation during that time. It covers more space
than any other part.
4. From Kadesh_barnea to the camp opposite Jericho and
the events on the plains of Moab chapters 20_36.
In this book are some of the most interesting incidents in
the history of the Jewish people, some of the most thrilling
themes for the preacher, new laws of a particular kind, espe_
cially concerning those about the red heifer, which have a
deep significance in the New Testament. In this book you
have an account of the sins committed by the people that ex_
cluded every grown man from entering the Promised Land
with the exception of two, including the special sin of Moses
and Aaron.
Now follows the more elaborate analysis:
Sec. 1. Preparation for the great march (1_4). In these
chapters we have the first census, the order in which the tribes
shall camp and march, the special numbering of the firstborn
and the exchange of the firstborn males of all the people for
the tribe of Levi, the special duties that the Levites are to
perform and their order of march.
Sec. II. Some legislation (5_6), divided into five parts:

(1) The exclusion of the unclean; (2) the law of recompense
and of offerings; (3) the trial of jealousy, a strange and horri_
ble thing (I imagine it would scare any woman to death to be
put to that test) ; (4) the Nazarite vow; (5) the words that
the priest shall use in his benediction, one of the most beauti_
ful benedictions.
Sec. III. Further preparation for the march (7: I to 10:10),
consisting of the following items: Offerings of the princes
at the dedication, the voice in the sanctuary, the lamps
lighted in the tabernacle, the consecration of the Levites, the
second passover and the supplemental passover, the cloud
on the tabernacle, and the silver trumpet for governing the
march. So the preparation consists of two parts between
which comes that special legislation, and so these three sec_
tions correspond to the first part of the short outline.
Sec. IV. (Which corresponds to the second in the short
outline.) The march from Sinai to Kadesh_bamea, with the
following incidents (10:11 to 14:45): The start and the order
of the march, the invitation to Hobab, the journey, sin and
chastisement at Kibroth, the sedition of Miriam and Aaron
and the sending of the spies and the rejection of the people.
That ends that probation. They had violated the covenant.
They have to make a new start. In answer to the prayer of
Moses God gives them another probation, on the condition
that every grown man that left Egypt shall perish and that
they must wander until that generation has died. The period
of that wandering is divided into the three following sections:
Sec. V. Chapter 15 only: Legislation on offerings, first_
fruits, trespass offering, the presumptuous sin, with the in_
cident of the sabbath breaker and the law of fringes.
Sec. VI. Chapters 16_17. An account of the rebellion of
Korah and his confederates against the Aaronic priesthood,
and the memorial that follows.
Sec. VII. Further legislation, charge and emoluments of
priest, the law of the red heifer and the pollution of death
18_19). All of the other sections will come in the fourth item
of the short outline.
Sec. VIII. This includes the water of Menbah, the brazen
serpent, the last marches and the first victories.
Sec. IX. Chapters 22_24. The coming of Balaam and the
prophecies of Balaam.
Sec. X. Gives an account of the events that took place on
the plains of Moab on the banks of the Jordan (25_27). Those
events were as follows. The second census of Israel, with a
view to allotment of land, the petition of Zelophehad’s daugh_
ters and finally the supersession of Moses by Joshua.
Sec. XI. Further legislation. The annual routine of sacri_
fices chapters 28_29. The thirtieth chapter tells us about vows
like that last section of Leviticus giving us the exception of
vows made by women.
Sec. XII. Further events in the plains of Moab, (31_32)
extirpation of Midian and the settlement of the tribes east of
the Jordan.
Sec. XIII. Chapter 33:1_49. The great itinerary, showing
every stopping place of any length from the time they left
Egypt to the river Jordan – a remarkable historical document.
Sec. XIV. Chapter 33:50, to the end of the book, Final in_
struction with a view to the conquest of Canaan, as follows:
Clearance of the Holy Land, boundaries of the Holy Land,
allotment of the Holy Land, reservation of cities for the
Levites, cities of refuge and the law of homicides, law of the
marriage of heiresses, which relates back to Zeiophehad’s
daughters.
Just here you need to read Trumbull’s Kadesh_Bamea. The
central place of the book of Numbers is Kadesh_bamea. This
is the great camping place they reached after they left Sinai
and just before they made their attempt to enter the Holy
Land. There occurred the sin of the people, the rejection of
the report of the spies, the condemnation to wander thirty_

eight years, revolving around Kadesh_barnea. Hence explor_
ers have tried harder to locate Kadesh_barnea than any other
one place except Sinai.
The census discussed in the first chapter is dated the second
year, second month and first day, after they left Egypt. The
second census was with reference to the allotment, for they
expected in a few days to get to the Holy Land. Of course when they forfeited their right and all those men died of the first census, they had to take a new census, and that is why the name of the book is plural. The census applies to eleven of the tribes, Levi not included, and takes account of the males from twenty years upwards who are able to go to war. That census amounted to 603,550. They took the census of Levi separately and took it twice. First, every male in the tribe of Levi, from one month old up, amounted to 22,000, which was less than any other tribe had from twenty years old up, showing that the tribe of Levi was by all odds the smallest of the tribes. When they took the next census of Levi, they took it of the men from thirty to fifty, to get the men capable of service around the sanctuary. That census amounted to 8,580 males. It seems to me that if there were 8,580 from thirty to fifty, there ought to have been more than 22,000 from one month up.
The next item is the order of camp. The enclosure around
the tabernacle faced the east. The whole tribe of Levi, includ-ing Moses and Aaron, would occupy the space around the tabernacle just outside of the enclosure. Then on the east of them were Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Judah carrying the banner and leading off. On the west, the tribes descended from Rachel: Benjamin, Ephraim and Manasseh, Ephraim carrying the ban-ner. The other six tribes occupied the north and south sides. Whenever the pillar of cloud would stop, the Levites would advance and set up the tabernacle just beneath it. I got my first ideas of real organization from the book of Numbers. Moses was a great general, tactician, and strategist. He had commaned the armies of Egypt and knew that one could not move three millions of people without interminable confusion if there was not organization to the smallest detail. All of these details are set forth in the second chapter so far as the tribes are concerned.
The only other item apart from the numbering of the
Levites, which I have already given you, is the special direc_
tion to number them so that an exchange could be made. All
the males of the firstborn belonged to God. When they took
the list of all the firstborn of the eleven tribes, they amounted
to 22,273, whereas the males from one month old up in Levi,
amounted to 22,000. To make the exchange complete, so as
to take the tribe of Levi over instead of the firstborn of all
the tribes, a compensation had to be paid for the surplus. Levi lacked 273 of coming up to the measure. That compensation was paid to the children of Levi, five shekels for each one of the 273. That covers the third and fourth chapters.

QUESTIONS
1. Give origin of the name „Numbers.”
2. What period of time is covered by the book? (Work out answer from dates given in book.)
3. Give a brief outline of the book.
4. Give a more elaborate analysis of the book.
6. What is the central place of the book of Numbers, and why7
Locate it.
6. Why is the name of the book plural?
7. Why more than one census?
8. Give result of the first census of the twelve secular tribes, com_
paring it with the second census many years later.
9. Why a separate census of Levi?
10. Why double census of Levi, first, from one month old upward,
and second, from thirty years old to fifty?
11. How was the exchange of the firstborn males of Israel for the
tribe of Levi made?
12. Describe the order of the entire encampment. (See your Atlas.)
13. What were the duties of the Kohathites, Gershonites, and
Merarites, respectively?

III
FROM SETTING UP OF THE TABERNACLE TO
THE FIRST MARCH

In chapter 2, I gave a historical introduction, cited a brief
outline and then a very extensive one. I shall not observe
either of these outlines because they lack chronological ex_
actness, but I shall follow the chronoligical analysis given in
chapter 1.
In studying the book of Numbers the first item of our out_
line which we shall notice is chapter 7 which gives the gifts of
the princes of Israel. Those gifts are presented in twelve
successive days) following right after the day in which the
tabernacle was set up, as given in the fortieth chapter of
Exodus; the first day of the first month of the second year.
This chapter 7 of Numbers immediately follows the passage
in Exodus 40:35. Exodus, in that connection, states that
when Moses had completed the tabernacle and had set it up,
the cloud came down and filled it so that he was not able
to enter it. Chapter 7 tells us how Moses was able to enter
and the twelve days follow right after. When we get through
with this chapter, we are at the thirteenth day of the first
month. Therefore, in my outline I say, the twelve days of
the gifts of princes follow Exodus 40:35, where Moses could
not enter the tabernacle, which date was the first day of the
first month of the second year, and these offerings bring us
to the thirteenth day set apart to make a gift, and among
their gifts were certain offerings. At the end of this chapter
we find that these offerings for sacrifices were made and
closes entered the tabernacle and listened to the voice of God
speaking to him.
The next item of the outline is 9:1_14. The theme is, „The
Second Passover, and the provision for a little passover a
little later.” This is on the fourteenth day of the first month.
For those who through absence or ceremonial uncleanness
were not permitted to eat the first Passover, a law provided
for their eating a month later.
From the fourteenth to the end of the first month took
place all that occurred in the book of Leviticus plus these
chapters in Numbers, the Levitical legislation, as set forth in
chapters 5_6 and 8:1_4. If they were lunar months, we know
how many days were covered – fourteen days; but if it was a
month according to our calculation it would cover sixteen
days. In order of time that should be inserted just after the
close of Leviticus.
We come to the second month and first day where the
census takes place. The census of the eleven tribes, 1:1_46,
amounts to 603,550 males from twenty years old up.
The next item is the order in which the tribes camped,
second chapter. That order was expressed in the introduction.
The next item is the first census of the Levites, from one
month upward, and their order of camp 3:14_39, leaving the
first part of the third chapter to be placed elsewhere, the
census amounting to 22,000, elsewhere given as 22,300. And
it is a difficult matter for commentators to explain that differ_
ence of 300. It may be done by supposing that 300 of the
Levites were firstborn and, therefore, not included in the cal_
culations afterwards made. I then showed how the Levites
camped on the east.
The next item is the census of the firstborn of Israel, 3:40_
43, amounting to 22,273.
The next item is the exchange of the 22,273 of the firstborn
of the eleven tribes for the 22,000 Levites. A commutation
price was paid for the extra 273 of the firstborn, 3:1_13, and
also from 44_51.
The next item is the second census of the Levites from thirty
to fifty, and the chapter tells us exactly how each one had to
act before going to march. I shall bring that out directly.

The next item is the cleansing of the Levites, chapter 8.
The next item is the services to be performed by the pillar
of cloud, 9:15_23.
The next item is the service of the trumpets, 10:1_10. That
outline is absolutely accurate, chronologically and analyti_
cally, up to that point.
My next item of the outline is to give a digest of the order
of the march. In order to understand this, we must conceive
of Israel in camp, each tribe in its proper place, the tabernacle
up and the cloud over the tabernacle, Moses, Aaron, and his
sons, and the Levites in their places. Get that picture in your
mind. Now the morning has come on which they are to
march. It tells us which morning in chapter 10: „And it came
to pass in the second year, second month, twentieth day.”
The first thing that morning was the morning sacrifices which
were never neglected. As soon as that sacrifice was over,
Aaron steps out and says (6:24_26): „Jehovah bless thee and
keep thee; Jehovah make his face to shine upon thee, and
give thee peace.” In that way Aaron puts the name of
Jehovah on the people. They don’t know when they are going
to start. Suddenly that cloud that hovered down low over
the tabernacle ascends into the air, the divine signal to get
ready to march. Then there was a human signal, the trump_
ets blow. When those trumpets blew, the first people that
had anything to do were Aaron and his sons. Aaron goes
into the holy of holies and in the prescribed way covers the
Ark of the Covenant so that it will be hidden from sight and
puts the staves through the rings on the sides so that four
men can carry it with those staves resting on their shoulders.
Then Aaron and his sons cover up, in a prescribed way, every
one of the holy things.
Next the Gershonites, part of the tribe of Levi, come up
and take charge of all curtains of every kind, always their
business. They have wagons with two oxen each to help
carry this vast amount of baggage. Then Eleazar and ltha_
mar take charge of the sacred oils and special things of that
kind. Then the Merarites come and take down the heavy
parts of the tent and carry them off on four wagons, each
having two oxen. Then the Kohathites come and take every
part that Aaron has covered except the ark. Four take charge
of the ark and the rest take the other things.
Now comes another sight. That cloud that had gone up
in the air and was standing there, just as soon as the Levites
have taken down all those things and loaded them on the
wagons, begins to move slowly in the direction they want
to go. As soon as Moses sees that, the four men that have
charge of the ark pick it up and keep right under that cloud.
Read that in 10:33: „And they set forward from the mount
of Jehovah three days’ journey; and the ark of the covenant
of Jehovah went before them three days’ journey, to seek out
a restingplace for them.” So the front things at the head of
the column are the cloud above and the ark below. As that
ark moves, Moses says, „Rise up, 0 Jehovah, and let thine
enemies be scattered; and let them that hate thee flee before
thee.” One of the most thrilling psalms written upon that is
the psalm that Cromwell adopted as his psalm, and every
time he went into battle, he made his army kneel and pray,
and when the marching order was given, they marched sing_
ing the psalm that paraphrased these words of Moses. Then
Moses and Aaron follow the ark, and the trumpets blow an
alarm, and Judah, the vanguard, set forth with that part en_
camped on the east, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun with an
army of 186,400 men. As soon as that vast body was in
motion, the Gershonites follow with the curtains of the tent
and the Merarites with the heavy fixtures. Then the trumpets
blow a second alarm and those encamped on the south side,
Reuben, Simeon, and Gad, move forward with an army of
151,450 men. Right after them the Kohathites follow with
the holy things, and Eleazar, lthamar, the sons of Aaron, led.
Then follows the third trumpet alarm and the crowd on the
west moves off, Ephraim, Manasseh, and BenJamin, with a
total of 108,600 men. Now, isn’t that organization? Did
anybody ever see better organization?
Now I shall tell you how they stop. They never knew
when or where they would stop. They moved as long as the
ark moved. God is the captain of this expedition. Whenever
that cloud stops, instantly those men carrying the ark put it
down under the cloud) but the cloud is away up in the air and
the ark is covered. Moses and Aaron stop. Then Judah takes
his position to the east and the Gershonites and Meraritea
come up with their curtains and heavy parts of the tent and
immediately lay off the court, put up the poles and hang the
curtains and veil and nobody has ever seen the sacred things.
Then there marches up Reuben’s corps and he camps on the
south, and with him come the Kohathites and they walk up
and put down the altar of burnt offerings, then the laver, and
going into the holy place put down the altar of incense, the
table of shewbread and the candlestick. Now everything is
in its place. Aaron alone goes into the holy of holies to un_
cover the ark. Then Dan comes up and goes into camp on
the north, and the tribes descended from Rachel come up and
take their position on the west. Then the cloud comes down
and as it settles Moses says these words: „Return, 0 Jehovah,
come into the ten thousands of thousands of Israel.” Now,
what follows? The evening sacrifice. That order applies to
every day’s march. They are now going to set out on a three
days’ journey, stopping only at night. They are going north
over a most terrible country, which Moses calls the great and
horrible wilderness.

QUESTIONS
1. Where do you find the itinerary from Egypt to Sinai?
2. What are the date and event of the closing of the book of
Exodus?
3. What are the events of the next twelve days?
4. What, then, on the fourteenth day?
5. What are the next sixteen days?
6. Give the law of restitution in the case of trespass.
7. In general terms describe the trial with jealousy.
8. Give the law of the Nazarite.
9. Give the high priest’s benediction.
10. To what were the first nineteen days of the second month devoted?
11. What are the terminal dates of this section?
12. Give particulars and result of first numbering.
13. Give again the order of their encampment.
14. Why were the Levites exempted from secular and war service
and tribal inheritance and appointed to religious service?
15. Explain the difference of 300 found in the census of Levi.
16. Explain fully the exchange of the male Levites for the firstborn
of Israel.
17. What is the special charge of all Levites, by families in march_
ing and camping and their order of encampment?
18. Why a second census of male Levites? Give particulars.
19. What were the signals for marching and camping? Describe
each.
20. Give a digest of the order of marching,
21. What General adopted the psalm based upon Moses’ words in
Numbers 10:35, as his psalm and what is the psalm?
22. Give in detail how they stopped.
23. Hobab, who? His service? The promised blessing?
24. What great pulpit theme in this connection?
Note.– Keep your chronological analysis before you and read all references.

IV
FROM SINAI TO KADESH_BARNEA
Number 11:1 to 12:16

In this chapter we cover only two chapters of Numbers
(11_12) the section of the outline from Sinai to Kadesh_
barnea. When they had finished their preparation, the ob_
jective point from Sinai was Kadesh, a distance of 150 or
200 miles, but for such a big crowd, eleven days’ journey
(Deut. 1:2). But that eleven days does not cover all the time,
since they stopped a long time at two places at least. We take
up, then, the question of time. After three days they reached
Kibroth, where they stopped thirty days. After they left Kib_
roth, their next point was Hazeroth, where they stopped seven
days. So you have forty days covered by this section. In order
to get that time you have to compare a great many dates,
which I have carefully done. This lesson tells about the first
three marching days to Kibroth but does not give the time
from Kibroth to Hazeroth, but Deuteronomy 1:2, gives us the
eleven days, and so the time must have been eight days.
I shall give you the great events that occurred in these forty_
eight days. At the beginning of the next chapter, I shall give
you some special explanations about Kadesh_bamea. In
getting to Kadesh_barnea, three great sins were committed,
culminating in a greater sin at Kadesh_bamea, and the one
at Kadesh, which we shall not discuss in this chapter, was the
second breach of the covenant.
The first sin occurs on that three days’ march from Sinai
through that great and terrible wilderness. The people mur_
mured, speaking evil in the ears of Jehovah. It was a com_
plaint against God himself on account of their suffering. A
man by himself would suffer, but moving three millions of
people with their cattle was much more difficult. So they
murmured against God and the fire of Jehovah burned among
them and devoured them in the uttermost part of the camp.
Some have supposed that the fire was lightning. But they
have very little lightning in that country. I think it was a
fire that went out from the presence of the Lord. So there
is the first sin and the first punishment. „And the people
cried unto Moses and Moses prayed unto Jehovah and the
fire abated.” So this punishment was stayed at the interven_
tion of Moses, their great mediator. What memorial was
there of that sin and punishment? „And the name of that
place was called Taberah, because the fire of Jehovah burned
among them.” That occurred on some one of these three days.
The second sin we find recorded in 11:3_34. It did not
commence with the pure Israelites but with the mixed multi_
tude that followed them from Egypt, not circumcised and
not embodied in the covenant. The sin consisted of lusting
exceedingly, that is, for a change of food. But that sin went
over the Israelites and they wept and said, „Who shall give
us flesh to eat? We remember the fish we had in Egypt,”
and thus they turned a long look back to the country from
which they had come: „Our soul is dried away and there is
nothing at all save this manna to look up.” That was utter
distaste for the food God provided and a rebellious longing
for the food of their bondage. In other words, they would
rather have fish out of the Nile and vegetables from its banks
and remain in bondage than to live on manna and go to
the Promised Land. They put their appetites above the re_
lationship with God. You have here a description of manna
which you can read. It looked like coriander seed; they
gathered it and ground it in mills or beat it in mortars and
it had the taste of fresh olive oil. Moses heard the people
weeping, every man at the door of his tent, because of short
rations in God’s service.
I have been on forced marches with only meal made up with
a little salt and burned at the top and bottom and raw inside

and in the beat of the summer it would sour in two hours,
and I have marched and lived on that for three days. What
strange things there are in this world to cry about! Moses
said to Jehovah, „Wherefore hast thou dealt ill with thy
servant? and wherefore have I not found favour in thy sight,
that thou layest the burden of all this people upon me?” No
doubt he was tired of his job. I have known little children
to cry for something to eat. „I am not able to bear all this
people alone. Kill me, I pray thee, and let me not see my
wretchedness.” Moses was a very meek and patient man but
two or three times he felt like throwing up his job. The Lord
loved Moses and gave a remedy for the trouble, viz: the dis_
tribution of labor.
We had a case like this before when Jethro came to Moses
and Moses was acting as justice of the peace, county judge,
district judge and judge of all the supreme court for all the
people. At Jethro’s advice there was a division of the judicial
Work, but this is a different thing. This is said to be the
foundation of the Sanhedrin. Seventy men were appointed
for administrative work and notified when to come to be
qualified and all of them came but two. When God sent the
qualifying power of the Spirit on those that stayed in the
camp, as well as on those that went up, that stirred up Joshua
a little. He was very jealous for Moses and loved Moses very
much. He says, „My lord Moses, here are these two men that
did not come up and they are prophesying in the camp. They
ought to be made to go back and go through the regular
order.” Moses replied that he had so many big things that
troubled him that little things like that did not bother him
a bit. He wished all God’s people could prophesy, whether
formally or informally.
That settled the matter from the standpoint of Moses, but
it did not give the people what they wanted to eat. God
tells them to sanctify themselves against the next day and
they shall have flesh. Now comes a doubt in the mind of
Moses – and this is a very important scripture (v. 21) : „And
Moses said, The people among whom I am, are six hundred
thousand footmen; and thou hast said, I will give them flesh,
that they may eat a whole month.” Does that mean that
flocks and herds shall be slain for them or that fish shall be
gathered? But the Lord said, „Is Jehovah’s hand waxed
short?”
If you preach on that subject of trusting God, there are
four or five other scriptures you should use in connection.
These people said, „We take this long journey, what if our
children get sick and our old people feeble?” God said,
„There will not be a sick or feeble one. Shoes wear out, but
these shoes will wear forty years and the clothes, and I will
give you a brilliant illumination by night and a cloud to
shelter you in the day time.” The whole thing is a standing
miracle. It was just as easy for God to feed those three mil_
lion people as it was for Jesus to take five loaves and two
fishes and feed five thousand. Another case in history is the
case of Elisha, the prophet, who said that at a certain hour
the best flour should be sold cheap in a city where the people
were besieged and starving. Then Abraham staggered not
in unbelief when he considered that the thing promised was
physically impossible. I never shall forget bow the old mod_
erator of the Waco association said to his wife when he was
dying, „When I am gone you may have a hard time, but
don’t you be one of these complaining women.” Many a
time have I talked to Mrs. Riddle about that and each time
she says she is trying to live as her husband told her, and
she has not joined the whining column yet.
Now, God gave these people flesh in anger as a punishment
for their lack of faith. He just covered them with quails and
told them they should eat that food for thirty days. „While
it is in your mouth, it will make you sick and the plague shall
strike you.” The punishment of the second sin was loath_
some satiety and was visited with a plague. On this passage
is built the statement that no man can eat quail a day for
thirty days (v. 33). „While the flesh was yet between their
teeth, ere it was chewed, the anger of Jehovah was kindled
against the people, and Jehovah smote the people with a very
great plague. And the name of the place was called Kibroth_
hattaavah, because there they buried the people that lusted.”
The third sin came in a higher quarter. The sinners were
Miriam and Aaron, brother and sister of Moses. You should
read Dr. Wilkinson’s poem describing this rebellion as coming
on for a long time through jealousy. The question in their
minds was this: „Hath Jehovah indeed spoken only with
Moses? Hath he not also spoken to us?” Miriam says, „I
remember I watched over this fellow when he was in the ark
of the bulrushes. The spirit of prophecy rests on me. Has
not the Lord spoken to us?”
What was the occasion of this sin? The first verse says
that Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the
Cushite woman whom he had married. Was this Cushite
woman Zipporah, his first wife, or did he here in the wilder_
ness marry again? It had been a long time since he and
Zipporah married. He was a little over forty years old and
forty years more had passed before he had taken charge of
this people. Many commentators suppose that, as Zipporah
was a Midianite and a descendant of Abraham, she must in
this time have died and Moses married a descendant of Ham.
Gush in the Bible means Ethiopia. But Moses had never been
to Ethiopia except when he waged a campaign there, and if
he married there that would make her the first wife and Zip_
porah the second. But there was a part of Arabia called Cush
and that land of the Cushites included a part of the territory
occupied by the Midianites. So that the Cushite woman was
undoubtedly his wife, Zipporah. There is not a scintilla of
evidence that Moses ever married again. And so Aaron and
Miriam had never been satisfied with his marriage with
Zipporah.
Then the question comes up, Was it lawful for a Hebrew
to marry a Midianite? It was, because the Midianites were
descendants of Abraham, and Moses married among his own
people, not in the chosen line, but four or five scriptures can
be shown to prove that certain marriages were lawful and
Moses was violating no law. This shows how long some
people can carry a grudge before they blow things up about
it. They had been carrying this grudge forty years. But the
real grudge was the supremacy of Moses in the camp and they
were trying to put it upon some pretext.
„And Jehovah heard it.” What a text! „Now the man
Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the
face of the earth.” God commanded all the parties to appear
before him and he gave his decision squarely in the favor of
Moses, and Miriam, who was the instigator, was punished
with leprosy, and Aaron begged Moses to intervene, and he
prayed to God and she was healed, but God demanded that
she stay outside the camp for seven days and that is why
they had to stop at that place seven days.
Those are the three sins and the three punishments.

QUESTIONS
1. How far from Sinai to Kadesh_barnea?
2. How long were the children of Israel on the way? Give reason
for your answer.
3. What was the character of the way?
4. How many stops on the way? Name them.
5. What three great sins were committed on the way, and where?
6, What was the first sin, its punishment, how stayed and its me_
morial?
7. The second sin – with whom commenced, consisted of what, and
what was their real sin?
8. Give a description of the manna, and how prepared for food.
9. Describe the displeasure of Moses and his appeal to Jehovah.
10. What remedy or provision did Jehovah make for the relief of
Moses?
11. Give the case of Eldad and Medad, and what was the lesson?
12. How did this affect Joshua, and Moses’ reply?
13. What question did Moses raise concerning their supply of food,
and God’s reply?
14 How did God punish this sin, and what is the origin of the say_
ing, ‘”No man can eat a quail a day for thirty days consecutively “?
15. What was the memorial of this sin?
16 The third sin – who were the sinners, the cause, the occasion,
who this Cushite woman, the real sin and how long developing?
17. Did Moses violate God’s law of marriage in taking this Cushite
woman? Give reason for your answer.
18. How was Moses vindicated and the sinners punished?
19.How long did they stay here, what was the next objective point
in their journey and the time required to reach it?
Note – Study your chronological analysis closely, looking up all
references.

V
EVENTS AT KADESH_BARNEA
Numbers 13_15

Kadesh_bamea is the most noted place, except Sinai and
in some respects not even excepting that, during the whole of
the forty years from Egypt to the Holy Land. In Genesis 14
in the account of the march of Chedorlaorner, it is stated that
he passed on the east side of the Jordan and came down
nearly to Sinai and then turned north until he reached En_
mishpat, that was Kadesh, and means the foundation of
judgment. Moses, writing much later, gives it the name that
it had acquired from the transactions of this passage. The
real name of the place is Rithmah, as you will find in the
enumeration given of the stopping places later in this book.
Generally speaking, it was in the wilderness of Paran. Spe_
cially speaking, it was in the wilderness of Zin. You have
the wilderness of Paran mentioned in this passage, a little
later, Kadesh in the wilderness of Paran, and still later,
Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin. All these names refer to
the same place. In the last chapter I told you how they got
from Mount Sinai to the wilderness of Paran, or the wil_
derness of Zin. See the magnificent argument on the location
of this place, as set forth in Trumbull’s ”Kadesh_Barnea.”
The time of this chapter is the summer of the second year
of the Exodus. The text states that it was the time of the
first ripe grapes, about the first of July. The great transac_
tion that took place here was the sending out of the spies to
view the Promised Land.
The first point in connection with the sending out of these
spies is found in Deuteronomy 1:22, which tells that the
original suggestion to send out the spies came from the people.
Numbers tells us that God commanded it to be done. But

the original suggestion came from the people, who did not
trust God, and did not want to move until they knew some_
thing about where they were going. So God permitted them
to have their way, and he commands Moses to send out the
spies. That delayed matters for forty days, the time while
the spies were gone.
There were twelve spies, one from each tribe. They were
prominent men, famous in the history of the people. They
were to go through the south country where Abraham, Isaac,
and Jacob had lived. They were to start right up the moun_
tains surrounding Kadesh_barnea, which was in a valley, and
were to make a straight march to the north to the old town
of Hebron.
What commission was given to these twelve men? „See
the land, what it is; and the people that dwell therein, whether
they are strong or weak, whether they are few or many; and
what the land is that they dwell in, whether it is good or bad;
and what cities they are that they dwell in, whether in camps,
or in strongholds; and what the land is, whether it is fat or
lean, whether there is wood therein, or not. And be ye of
good courage, and bring of the fruit of the land. Now the
time was the time of the first_ripe grapes” (Num. 13:18_20).
How much of the country were they to examine? (v. 21).
They were to go to Hamath, which is the most northern part
of the Holy Land. My son, Harvey, once visited that place
and wrote me a very fine description of Hamath. They were
to examine the highlands and the lowlands, and an expedition
of that extent would take forty days. As they came back
they stopped at Eshcol. By that time it was in August and
the grapes were full ripe. They brought back one bunch so
large that two men had to carry it on a pole between them.
Brother Penn, in his preaching, tells us that the cluster of
grapes from Eshcol brought back from the Promised Land
before they had reached it, has a spiritual signification; that
here on earth, before the Christian gets to the Promised Land,
God gives him an earnest of the inheritance that he ia to
receive. Sometimes in a mighty revival we get a taste of the
grapes from Eshcol.
They have fully complied with their duty, and when they
come to report, there is a majority and a minority report.
The two reports do not differ on the first point. All agree that
it is a glorious land, flowing with milk and honey, in every
respect what God had promised them. „Howbeit the people
that dwell therein are strong and the cities are fortified and
very great.” The people were very much agitated at that
part of the report, and that there were great giants there.
„And Caleb stilled the people before Moses and said, Let us
go up at once and possess it; for we are able to overcome it.”
That is a great text. I heard a missionary take that for a
text when I was a boy and it is a good mission text now. Now
we come to the divergence. Ten of these men squarely dis_
sented: (1) „We are not able to go up against them, for they
are stronger than we are”; (2) An evil report of the land:
„It is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof”; (3)
„The men are of great stature, the Nephilim. We were in our
own sight and in their sight as grasshoppers.” Now) when_
ever any man in the world conceives himself to be a grass_
hopper, he is whipped inside and out. If you want to take
two great texts and put one against the other, take those
divergent opinions about their ability to possess the land.
Now we have come to what is called the second great
breach of the covenant. The first breach was when they
worshiped the golden calf. This is a great rebellion. The
people lifted up their voice and wept that night. Think of
two or three million people sitting up all night and crying!
All the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron:
„Would that we had died in the land of Egypt, or would
that we had died in this wilderness. Wherefore doth Jehovah
bring us unto this land to fall by the sword?” There they
murmur against God: „Our women and our little ones will
be & prey.” They put it off on the women and children. „We
would be plucky enough if we were by ourselves.” Many a
time have I heard that expedient fall from men’s lips. I
once heard a man say that he did not want to see a show but
that he went to take the women and children.
Now we come to the crowning act: „And they said one
to another, Let us make a captain and return into Egypt.”
That meant to turn their backs upon the pillar of fire and the
cloud and the tabernacle and all their glorious history and
from the divinely appointed leaders, Moses and Aaron, to
renounce the government of God, and go back into the bond_
age from which they had been delivered. When they said
that, Moses and Aaron fell on their faces, for they knew that
an awful sin had been committed. While Moses and Aaron
are lying on their faces, see the heroic deed of Joshua and
Caleb: „And Joshua, the son of Nun, and Caleb, the son of
Jephunneh, who were of them that spied out the land, rent
their clothes; and they spake unto the children of Israel say_
ing, The land which we passed through to spy it out, is an
exceeding good land. If Jehovah delight in us, then he will
bring us unto this land) and give it unto us, a land which
floweth with milk and honey. Only rebel not against Jehovah,
neither fear ye the people of the land.” There are Moses and
Aaron on their faces, and here are Joshua and Caleb with
their clothes rent, in the presence of the blasphemers, making
a final plea before the bolt of divine judgment falls on them.
„But all the congregation bade stone them with stones.” „Kill
the men that tell us the truth.” Now the cloud comes down.
It was up in the air. The cloud descended upon the ark of the
tabernacle as an indication that the Lord God Almighty was
about to speak: „How long will this people despise me?”
You remember the first oration of Cicero against Catiline:
„How long, 0 Catiline, will you abuse our patience?” „How
long will they not believe in me for all the signs which I have
wrought among them? I will smite them with pestilence and
disinherit them.” That shows the breach of the covenant.
„I will make of thee a nation greater and mightier than they.
I am going to take a nation into the promised land, but I will
blot the whole of them out.”
Now comes grace. You will see what Moses says to God.
He is the mediator and type of the Saviour: „And Moses
said unto Jehovah, Then the Egyptians will hear it; for thou
broughtest up this people in thy might from among them;
and they will tell it to the inhabitants of this land. They have
heard that thou, Jehovah, art in the midst of this people; for
thou, Jehovah, art seen face to face, and thy cloud standeth
over them, in a pillar of cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire
by night, and thou goest before them. Now if thou shalt kill
this people as one man, then the nations which have heard
the fame of thee will speak, saying, Because Jehovah was not
able to bring this people into the land which he sware unto
them, therefore hath he slain them in the wilderness. And
now, I pray thee, let the power of the Lord be great, according
as thou hast spoken, saying, Jehovah is slow to anger and
abundant in lovingkindness, forgiving iniquity and trans_
gression; and that will by no means clear the guilty, visiting
the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third
and upon the fourth generation. Pardon, I pray thee, the
iniquity of this people according to the greatness of thy lov_
ingkindness, and according as thou hast forgiven this people,
from Egypt even until now.” I do know that he was a great
man. God instantly answers that he will do just what Moses
asks:
„Now, I will pardon, but I will pardon in accordance with
my nature, which says, I will not acquit the guilty. This
sin shall rest on them, but I won’t blot the whole nation out.”
The women and the little children had nothing to do with it,
but every grown man that participated in it is cut off from
the Promised Land. A year for a day. As it took forty
days to view the land, their pilgrimage from Egypt to Canaan
shall be forty years. The whole of it could be made in a
rapid journey of a few days. „Every one of them shall die
and their carcasses shall fall in this wilderness and their bones
shall whiten. But I will take care of the children and bring
them into the Promised Land. As I live, saith Jehovah,
Surely as you have spoken in my ears, so will I do to you.”
He is giving oath. Joshua and Caleb are the only ones
allowed to live. Now the Lord expostulates directly with
Moses and Aaron, telling them how they shall carry out this
sentence. Moses announced the sentence, that God considered
the covenant broken, and that they were disinherited, but
that pardon was extended for all under twenty years, but
that the rest of them should perish. They say, „But here we
are now and we will go up.” Moses says, „But the cloud
won’t lead and the ark won’t go before you. If you go, you
will go as an uncovenanted people and without God among
you.” But they did go and they got an awful drubbing from
their enemies.
That is the great rebellion and it commands the careful
study of every Bible student.
Now comes chapter 15 with some hopeful legislation:
„When ye come into the land of your habitation.” That pre_
cedes every act. „I have just announced that the men over
twenty years old will die. Lest the awful sentence cause the
hearts of the rest of you to despair, I will instantly give you
some legislation that will cheer you and cause you to hope.”
There is something in this legislation that I want to call your
attention to: „If a person sin unwittingly, the priest shall
make atonement for that soul. But the soul that doeth aught
with a high hand, whether he be home_born or a sojourner,
the same blasphemeth Jehovah; and that soul shall be cut off
from among his people. Because he hath despised the word
of Jehovah, and hath broken his commandment, that soul
shall be cut off; his iniquity shall be upon him.” There is
the unpardonable sin. Every man from twenty years old and

upward with the exception of Caleb and Joshua had com_
mitted that sin. That is what is meant by sinning with a
high hand.
A man was gathering sticks on the sabbath day. He
violated one of the Ten Commandments and was stoned to
death.
Finally they were commanded to make fringes on the
border of their garments, so that when they looked at the blue
fringe, they would remember their sin and God’s penalty.

QUESTIONS
1. Kadesh_barnea – what back_reference, its meaning, how came it
to be called Kadesh, real name, definite location and what work commended?
2. The date of this lesson?
3. The spies – Who suggested sending them, how a lack of faith, how
long gone, how many, their commission, how much country to ex_
amine, what evidence did they bring as to the fruit of the land, and
its spiritual signification?
4. Their report – How agreed, how disagreed, the majority report,
the minority, a missionary text, fate of the ten cowards and the good destiny of the two faithful ones?
5. The second great breach of the covenant – What the first, this one
how against God, how against the women and children, the crowning act and its meaning, action of Moses and Aaron, of Joshua and Caleb, of the congregation, of the cloud?
6. What Jehovah’s communication to Moses and what does it show?
Moses’ reply and prayer?
7. What was Jehovah’s oath and answer to Moses?
8. Upon the announcement of their fate by Moses what did the
people do and the result?
9. What hope does Jehovah hold out to those now under twenty
years of age?
10. Give the reference to the unpardonable sin here, and who had
committed it?
II. What instance of the violation of one of the Ten Command_
ments in this connection?
12. What was the law of fringes?

VI
AFTERMATH OF THE BREACH OF THE
COVENANT AT KADESH_BARNEA
Numbers 16_19

In the last chapter I discussed Kadesh_barnea and the
great breach of the covenant that took place there. The sec_
tion from chapters 16_19 inclusive gives us the aftermath of
that breach, all taking place at Kadesh_barnea before they
set out on their wilderness wanderings for more than thirty_
eight years.
The first case that we have before us is the great revolt
against God, Moses, and Aaron. The parties to this revolt are
Korah and a number of Levites. The issue that they made
was that they were entitled not only to the honor of being
Levites but to the priesthood which God had said belonged to
Aaron’s family alone. They combined with three famous
Reubenites whose camp was next to them. These Reubenites
had an entirely different grievance, viz.: That Moses had
taken them out of the land flowing with milk and honey and
had not brought them into a promised land, and when Moses
summoned them to appear, they refused positively to come.
The third element of this great triple conspiracy consisted of
250 of the princes of Israel. These 250 claimed that they had
as much right to the priestly functions as the tribe of Levi
and proved themselves with brazen censers and demanded
that they, as heads of tribes, should minister before God.
Now these three elements united and said to Moses and
Aaron, „You take too much to yourselves; all the Lord’s
people are holy.” And Moses proposed a test that God should
determine between them, and commanded the 250 princes who
wanted to exercise the Levitical and priestly functions to fill
their censers with incense and come before the Lord to see
what the Lord would do. And he commanded the people on
the next day to separate themselves from Korah, Dathan and
Abiram. When the people had separated themselves from
these leaders, he said, „The test is this: If these men die a
natural death, God has not sent me, but if an earthquake
opens its mouth and swallows them up alive in the sight of
all the people, that is proof that God has sent me and not
them.” And instantly the earth yawned and in the sight of
all the people, they went down. The test for the 250 princes
of Israel was that a fire would go out from God and destroy
them, which it did.
But this, instead of convincing the people, made the rebel_
lion spread all over the camp. They did not like that thirty_
eight years of wandering, and the entire congregation of Israel
charged Moses with killing the people of the Lord. Immedi_
ately Moses commanded Aaron to light a censer and move
among the people, because a plague from God was going out,
and by the time Aaron could make intercession, moving
among the stricken people with that censer, over 14,000 of
them had died of the plague. Keep before your eyes the
elements of this conspiracy and the three proofs from God.
The result of this was that perfect despair came to the
people. It is expressed at the end of the seventeenth chapter:
„And the children of Israel spake unto Moses, saying, Behold,
we perish, we are undone, we are all undone. Every one that
cometh near, that cometh near unto the tabernacle of Jehovah,
dieth; shall we perish, all of us?” Moses now determined
òupon another sign, and another tie that would prevent the
people from going to pieces in their despair. He commanded
each tribe to bring a rod, and Aaron to bring a rod, and they
put the thirteen rods before the Lord on the ark and let God
show them by an unmistakable miracle who was to retain
the leadership of the people as to the priestly function. The
result was that Aaron’s rod budded, blossomed and bore

almonds in one night and the others remained as they were.
God then commanded that the rod with those full_grown
almonds should be put in the ark as a lasting memorial of hia
decision. We do not know how long that rod stayed there,
but when the ark was opened in the days of Solomon, the rod
was not there. It was probably taken out when the ark was
captured by the Philistines.
Chapter 18 is devoted to a provision for the Levites. Every
word of that chapter is based upon this idea: The Levites
shall have no inheritance in the land. They belong to God.
They shall not depend for their support upon secular work of
any kind. Provision for their food is set forth in certain offer_
ings here mentioned. Their permanent support was the tithe,
one_tenth of all products being devoted to the Levites.
Chapter 19 closes this incident. Part of it is a new pro_
vision for cleansing away the defilement of sin. You see
there is a guilt of sin, a bondage of sin and there is a defile_
ment of sin. The guilt of sin is the condemnation that comes
upon the sinner because he has sinned. The bondage of sin
is the evil nature that constantly prompts him to sin. The
defilement of sin is quite a different thing from either of the
others. To show you the difference, let us suppose a man to
be justified. That would take away the guilt of sin, but if
salvation stops there, he would have in him an evil nature
that would prompt him to sin and he would have the defile_
ment that comes from sin. Suppose that you not only justify
him, but that you also regenerate him. Give him an impulse
that prompts to good and yet the defilement of sin will cling
to him, and he would be in a pitiable condition, like the pure
mind of a modest woman, compelled to live in constant touch
with shameful things. It would be hell to her.
No author has more powerfully set forth that thought than
Eugene Sue in his Mysteries of Paris. The daughter of a
great prince of Germany had been stolen when she was a baby
and had been reared in the slums of Paris and all her life had
known only the vile defilement of crime. Her father found
her, and not having been touched with the defilement of sin,
she became one of the most beautiful princesses of Europe,
but she died of a broken heart because she never could forget
the scenes through which she had passed as a girl.
Now, chapter 19 is to make a great provision for cleansing
from a defilement of sin. More than once have I told you that
in regeneration there are two constituent elements, one a
change of the carnal mind, the imparting of a new nature;
and second, the cleansing of the defilement of sin. And it
takes these two to make regeneration. Here you come to the
original, typical provision for cleansing from defilement.
Hence the importance of this chapter. The provision was
that a red heifer should be taken. Not a white hair must be
on her. And she should be taken outside the camp and put
to death, and burned with red cedar wood, the red signifying
blood, while this burning went on, threads of scarlet cloth
should be thrown into the fire, scarlet signifying blood. When
she was burned the ashes should be gathered up and put in
a clean place so as to provide permanent cleansing. In order
to liquefy these ashes and keep them they were to be mixed
with rain water, making a liquid lye and this was to be kept
on hand all the time. Then a bunch of hyssop, whose wood is
red, was to be used for sprinkling this lye.
When we come to the prophecies, say 36, you have the
combination of the cleansing with the water of purification,
typifying blood, combined with a changing of the nature.
There God says, „I will gather you from all countries where
you have been scattered and I will sprinkle the water of puri_
fication upon you and you shall be clean.” That typified the
application of the blood of Christ. „Then I will take away
your stony heart and give you a heart of flesh and I will put
my spirit within you.” That is the other part of regeneration.
When you come to the symbolic interpretation of Hebrews
9, we have this language: „If the ashes of the heifer sanctified
to the cleansing of the flesh, how much more shall the blood
of Christ cleanse your conscience from evil works to serve the
living God?”
In a debate with a Methodist preacher upon that subject,
I gave this challenge: „In the Bible from Genesis to Revela_
tion no man can find where God ever commanded a prophet,
priest, or preacher to sprinkle, or to pour, just water on man,
beast or thing as a moral, ceremonial, or religious rite.” I
gave them a day to find a passage and they popped up all
over the house and said they could find a lot of them. It
brought about the greatest amazement that ever took place
in their community. They went to their concordance for
„sprinkle” and „pour.” Next day a man came up and said,
„I have found it in Ezekiel 36, 1 will sprinkle clean water
upon you and you shall be clean.’ ” I replied, First, that
sprinkling, whatever it is, God does it, and he does not com_
mand man to do it. Second, that was not just water, but that
was the water of purification which was made out of the ashes
of the red heifer which typified the blood of the Lord Jesus
Christ which is applied by the Holy Spirit when a man
believes on Jesus Christ. A man is not only justified when
he believes, but he is also cleansed. He is not only cleansed
but he is regenerated.” I then traced the thing all through the
Bible. Another man arose and quoted what John has to say,
„I indeed baptize you with water.” I said in reply, „Baptize
does not mean to sprinkle or pour.” But he said, „It says
‘with.’ ” And I replied, „But that is not the translation of
the Greek word. The Greek word is en and that means ‘in.’ ”
It expresses nothing beyond the means or instrument when it
is translated ‘with.’ Finally, Baptists baptize with water, not
with oil, not with sand, and they use a great deal more of it
than you do.”
Now, don’t forget the deep and solemn significance of
Numbers 19, that it was a type of that part of regeneration
which accomplished the cleansing away of the defilement of
sin by the application of the blood of Christ to the believer.
Nineteen preachers out of twenty, in discussing regeneration,
confine themselves merely to the change of nature.
That closes up the case entirely at Kadesh_barnea, and the
next division of the book of Numbers covers thirty_eight
years, the great period of silence the scriptural references to
which are few and far between: (1) In this book we have the
itinerary only, (33:19_49); (2) They did not circumcise their
children, (Josh. 5:5_6); (3) They did not offer sacrifices at
the tent, (Jer. 7:22; Amos 5:25_26); (4) They worshiped
idols, (Acts 7:43) ; (5.) All the generation from 20 years old up
died in the wilderness, (I Cor. 10:5). That period is typical.
When Jesus Christ established his church, there was the glor_
ious missionary period of the apostolic days for more than two
centuries and then the church went into the wilderness. That
is what we are told in the book of Revelation, and no man
has been able to put the surveyor’s chain over that period of
time in that wilderness.
It baffles all the students of church history. Some of them
will tell you that there was no church during that time. But
there was a church then, as there was a church in the antitype,
and it did not perish. To illustrate: Imagine a long, zigzag
river, running into a dark mountain where it is hidden from
human sight. Suppose you drop a chip in the river on the
upper side of the mountain, and after a while down yonder a
hundred miles on the other side you see the same chip come
out. You know then that the path of its motion has been
continuous. In speaking about the succession of the church of
Jesus Christ during the Dark Ages, that is my description
of it. God in his mercy has hidden the steps of that period,
just as he hides it here.
Chapter 20 is thirty_eight years from the time of chapter 19.
They are back at Kadesh_barnea now, in the first month of
the fortieth year. Heretofore all my discussions on the book
of Numbers have been confined to the second year, commenc_
ing with the setting up of the tabernacle on the first day of
the first month. From chaper 20 to the end of Numbers is
ten months’ time, and Deuteronomy covers the other two
months, necessary to complete the forty years to the time
they step down into the water to cross the Jordan River.

QUESTIONS
1. Give an account of Korah’s revolt against God, Moses, and
Aaron, the parties, the issue, who combined with them, their
grievance, Moses’ challenge and result, the third element of the
conspiracy, their issue, their demand, the charge of all the elements combined, Moses’ proposed test, the result, and the memorial of this sin.
2. What effect upon the congregation of the Children of Israel,
the punishment, and how stayed?
3. State clearly the three elements of this conspiracy and the three
proofs from God.
4. Give the incidents of Aaron’s rod, its purpose and history.
5. To what is the 18th chapter devoted, and upon what idea based?
6. What is the water of purification, and how prepared?
7. Distinguish between the guilt of sin, the bondage of sin. and the
defilement of sin,
8. Regeneration consists of what, and what element of regener_
ation is typified by this water of purification? Give full
explanation, using the following scriptures: Psalm 51:2; Ezekiel 36:25; Zechariah 13:1; John 3:5; Ephesians 5:26; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 9:13.
9. The long period of silent wandering is typical of what?

VII
FROM KADESH_BARNEA TO MOAB
Numbers 20_22, 33:37_49; Deuteronomy 2:1 to 3:11

Historically chapters 21_22 of this book will carry you to
the end of the book, describing the journey from Kadesh to
the Jordan. But it leaves out the great incident about Balaam
which occupies several chapters. In connection with chapters
20_22 of Numbers, study the following scriptures: Numbers
33:37_49 the itinerary chapter commencing at v. 37 and going
to v. 49, Deuteronomy 2:1 to 3:11. In many respects those
two chapters give a more intelligent statement than this sec_
tion in Numbers.
The great incidents of this section are the assembling at
Kadesh in the fortieth year, the death of Miriam, the sin of
Moses that excluded him from the Promised Land, the fight
waged on them by Arad the Canaanite, the death of Aaron at
Mount Hor, the sin of the people where they were punished by
fiery serpents and saved by the brazen serpent, the digging
of a well at another station by the princes of Israel using their
sticks, and a most beautiful spring bubbling up, a song on
that water as it bubbled up recorded in the old book of the
Wars of Jehovah which is referred to, and the war with Sihon
and Og.
It is the fortieth year and the first month of that year that
they are reassembled by divine command at Kadesh_barnea.
Before I proceed with this discussion, I want us to take a
backward glance at that thirty_eight years of silence. I told
you that in that thirty_eight years they did not keep up the
ordinance of circumcision. In the book of Joshua, as soon as
they passed the river Jordan, the covenant was renewed and
Joshua circumcised all of those who had not been circumcised
in the wilderness. From Amos 5 and Acts 7, we learn that all

that thirty_eight years they had made no sacrifices. We learn
that in that time they worshiped idols. They were under the
curse of God, and he did not count the time; there was total
suspension of the covenant. But during that time the Levites
stayed around the ark of the covenant and kept up worship.
The places mentioned in Numbers 33 constitute a record of the
stopping places of the ark as they moved it.
The command goes out that since the penalty is nearly paid – and we will find Just where it stops – they must reassemble
at the place where they broke the covenant. Miriam, who had
lived through that period of thirty_eight years dies just when
she gets back to the place where she had committed her sin.
She is buried and that is the end of Miriam. Those people
come back there sore, although it is a new generation, and the
first thing they did was to commit another sin. The water
at Kadesh_barnea was not sufficient for three millions of peo_
ple, and striking it at a dry time, they began to make their
old complaints. Moses takes the case to God and God com_
mands him to gather them together in a great congregation,
and in their sight, with staff in hand, the staff with which he
had wrought all the miracles of the past years, to speak to
the rock and the water would flow out and God would begin
again to supply the people. Moses was very mad. He had
been a meek and patient man. He had had charge of that
people and had their burden on his shoulders for thirty_nine
years. The description of the sin that he committed is ex_
pressed in the following scriptures: Num. 20:10_11; 27:14;
Deut. 1:37; 3:26_27; Psalm 106:33.
One of the questions on Numbers will be for you to analyze
the sin of Moses, and as I am not going to give you that anal_
ysis, it is very important that you remember those passages
of Scripture. Now, God told Moses to speak to the rock, but,
instead of speaking, Moses struck the rock. The other time
God had commanded him to strike the rock, which refers, first,
to the fact that Christ must be smitten to supply the needs of
his people. But the next time he must not be smitten. You
must speak, and by petition draw the supplies of a Christian.
But Moses struck twice. He was very mad and seemed to
attribute the power to himself. He did not sanctify God in
this matter, but sanctified himself. The psalmist says that thp
sin of the people brought ill to Moses and caused him to speak
unadvisedly with his lips. Just before his death, recorded in
Deuteronomy, Moses says, „For your sake I was led into this
ain which kept me from entering the Holy Land which you
are to enter.”
The next question in order of time is to turn to chapter 21
and read three verses which tell us about the Canaanite king,
Arad. This king thought that they were going to repeat their
old experiment of trying to enter the Promised Land on the
south, and he came out and fought them at the very place
where they had been defeated before, but this time he got an
awful thrashing. He was outlawed and that ban of outlawry
was fulfilled in the days of Joshua.
While at Kadesh, Moses sent messengers to two nations.
He wanted to get around on the Jordan River side without
having to make a long circuit. There were only two ways, one
through the Amorite country and the other by going through
the Edom country. Moses sent a very respectful communica_
tion to the king of Edom, calling him Brother Edomùor Esau
ùand saying, „Your brother Jacob desires to pass through
your country to get to his own land, and we will promise you
to stick to the highways and not scatter about, and we will
take nothing without paying your own price for it.” We learn
from Deuteronomy that Moses sent a similar message to
Moab, the descendants of Lot, as he would have to go through
the Mount Seir country first and Moab next. And he said to
the Moabites, „The descendants of Abraham would say to
the descendants of Lot, Let your cousins pass through your
country.” But as far as Edom was concerned, they assembled
an army to block the way.
What follows next? Kadesh_barnea is Just south of Hebron.
The children of Israel are at Kadesh and they want to get
around on the Jordan side through Edom and Moab, their
kinsfolk. If Moab and Edom refuse, they have to make a
long circuit around. Moab and Edom did refuse and God
would not permit them to force their way through by war, be_
cause they are kinspeople. So they have to move south through
the Arabah, that great valley through which the Jordan doubt_
less used to flow. When they stopped at Mount Hor in the
edge of the country, Aaron dies. The account is very piteous.
In the main, he has been a remarkably good man. He has
committed some sins. He joined Moses in the sin which ex_
cluded him from the Promised Land. God commands Moses
to take Aaron up on that bare mountain and to take his sons
with him. They strip off the priestly robes and put them on
Eleazar, who is to become high priest. And there Aaron dies.
I have often thought about that lonely grave. There is a
tradition about that mountain now. Almost any guide will
volunteer to take you to Aaron’s grave when you go there now.
Then they left Mount Hor and made a day’s march or
two to a place called Zaimona, going right down that dry
Arabah. The people complained again, and God’s punish_
ment was to send fiery serpents among them. Once a little
boy asked me to tell him a story about snakes. And I said,
„Once upon a time there was a great camp of three million
people in their tents in a dry valley, and they sinned against
God, and in the night from every direction over the desert
came snakes, great snakes with red splotches on them and
much more deadly than rattlesnakes. And in the night who_
ever moved was bitten by the snakes. The children were
crying out all night that they had been bitten by snakes, and
the people died and kept dying, and the snakes kept biting,
until finally God told the leader of that camp that if he
would put brass into a furnace and mold a big snake and put
it on a pole, that everybody who looked at it would be healed,
and as the sun shone on that brazen serpent, it made it so very
conspicuous that it could be seen all over that camp. A
mother would hear about that brazen serpent and would say
to her dying boy, all twisted with agony and pain, ‘0 son, I
will turn you over so you can see. Now just look yonder at
that brazen serpent,’ and he would shut his eyes and say,
‘I will not look,’ and then die. They would come to where
a man was bitten, and find him cursing and swearing. They
would all gather around him and his wife would say to him,
‘0 husband, here are your brothers and sisters and your
friends and one of your children. They have all been bitten
and they looked and lived. Will you not look and live too?’
But he shuts his eyes and dies. ‘But it came to pass whosoever
looked was healed.’ ” And the little fellow was so well pleased
with the story that he asked where I had read it and I told
him in the Bible, the very last place he expected to find a
good story.
Now, there was a converted Jew, Joseph Frey, who became
a great expounder of the Old Testament types of Christ. He
took this text in John, „As Moses lifted up the serpent in the
wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that
whosoever believeth in him should not perish but have eternal
life.” Preachers should all get Joseph Frey’s Old Testament
Types. Fairbairn has a book on „Typology” but not so good
a book as Frey’s.
I am going to call your attention to a thought that you will
find nowhere else in the world. You remember that scapegoat
on the great day of atonement that was to be given to Azazel
and to pass under the power of the evil spirit. So Jesus on the
cross passed under the power of the evil spirit. Now, that
type is here. This serpent represents Jesus lifted up on the
cross and though the serpent bit him, he crushed the serpent’s
head.
When they get to Amah, 21:13, here you find the reference
to that old book. „The Wars of Jehovah.” „From thence they

Journeyed to Beer.” That is a very dry place. When God told Moses to supply the people with water, the princes digged in the ground with their staves and a fresh spring bubbled out. They come up now even with the mouth of the Jordan. Moses stands on the top of Mount Nebo and looks over the Promised Land.
Moses sent a messenger to the Amorites and they despised
the messenger and prepared for war. But they are conquered
and their country taken. Then they come to Bashan. Deuteron-omy tells us how big Og, the king of the country, was. Counting a cubit as a foot and a half, his iron bedstead was thirteen and a half feet long, and I could easily lie down upon it full_length crosswise.
That finishes this section. What is left of the book is to pick up some incidents that occurred, particularly the incident of Balaam.

QUESTIONS
1. The period of wandering – How long, their relation to the cove_
nant, their worship, the Levites, God’s mercies to them during this
period and why?
2. When did they assemble back at Kadesh_barnea?
3. What noted person dies here?
4. What sin was committed here by the new generation and God’s
provision for their need?
5. Collate the scriptures on the sin of Moses and give the character
of his sin.
6. Give account of the attack on Israel by the Canaanites; their doom
7. What effort did Moses make to go a direct route to the Jordan?
8. Trace their journey from Kadesh_barnea to Mount Hor. What
noted person dies here, and who takes his place?
9. What is Israel’s next sin? The punishment? What New Testa_
ment reference to the Brazen Serpent? In what particular is the
Brazen Serpent a type of Christ?
10. What books commended on Old Testament types?
11. What lost book is here quoted from?
12. Recite the incident of the Well and the Song.
13. Give an account of the fall of Sihon and another song.
14. Give an account of the fall of Bashan.

VIII
BALAAM: HIS IMPORTANT PROPHECIES, HIS
CHARACTER, AND HIS BIBLE HISTORY

Numbers 32_24; SI._8, 16; Deuteronomy 23:4_5; Joshua 13:22; 84:9_10; Micah 6:5; Nehemiah 13:2; Jude II;
2 Peter 2:15; Revelation 2:14

These scriptures give you a clue to both Balaam’s history
and character: Numbers 22_24; 31:8, and especially 31:16;
Deuteronomy 23:4_5; Joshua 13:22; 24:9_10; Micah 6:5;
Nehemiah 13:2; Jude II; 2 Peter 2:15; and, most important
of all, Revelation 2:14. Anybody who attempts to discuss
Balaam ought to be familiar with every one of these scrip_
tures.
Who was Balaam? He was a descendant of Abraham, as
much as the Israelites were. He was a Midianite and his home
was near where the kinsmen of Abraham, Nahor and Laban,
lived. They possessed from the days of Abraham a very
considerable knowledge of the true God. He was not only a
descendant of Abraham and possessed the knowledge of the
true God through traditions handed down, as in the case of
Job and Melchizedek, but he was a prophet of Jehovah. That
is confirmed over and over again. Unfortunately he was also
a soothsayer and a diviner, adding that himself to his pro_
phetic office for the purpose of making money. People always
approach soothsayers with fees.
His knowledge of the movements of the children of Israel
could easily have been obtained and the book of Exodus ex_
pressly tells that that knowledge was diffused over the whole
country. Such a poem as Jacob’s dying blessing on his chil_
dren would circulate all over the Semitic tribes, and such an
administration as that of Joseph would become known over

all the whole world, such displays of power as the miracles in
Egypt, the deliverance at the Red Sea and the giving of the
law right contiguous to the territory of Balaam’s nation make
it possible for him to learn all these mighty particulars.
It is a great mistake to say that God held communication
only with the descendants of Abraham. We see how he in_
fluenced people in Job’s time and how he influenced Mel_
chizedek, and there is one remarkable declaration made in one
of the prophets that I have not time to discuss, though I ex_
pect to preach a sermon on it some day, in which God claims
that he not only brought Israel out of Egypt but the Philis_
tines out of Caphtor and all peoples from the places they
occupied (Amos 9:7). We are apt to get a very narrow view
of God’s government of the human race when we attempt to
confine it to the Jews only.
Next, we want to consider the sin of Balaam. First, it was
from start to finish a sin against knowledge. He had great
knowledge of Jehovah. It was a sin against revelation and a
very vile sin in that it proceeded from his greed for money,
loving the wages of unrighteousness. His sin reached its climax
after he had failed to move Jehovah by divinations, and it
was clear that Jehovah was determined to bless these people,
when for a price paid in his hand. be vilely suggested a means
by which the people could be turned from God and brought to
punishment. That was about as iniquitous a thing as the
purchase of the ballots in the late prohibition election in Waco,
for the wages of unrighteousness. His counsel was (31:16)
to seduce the people of Israel by bringing the Moabitish and
Midianite evil women to tempt and get them through their
lusts to attend idolatrous feasts.
In getting at the character of this man, we have fortunately
some exceedingly valuable sermon literature. The greatest
preachers of modern times have preached on Balaam, and in
the cross lights of their sermons every young preacher ought
to inform himself thoroughly on Balaam. The most famous
one for quite a while was Bishop Butler’s sermon. When I
was a boy, everybody read that sermon, and, as I recall it,
the object was to show the self_deception which persuaded
Balaam in every case that the sin he committed could be
brought within the rules of conscience and revelation, so that
he could say something at every point to show that he stood
right, while all the time he was going wrong.
Then the great sermon by Cardinal Newman: „The dark
shadow cast over a noble course by standing always on the
ladder of advancement and by the suspense of a worldly am_
bition never satisfied.” He saw in Balaam one of the most
remarkable men of the world, high up on the ladder and the
way to the top perfectly open but shaded by the dark shadow
of his sin. Then Dr. Arnold’s sermon on Balaam, as I recall,
the substance being the strange combination of the purest
form of religious belief with action immeasurably below it.
Next the great sermon by Spurgeon with seven texts. He takes
the words in the Bible, „I have sinned,” and Balaam is one of
the seven men he discusses. Spurgeon preached Balaam as a
double_minded man. He could see the right and yet his lower
nature turned him constantly away from it, a struggle between
the lower and higher nature. These four men were the great_
est preachers in the world since Paul. I may modestly call
attention to my own sermon on Balaam; that Balaam was not
a double_minded man; that from the beginning this man had
but one real mind, and that was greed and power, and he
simply used the religious light as a stalking horse. No rebuff
could stop him long. God might say, „You shall not go,” and
he would say, „Lord, hear me again and let me go.” He might
start and an angel would meet him and he might hear the re_
buke of the dumb brute but he would still seek a way to bring
about evil. I never saw a man with a mind more single than
Balaam.
I want you to read about him in Keble’s „Christian Year.”
Keble conceives of Balaam as standing on the top of a moun_
tain that looked over all those countries he is going to proph_
esy about and used this language:
0 for a sculptor’s hand,
That thou might’st take thy stand
Thy wild hair floating in the eastern breeze,
Thy tranc’d yet open gaze
Fix’d on the desert haze,
As one who deep in heaven some airy pageant aeea.
In outline dim and vast
Their fearful shadows cast
The giant forms of empires on their way
To ruin: one by one
They tower and they are gone,
Yet in the Prophet’s soul the dreams of avarice stay.
That is a grand conception. If he just had the marble im_
age of a man of that kind, before whose eyes, from his lofty
mountain pedestal were sweeping the pageants of mighty em_
pires and yet in whose eyes always stayed the dreams of
avarice. The following has been sculptured on a rock:
No sun or star so bright
In all the world of light
That they should draw to Heaven his downward eye:
He hears th’ Almighty’s word,
He sees the Angel’s sword,
Yet low upon the earth his heart and treasure lie.
That comes nearer giving a true picture of Balaam. That
shows you a man so earth bound in his heart’s desire, looking
at low things and grovelling that no sun or star could lift his
eye toward heaven. Not even God Almighty’s word could
make him look up, without coercion of the human will.
Now, you are to understand that the first two prophecies of
Balaam came to him when he was trying to work divinations
on God. In those two he obeys as mechanically as a hypno_
tized person obeys the will of the hypnotist. He simply
speaks under the coercive power of God. In these first two
prophecies God tells him what to say, as if a mightier hand
than his had dipped the pen in ink and moved his hand to

write those lines.
At the end of the second one when he saw no divination
could possibly avail against those people, the other prophecies
came from the fact that the Spirit of the Lord comes on him
just like the Spirit came on Saul, the king of Israel, and he
prophesied as a really inspired man. In the first prophecy he
shows, first, a people that God has blessed and will not curse;
second, he is made to say, „Let me die the death of the right_
eous and let my, last end – at death and judgment – be like
his.” That shows God’s revelation to that people. The second
prophecy shows why that is so: „God is not a man that he
should repent.” „It is not worth while to work any divination.
He has marked out the future of this nation.” Second, why
is it that he will not regard iniquity in Jacob? For the pur_
pose he has in veiw he will not impute their trespasses to them.
The prophecy stops with this thought, that when you look
at what this people have done and will do, you are not to say,
„What Moses did, nor Joshua did, nor David,” but you are
to say, „What God hath wrought!”
The first time I ever heard Dr. Burleson address young
preachers, and I was not even a Christian myself, he took
that for his text. He commenced by saying, „That is a great
theme for a preacher. Evidently these Jews had not accom_
plished all those things. They were continually rebelling and
wanting to go back, and yet you see them come out of Egypt,
cross the Sea, come to Sinai, organized, fed, clothed, the sun
kept off by day and darkness by night, marvellous victories
accomplished and you are to say, ‘What God hath wrought!’ ”
When the spiritual power comes on him he begins to look
beyond anything he has ever done yet, to messianic days.
There are few prophecies in the Bible more far_reaching than
this last prophecy of Balaam. When he says of the Messiah,
„I shall see him but not now,” it is a long way off. „My case
is gone, but verily a star” – the symbol of the star and sceptre
carried out the thought of the power of the Messiah. So much
did that prophecy impress the world that those Wise Men
who came right from Balaam’s country when Jesus was born,
remember this prophecy: „We have seen his star in the east
and have come to worship him.”
He then looks all around and there are the nations before
him from that mountain top, and he prophesies about Moab
and Amaiek and passes on beyond, approaching even to look
to nations yet unborn. He looks to the Grecian Empire aris_
ing far away in the future, further than anybody but Daniel.
He sees the ships of the Grecians coming and the destruction
of Asshur and the destruction of Eber, his own people. Then
we come to the antitypical references later.
If you want a comparison of this man, take Simon Magus
who wanted to purchase the power of the Holy Spirit so as to
make money. That is even better than Judas, though Judas
comes in. Judas had knowledge, was inspired, worked mir_
acles, and yet Judas never saw the true kingdom of God in
the spirit of holiness, and because he could not bring about
the kingdom of which he would be treasurer for fifteen dollars
he sold the Lord Jesus Christ. Those are the principal thoughts
I wanted to add.

QUESTIONS
1. Who was Balaam?
2. How did he obtain his knowledge of God7
3. What was the sin of Balaam?
4. What was the climax of his sin?
5. What five sermons on Balaam are referred to? Give the line
of thought in each.
6. Give Keble’s conception of Balaam.
7. What was the testimony sculptured on a rock?
8. Now give your own estimate of the character of Balaam.
9. How do you account for the first two prophecies?
10. How do you account for the other two?
11. In the first prophecy what does he show, what is he made to
say and what does that show?
12. Give a brief analysis of the second prophecy.
13. Of what does the third prophecy consist?
14. Give the items of the fourth prophecy.
15. HOT did his messianic prophecy impress the world?
16. When was this prophecy concerning Amalek fulfilled?
Ana. In the days of Saul. (I Sam. 15).
17. Who was Asshur and what was his relation to the Kenites?
18. What reference here to the Grecians?
19. Who was Eber?
20. With what two New Testament characters may we compare

IX
ISRAEL’S SIN AND PHINEHAS’ ACT OF RIGHTEOUS_
NESS, AND OTHER THINGS
Numbers 25_36

The twenty_fifth chapter of Numbers on many accounts is
one of the most remarkable chapters of the Old Testament.
In its notable character it is equal to the chapters on Balaam.
Here are the children of the Promised Land with their pil_
grimage ended. They have reached the banks of the Jordan.
They are encamped there just over against Jericho. Nothing
to do but go over and possess the land when God tells them.
Just at this time Balak, the king of Moab, brings Balaam to
curse them by divinations. Having failed in that, he makes
the horrible suggestion that the Moabitish and Midianitish
women be used as instrumentalities to cause Israel to sin and
go into idolatry. Among the women mentioned was a princess,
daughter of one of the five kings of Midian. They did what
they did under the prompting of their religious instruction and
they succeeded.
Very many of the people were seduced from their allegiance
to God and not only sinned in a bodily respect but sinned in
idolatrous worship and the heads of the people did not inter_
fere to stop it. A plague went out from God on account of it.
Moses, discovering the fearful demoralization of the people,
gives the commandment that all the heads of the tribes shall
be hanged up, either for active participation in this matter
or for not using their authority to repress this very great dis_
loyalty to God. It is as when a regiment has rebelled through
connivance of its officers. There is the responsibility of lead_
ership in a case of this kind and in military matters any officer,
no matter bow high his grade, who would stand idle and see

his troops go into rebellion without an effort to stay it, would
be shot by the most summary process of court martial.
So Moses commands the leaders to be killed and hung up
in the sight of the people. Whoever was hanged on a tree was
accursed. Having disposed of the chiefs, he ordered the judges
ùyou remember when two sets of seventy were appointed to
help Moses in administrative and judicial affairsùto put to
death every man who had committed a sin in that way. But
the plague did not stop, though the chiefs of the nation were
hanging on a tree, all the judges punishing every man with
death, all the people weeping before the tabernacle. „But
drops of grief can ne’er repay the debt of love I owe.”
Just at this time a son of one of the princes of the tribes
comes openly into the camp with a princess of one of the five
kings of Midian, in the sight of Moses and Eleazar; in sight
of the weeping people; in full view of the dead hanging up
and others dying, and brings his irreligious debauchery right
into the very presence of God. Whereupon Phinehas, son of
Eleazar, without command from anyone, without being espe_
cially appointed officer, in his holy wrath for God’s sake and
bearing in his heart that indignation against sin that God
bears, and God says of him, „Having my zeal,” takes a spear
and goes into the tent and thrusts both of them through and
kills them.
The most remarkable part of the transaction is in what God
says. He uses language just like he uses when he said Abra_
ham believed in Jehovah and it was counted to him for right_
eousness. As Abraham’s faith was counted to him for right_
eousness, the zeal of Phinehas so perfectly expressed God’s
wrath against sin that it is reckoned unto him for eternal
righteousness.
But that is not the strangest part of it, but that this display
through Phinehas of the wrath of God against sin made an
atonement for his sin. You strike a use of the word „atone_
ment” there which stalls the commentators and theological

seminary professors. Offhand I am going to give you my
explanation of it. It is the most remarkable scripture in the
Bible. Surely atonement for sin cannot be made which does
not placate the wrath of God against sin.
A good many sentimentalist preachers tell you that the sole
object of Christ’s work was to reconcile men to God, that God
was already reconciled and did not have to be placated. This
scripture is unquestionably the strongest in the Bible to show
that Christ’s sacrifice was both toward God and toward men,
toward God in that the sinner’s bodily and spiritual death for
sin took place and otherwise there could have been no atone_
ment. Hence Phinehas, in a very high sense, is a type of the
Lord Jesus Christ. The everlasting priesthood is promised to
him. The covenant of peace is promised to him.
When we come to the study of the life of our Lord Jesus
Christ, we will see an expression in the casting out of the
money_changers from the temple, where Jesus takes a scourge
and scourges out of God’s house those who are defiling that
house, whereupon it is stated that the scripture was fulfilled,
„The zeal for thy house shall eat me up.” Such a shame against
the sanctity of that house must be punished or it can never be
forgiven. There must be a penal sanction to law. We see it
repeated again when he comes to cleanse the temple the second
time, and then when he comes to die that death of the cross,
under the wrath of God, forsaken of the Father, unsaved from
the sword of divine justice, unsaved from the lion, Satan, who
goeth about to devour, unsaved from the bite of the serpent,
that is, to placate by expiation the death penalty of sin. Now,
Phinehas could in a typical way represent that.
What was the use for these people to come there and weep
before the tabernacle with such an impious, presumptuous,
daring sin committed right in the presence of God and nobody
rebuking it? It wouldn’t do simply to hang a few of the
officers. It wouldn’t do for the judges to put one or two, here
and there, to death. There had to be some signal, sudden,
utter display of divine wrath and that was furnished by Phine_
has. If Phinehas had had a motive that was not exactly corre_
spondent to God’s idea of wrath against sin, he would have
been a murderer.
The only trouble about it is that men began to imagine
long afterwards that they stood in the place of Phinehas and
could kill those whom they thought to be violators of the law,
and with inferior motives and without an express sanction of
God, they committed sin. The case of Phinehas in that respect
stands alone. Samuel, when he hacked to pieces the king,
David when he said that the seven sons of Saul must be
hanged on a tree to make atonement, represent somewhat the
idea But it is not said with reference to them that it was
imputed to them for righteousness.
In the case of Jesus, instead of striking the sinner that com_
mitted the sin, Jesus let God strike him after the sinner’s sins
had been put on him. „Save me from the sword; save me from
the lion. If it be possible let this cup pass from me, but never_
theless, not my will but thine be done. My God! My God!
Why hast thou forsaken me?” There never could have been
any forgiveness of sin that was not based upon a penal sanc_
tion. The justice of God must be vindicated in some way.
People will tell you that you are not punished because you
have sinned but to keep other people from sinning. But
sin is demerit and merits death. „The wages of sin is death.”
And that death must come to the sinner himself, or it must
come to the one upon whom his transgressions have been laid.
See Psalm 106:28_31.
We turn now to chapters 26_27 and include with them chap_
ter 36. In this case you have the second numbering of the
people. They are just ready to enter the Holy Land, and
with the exception of the death of Moses, which came as a
result of another principle, there is fulfilled the death threat_
ened to all the grown men that came out of Egypt. This great
sin committed on the banks of the Jordan was by the new
generation and 24,000 of them perished in the plague. They
did not number quite so many as in the first enumeration;
then 603,550, now only 601,730. The only thing worthy of
mention you can do for yourself. Take the numbers for each
tribe as given in the two enumerations and put them down
opposite each other. Some you will find have increased. The
tribe of Simeon with others has fearfully decreased. You
have the reason, viz.: this tribe suffered more than any other
in this plague.
This enumeration is not merely for war, but the basis of the
land allotment. The tribe which has the most men will get
the most land. The daughters of a certain man who died
want to know if their name is to perish in Israel and they
are to be without inheritance. They are to have their father’s
inheritance, and in chapter 36 it shows how to safeguard the
father’s part of the inheritance to the tribe, by permitting
them to marry only in their own tribe.
In this chapter is the announcement to Moses that on ac_
count of his sin he is to die. He asks that a successor be ap_
pointed and Joshua is appointed. We come to the chapters
28_29, which are upon one point unlike any other chapters.
While they refer to a great many things in the previous books
of Exodus and Leviticus, there is nothing like those two chap_
ters anywhere else. They commence at the beginning of the
year and show what offerings are to be made day by day, week
by week, moon by moon, year by year, seventh year by
seventh year, and Jubilee by Jubilee. These chapters consti_
tute the basis of the poem of Keble, „The Christian Year,” as
it is called by the Episcopalians, derived from the Old Testa_
ment, a matter that Paul condemns thus in the letter to the
Colossians: „Ye observe months, days, weeks, seasons; touch
not, taste not, handle not.” God nailed all that system to
the cross of Christ.
The only thought in chapter 30 that needs to be dwelt on is
the bringing up of the vow question again. If a daughter makes

a vow before she has attained to full age, it cannot be exacted
of her, if her father does not sanction it. A wife cannot make
a vow without her husband’s sanction. This chapter discusses
the principle upon which the exceptions are made, and you can
read it.
Chapter 31 is devoted to the war against Midian. God com_
manded Moses to make a holy war against Midian, who, act_
ing on the suggestion of Balaam, had through their chief
women brought about this great sin, when Israel had com_
mitted no provocation. This war is unlike other wars because
of the number. Only 1,000 men from each tribe, or 12,000,
are sent out to conduct the war. A priest, not a general,
commands them. They suffer no loss. The destruction wrought
is God’s destruction. God has condemned Midian for their
awful sin and they are smitten. The spoils of the war are
devoted to God because it was God’s war, not man’s. Every_
body that looks at it will say that it was God’s war.
As they were encamped by the Jordan and ready to pass
over, it was intensely important that they leave the rear safe.
Midian is smitten clear to the Euphrates. Sihon and Og had
been destroyed and Moab and Ammon and Edom are incapable of war. A vast portion of territory lying on the east of the Jordan is captured. That brings us to chapter 32. This captured land is the best pasturage in the whole country; two tribes and a half express the desire that they be allotted that eastern portion. Moses is very indignant because he understands that they mean this, that while the whole nation has captured this territory these tribes propose to stay over here and leave the other tribes to capture the remainder of the country. But they explain that they simply wanted to safeguard their women and children and villages and send their army on across the Jordan to fight with the others. So the allotment is made to Reuben, Gad, and one_half of the tribe of Manasseh.
In chapter 33 there is only one thing to which your attention
needs to be called. That chapter is devoted to the whole

itinerary from Egypt to the Jordan. God tells Moses to im_
press one fact upon the minds of the people: „No terms can
be made with these inhabitants of the land, for the territory
was originally yours when the division was made in the days
of Peleg, after the flood. But they took possession of the
country.” God has not cast them out because their iniquity
was not full. But their iniquity is full now and they are going
to be cast out and „you are the executors of the divine will and
if you leave corners around I give you warning that they will
be thorns in your side forever. When you make war they will
rise up in your rear. When you relax in watchfulness, they
will lead you into sin.”
I preached a sermon on that once, in which I took the mat_
ter spiritually thus: Take a Christian who is regenerated, but
he stops trying to expel the old inhabitants. He says, „I am
all right if I am a Christian. That is enough.” He does not
continue his war against the sinful nature. A large part of
him he does not seek to bring under subjection through sanc_
tification. Then he is going to have a thorn in the flesh. Say
you take an occasional spree. Whenever you quit making a
fight on the lower nature, you are going to be badly fooled. By
careful analysis anyone can find out his weak point. Woe to
the man who does not make war on that besetting sin. I do
not say he will be lost in hell, but he will get some hard falls
and be badly hurt.
Chapter 34 is devoted to a description of the border. You
can take a map and trace it out. No particular skill is re_
quired.
Chapter 35 is devoted to two points well worthy of special
study. It is a provision for the forty_eight Levite cities who
were to have no part of the land for an inheritance, and also
for the six cities of refuge; three east of the Jordan and three
west. You ought carefully to note the purpose of these cities
of refuge and how the roads are to be kept open.

QUESTIONS
1. Having failed to turn Jehovah against Israel by divination, how
did Balaam turn Israel against Jehovah?
2. What penalty did Jehovah visit upon them and how many
died?
3. What two efforts were made to stay the plague and the results?
4. What act of presumption was committed just at this time, the
act of Phinehas and the result?
5. Expound the remarkable reference to Phinehas and particularly
bring out the atonement idea in connection with his zeal.
6. Give result of second census. How many tribes had fewer than
at first? Why the great difference in the tribe of Simeon?
7. What question came up respecting Zelophehad’s daughters and
how settled?
8. Give the law of inheritance in Israel.
9. What announcement here made to Moses and his request?
10. What specially qualified Joshua for this place?
11. Describe the ceremony of the appointment and what the sig_
nification of the laying on of hands?
12. Try your hand on forming the calendar for the Jewish Holy
Year.
13_What exceptions here to the law of vows previously given?
14. The war against Midian – the character of it, why made, how
unlike other wars and what was done with the spoils?
15. Give an account of the settlement of the territory east of the
Jordan.
16. What terms were they to make with the inhabitants of the
land?
17. What was the penalty for violating this command?
18. What right did the Israelites have thus to deal with the inhabitants?
19. Apply the case of these people in their new relation to the in_
dividual Christian.
20. Bound the Land of Canaan as promised to Israel. (See Atlas.)
21. What provision was made for the Levites in the land?
22. How many cities of refuge? Name and locate them. What
was their purpose?

X
THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY
GENERAL INTRODUCTION

In no other book in the Bible can you find such examples
and such a model of religious oratory as in the book of Deu_
teronomy. The preacher whose heart cannot be fired by a
study of the book of Deuteronomy has no heart to be fired.
Our theme for this study is a general introduction to the book
of Deuteronomy. In a primary sense Deuteronomy is the
closing division of the Pentateuch. The Pentateuch must be
considered as one continuous book, artificially divided into the
parts that we now have. Each foregoing division demands
all subsequent ones and each subsequent one presupposes all
the foregoing ones. The unity of the Pentateuch is as marked
as the unity of the human body.
In literary form Deuteronomy is distinguished sharply from
all preceding divisions. Genesis is generally narrative; Exo_
dus is narrative and legislation; Leviticus is legislation; Num_
bers is generally narrative, but Deuteronomy consists almost
altogether of orations and poems, and is throughout expository
and hortatory. In the other books of the Pentateuch we had
the historians and legislators, but here we have the prophet,
the orator and the poet, and this fact sufficiently accounts for
the difference in style and method and largely governs the
interpretation. It is further distinguished from Leviticus in
that Leviticus is restricted to a single tribe and treats of re_
ligious service only in its priests, sacrifices, types, holy days
and rituals, but Deuteronomy is addressed to the nation as
a unit, touching civic righteousness and national life arising
from the peculiar relations of the people of Jehovah.
In a good sense Leviticus with Exodus 25_40 may be called
the priest’s code, while Deuteronomy with Exodus 19_23 may
be called the people’s code. But we would be void of literary
and spiritual sense in attempting to deduce from this fact
different authors or widely separated dates of composition for
the two codes. Deuteronomy as well as all subsequent history
presupposes the antecedent Leviticus. Anybody may find it
a profitable study to trace in Deuteronomy its historical de_
pendence upon each one of the foregoing divisions of the Pen_
tateuch. I certainly found that to be a profitable study. Look
through the book of Deuteronomy to find how much of it is
dependent upon the history contained in Genesis, how much
of it is dependent upon the history contained in Exodus, how
much of it is dependent upon the legislation contained in the
book of Numbers. This is one of the best ways to prove the
relation of this book to the other books. Any intelligent stu_
dent who has a copy of my chronological analysis of Numbers,
which furnishes indissoluble links binding Exodus, Leviticus
and Deuteronomy together, will have an advantage in this line
of study.
Now we come to the title of this book. It has four Jewish
titles. First, in the Hebrew canon, there is the name debarim.
In my Jewish Bible this is at the head of the book of Deuter_
onomy. It simply means the words, or these be the words.
The second Jewish name is the fifth of the fifths of the law,
that is, the fifth part of the five divisions of the law. Its third
Jewish name is the book of reproofs, because there are so
many admonitions in it. The fourth Jewish name given by
certain ra.bbis is the iteration of the law. These are the four
Jewish names in the book of Deuteronomy.
The Greek – the Septuagint and other Greek versions – fol_
low the fourth Jewish title, styling the book Deuteronomion,
or the second giving of the Law.
The Latin – the Vulgate – merely Latinizes the Greek, so
that we have Deuteronomium. The English versions merely
Anglicize the Greek and Latin so that we have Deuteronomy.
So the name of this book as we have it now came from the

fourth Jewish name, iteration of the Law. And it is supposed
that they got the name from the phrase, „A copy of this law”
(17:18). If they got it there, they misinterpret the phrase,
which simply means and refers to the whole Pentateuch. Thus
from a misunderstanding of the phrase in 17:18, we derive
our name of the book. This name „Deuteronomy” is, in some
sense, misleading, because the book does not recapitulate all
preceding law; it leaves out many important sections, and it
enlarges the previous law by necessary supplementary
statutes; hence to call it, a second giving of the Law, is a
misnomer.
The orator, while recognizing all past law and history as a
basis for his exhortations, simply recites so much of that law
and history as meets his purpose and then enacts such addi_
tional legislation as was necessary to their becoming occupants
of the Promised Land, all of this to be the basis of exhortation
and prophecy. You will recall that when we were studying
what is called „The Book of the Covenant” (Ex. 19_23),
that is) the Covenant of Sinai) it was clearly explained
that this covenant was divided into three distinct parts: first,
the Decalogue, the ten words of the moral law; second, the
civil and criminal statutes necessary for national life; and
third, the altar, or the way of approach to God. All the sub_
sequent part of the Pentateuch is but a development of that
covenant; for instance, the book of Deuteronomy is simply a
development of the first two sections, that is, the Decalogue
and the civil and criminal statutes of national life. The
original book of the covenant as set forth in Exodus 10_23
may be called the constitution and the rest derivative legisla_
tion from the_constitution. Deuteronomy looks back, I say,
mainly to the first two sections, the Decalogue and the civil
and criminal statutes, and it is a development from them. So
much for the name.
Now we come to the scene where the discussion took place.
I wonder if you could locate the scene of the book, with the
book before you. Would you not be misled by the first two
verses which are retrospective and give the scenes of Num_
bers? My answer to the question of the scene is simply this:
the plains of Moab, east of the Jordan, opposite Jericho.
Next is the time covered by the book. What time does the
book cover? Note these scriptures: Deuteronomy 1:3, which
says, „And it came to pass in the fortieth year” (that is of
the exodus), „in the eleventh month, on the first day of the
month, that Moses spake unto the children of Israel.” Now,
this is the beginning date. Turn to Joshua 4:19. That says
they crossed the Jordan on the tenth day of the new year, so
that between the beginning of Deuteronomy and the crossing
of the Jordan, there were two months plus ten days, or seven_
ty days. You have now two distinct elements that will help
you to fix the time. Your next scripture is Deuteronomy 34:8,
which says that thirty days Israel mourned the death of
Moses; thirty from seventy leaves forty. You have not the
date yet. Now, by looking at Joshua 1:11, and 3:2, you will
find that you must subtract three more days, so this leaves for
the book of Deuteronomy just thirty_seven days. You are to
understand that, with the exception of the last chapter, which
was written by Joshua after Moses died, connecting it with
the book of Joshua, the thirty_three chapters of Deuteronomy
cover what occurred in the last month of the life of Moses.
You may say that in that last month there were seven speeches
to be made and a little history to be enacted.
We next come to the occasion of the book of Deuteronomy:
The first element is, they had completed their wanderings
and had arrived at the very place on the Jordan where they
were to cross over into the Promised Land. You remember
that thirty_eight years before this they had gotten to the edge
of the Promised Land, at Kadesh_barnea, in the southern part
of what is now Judea. Now they are back to the borders of
the Promised Land, but at a different place. That is the first
element of the occasion. They are now about to go over into
the Promised Land, and whatever speeches are made and
whatever poems are recited are bound to bear on the occasion.
The second element of the occasion ia that all territory of
the Promised Land east of the Jordan River, what was later
called Perea, had just been conquered from Sihon, the Amorite
king, Og, king of Bashan, and the Midianites, and divided
among two tribes and a half_tribe, so that part of the Prom_
ised Land, all east of the Jordan, is in possession.
The third element is that they are now to install a successor
to Moses, their wonderful leader of the past forty years, who
no doubt considered himself as their deliverer for the last
eighty years. The marvelous hero of the past is to die and
not to go with them over into the Promised Land. We are to
consider, then, the speeches and poems of a man who knows
that he is to live but one month. They are, therefore, the fare_
well words of a dying man.
The next element of the occasion is that before Moses died
he wanted them to renew the covenant with God. You re_
member the covenant at Sinai had been broken when they
worshiped the golden calf. You remember it had been broken
at Kadesh_bamea and for thirty_eight years had been, in a
measure, suspended. They did not worship God nor circum_
cise their children, but now as the children of men who per_
ished in the wilderness, they are about to go into possession
of the Promised Land, it is necessary for them to renew the
covenant of the people, with exhortations based thereon.
The last element of the occasion is that they must be made
to understand the covenant. Hence the expository character
of the book.
See if you can group in your mind the elements of the oc_
casion of the book of Deuteronomy: first, travels completed;
second, all east of the Jordan has been captured and occupied;
third, a successor to their leader must be appointed and Mosea
must bid farewell; fourth, they are now to cross the last
boundary that intervenes between them and the Promised

Land; fifth, it is necessary to renew the covenant intelligently;
sixth, it is necessary to understand it. So I think that con_
stitutes the occasion of the book.
Now, the purpose of the book you can guess from the occa_
sion. In general, the purpose is to magnify their relation to Je-hovah and to commit the people to obedience. If ever a speaker on earth had a definite purpose in his mind, it was Moses in delivering these speeches which we call Deuteronomy.
Next, what is Deuteronomy? This is a great question. I
have already shown you that it is not merely a recapitulation
of laws. Rather it is an inspired and authoritative commen_
tary on past law and history, with exhortations based upon
that law and history. This is the first thing it is. The book of
Deuteronomy is an inspired, authoritative commentary on, or
an exposition of, the past laws and history of the people, with
exhortations based thereon. Second, it consists of prophecies
concerning the future, with exhortations thereon. Some of the
most remarkable prophecies in the world are in the book of
Deuteronomy. Third, it consists of rewards promised to obe_
dience and punishments denounced upon disobedience. Now,
that is what Deuteronomy is.
The historical elements of the book of Deuteronomy are
merely connecting links to hold the addresses and poems to_
gether. There is very little forward history in the book, how_
ever much he recited past history. This history is to be found
in 1:1_5; 4:44_49; most of chapter 31; 32:44_52; 34. These
are the historical elements of the book.
The Prophetic Elements. – „Prophet” in the Old Testament
means both teacher and foreteller, but when I say prophecies
of this book, I do not refer to the teachings, but to the fore_
tellings, where Moses has the veil which hides the future from
view pulled away so that he could look almost to the end of
time. There is one messianic prophecy of tremendous signi_
fication in chapter 18 where he says, „Jehovah thy God will
raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee, of thy
brethren, like unto me . . . and it shall come to pass that who_
soever shall not heed that prophet shall be cut off from his
people.” You recall the scene on the Mount of Transfigura_
tion, where Peter said, „Let us make three tents, one for thee,
one for Moses and one for Elias,” with God’s reply, „Hear ye
him.” Whosoever shall not hear that prophet shall be cut off
from his people.
From chapter 28 to the end of the thirty_third, there are
most wonderful prophecies concerning the future of the Jewish
people. If he had been present and an eyewitness of the future
destruction of Jerusalem, he could not have more vividly
depicted the fact. Now, Josephus witnessed it and describes
a part of it, but Moses describes it more faithfully than the
eyewitness does. Then he tells of some things not yet ful_
filled, viz.: the restoration of the Jews, and it certainly teaches
the ingathering of the Gentiles. So you see what you have
before you in this book.
Now we come to the next question – Who is the author of
Deuteronomy? To put it plainly, nobody else but Moses,
since Adam was created until now, could have been the author
of the thirty_three chapters. Let the higher critics say what
they please, that man is void of both literary and spiritual
sense who makes any other man the author of this book. He
may be a scholar, a bookscholar, but he is emphatically a fool
as to literary and spiritual sense. Deuteronomy, as it is
treated in the „Expositor’s Bible” by one of the higher critics,
is both a poison and a shame. The Bible Commentary on the
introduction to Deuteronomy gives this fair sample of the
value of radical criticism: „In truth no more convincing evi_
dence could be afforded that the method of criticism in ques_
tion is untrustworthy than the results of its application to
Deuteronomy. The older scholars, Gesenius, de Wette, Ewald,
Bleek, etc., unhesitatingly_affirm that Deuteronomy was writ_
ten long after the rest of the Pentateuch was extant in ita
present shape. The newer school sees no less certainty in Deu_
teronomy the primeval quarry out of which the writers con_
cerned in the production of the preceding books draw their
materials.” Some of the higher critics say it is here, others
it is there. Now that finishes my discussion on the introduc_
tion of the book of Deuteronomy.

QUESTIONS
1. For what is the book of Deuteronomy especially valuable?
2. What it its relation to the other books of the Pentateuch?
3. Distinguish its literary form from that of the preceding books.
4. How do you account for the difference in style and method of
Deuteronomy from the other books of the Pentateuch?
5. How is it further distinguished from Leviticus?
6. What constitutes the priest’s code? The people’s code?
7. Does this fact justify the claim for different authors and dates
for these codes?
8. Trace in Deuteronomy the historical dependence of the book
upon each of the preceding divisions of the Pentateuch.
9. What the Jewish titles and how derived?
10. What the Greek title and how derived?
11. What the Latin title and how derived?
12. What the English name and how derived?
13. How does the English name, Deuteronomy, fit the book and why?
14. Deuteronomy ia a development of what part of the Sinaitic
covenant?
15. What the scene of the book?
16. What the time covered by the book, and how obtained?
17. What the elements of the occasion of the book?
18. What its purpose?
19. What is Deuteronomy?
20. Locate its historic, prophetic and poetic parts.
21. What are some of its most remarkable prophecies?
22. Who the author, and why?
23. Give a fair sample of the value of radical criticism.

XI
THE ANALYSIS: SOME OBJECTIONS ANSWERED
Deuteronomy 1:1_5

ANALYSIS

I. Introduction, 1:1_5.
1. Retrospective connection with Numbers 1:1_2.
2. Time, place and circumstances of first address, 1:3_5.
3. Text fixing character of the book and meaning of the
Law, 1:5.
II. Appointment of three cities of refuge in territory east
of Jordan, 4:41_43.
III. First great oration, 1:6 to 4:40.
1. A review of national history from Sinai to Jordan, 1:6
to 3:29.
2. Exhortation thereon, 4:1_40.
IV. Second great oration, 4:44 to 24:19.
Part 1. Chapters 4:44toll:32.
(1) Introduction, 4:44_49.
(2) Rehearsal of the Decalogue, 5:1_21.
(3) Comment on the history, exposition and exhorta_
tion, 5:22 to 11:32.
Part 2. Chapters 12_26, various statutes and judgments
with comment, exposition, and exhortation.
V. Third great oration, chapters 27_28.
Part 1. Chapter 27, provision for renewal of covenant after
entering Canaan.
(1) Record of the law on monumental stones, 27:1_4
(2) Building of an altar after original model in Exo_
dus 20 and ratification by burnt offerings, 27:5_6.
(3) Peace offerings and joyous communion festivals,
27:7.
(4) Provision for announcement of result at the cove_
nant renewal, 27:9_10.
(5) Solemn and sublime arrangements for committing
the whole people to both blessings and curses of the law,
27:11_26.
Part 2. Chapter 28, exhortations based upon the directions
and prophecies of Part 1.
(1) Blessings of obedience. 28:1_14.
(2) Curses of disobedience. 28:15_68.
VI. Fourth great oration, chapters 29_30.
Part 1. Provision for present renewal of covenant oath, 29:
1_15.
(1) Introduction, historic recital. 29:1_9.
(2) Parties who take the oath. 29:10_15.
Part 2. Comment and exhortation, 29:16 to 30:20.
VII. Fifth great oration, 31:1_13.
1. His words to the people, 31:1_6.
2. His words to Joshua, 31:7_9.
3. Provision for instruction of the people at central place
of worship when established, in all the written law, every seventh year, 31:9_13.
VIII. Moses and Joshua before the Lord, 31:14_29.
1. Moses presents his successor before Jehovah, 31:14_15.
2. Jehovah instructs Moses to write and sing a song, and
why, 31:16_22.
3. Jehovah’s charge to Joshua, 31:23.
4. The Pentateuch completed and filed for preservation and
why, 31:24_29.
IX. The song, or Moses’ sixth address, 32:1_47.
1. The invocation, 32:1.
2. Its character, 32:2.
3. Its theme, 32:3_6.
4. Its argument, 32:7_33.
5. Its prophecy, 32:34_43.
6. Its exhortation, 32:44_47.

X. Jehovah’s final direction to Moses, 32:48_52.
1. View of the Promised Land, verses 48_49.
2. Prepare to die, verse 50.
3. Why not permitted to enter the Promised Land, verses
51_52.
XI. Prophetic blessings on the tribes, or seventh address of
Moses, chapter 33.
1. Introduction, 33:1_5.
2. Each tribe separately, Simeon omitted, why, 33:6_25.
3. The people as a unit, 33:26_29.
XII. Deuteronomy linked to the book of Joshua, 34.
1. Unique death and burial of Moses, 34:1_7.
2. Israel mourning for her departed hero, 34:8.
3. His successor, 34:9.
4. His place in history, 34:10_12.

Open your Bible and follow me carefully in noting some
things upon which the higher critics base some objections to
the integrity of the book. They allege first that there is a
contradiction between the first two verses of Deuteronomy
and the next three verses as to the place, or scene. Now, let
us read it: „These are the words which Moses spake unto all
Israel beyond the Jordan in the wilderness, in the Arabah over
against Suph, between Paran and Tophel, and Laban, and
Hazeroth, and Di_zahab.” Now these words refer to four or
five different localities. The third commences: „And it came
to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first
day of the month, that Moses spake unto the children of Israel,
. . . ” Now, they say that the first two verses locate the scene
in a number of places reaching clear back to the Red Sea.
That the following verses locate it opposite Jericho in the
plains of Moab, and, therefore, there is a contradiction.
Now note my answer. The first two verses in the book of
Deuteronomy are retrospective, merely establishing connec_
tion with the book of Numbers, just the closing of the book of
Numbers restated and the true commencement of Deuteron_
omy is the third verse. So if you turn to Genesis, you will
find that the last verses are about Jacob and all of his chil_
dren going into the land of Egypt. Then, when you look at
the beginning of Exodus, he commences by a restatement of
the closing of Genesis. „Now these are the names of the
sons of Israel, . . .” Now turn to 2 Chronicles 36:22: „Now
in the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia.” Now turn to Ezra
I, the book that follows it, and you will see it restates the clos_
ing of Chronicles. In other words, it is a habit where these
books are related to each other to show that relation by re_
stating in the beginning of the new book the ending of the
preceding. Therefore there is no contradiction between the
first two verses, which are merely retrospective and form a
connecting link with Numbers. The statement in the three
following verses that the scene of the book of Deuteronomy is
the plains of Moab is the first point, and the man that has a
studious mind ought to see that they ought not to make that
a ground of invidious criticism of the Word of God.
The second objection is based on the phrase, „beyond Jor_
dan.” Deuteronomy says, „These are the words that Moses
spake unto all Israel beyond Jordan.” They say that expres_
sion, „beyond Jordan,” means that a man wrote the book on
the west side of the Jordan. Now, in the New Testament where
it speaks of John baptizing beyond the Jordan, that means in
Perea, therefore they say that some man besides Moses wrote
this because Moses didn’t get on that side of the Jordan. You
see the point clearly.
The reply on this point is that this phrase was a geographi_
cal expression without any reference to position of the writer
or speaker fixed before the time of Moses and describes a sec_
tion of country like „The South Country.” no matter where
the speaker is with reference to the south country. And „the
land toward the great sea” means west of the Jordan, no mat_
ter whether the speaker himself is west of the Jordan or east
of it. It is a geographical expression, precisely so „Beyond
Jordan” was a phrase fixed in history and in geography be_
fore Moses wrote. He meant that section of the country east
of the Jordan River. Now, I hate to call your attention to
the little things. I dislike to speak of little things but must
if I speak of anything the higher critics claim.
The next is based on a number of parenthetical clauses in
the King James Version (1:2; 2:10_12, 20_23; 3:9, II) which
are claimed to be irrelevant to the matter in hand. Now you
see these parenthetical clauses. On these parentheses they
base an objection. They say they break the connection and
therefore must have been interpolations by a later writer.
This is their allegation.
Now, my reply is that every one of those parenthetical
references is intensely relevant to the matter in hand, and that
they very greatly accentuate the emphasis of the speaker.
Suppose we take them up in order. It was only eleven days’
march from Mount Sinai to Kadesh_barnea. Now, the fact
that it took them thirty_seven days for an eleven days’ march
shows that they committed some sin. He sharply rebuked
that sin, which delayed them. The next time the delay was
thirty_eight years on account of their sin. Now, it is very
important for Moses in making a speech, and a speech which
is to close with an exhortation, to call attention, parenthetical_
ly, to these facts, and in the second verse he states all the
places that he wants to emphasize. „You stopped there so long
ùhere, yonder.” You see now if that parenthetical statement
is not relevant to the matter he had in hand, there is no such
thing as relevancy.
Now, let us look at the next parenthetical clause (2:10_12,
20_23). Let us see what that is. The parenthesis reads this
way, „The Emim dwelt therein aforetime, . . .” „the
Horites also dwelt in Seir aforetime, but the children of Esau
succeeded them, . . .” Now, they say that this is evidently an
interpolation by a later writer. I reply that the ethnic refer_
ence to those joint nations is of the utmost importance and
bearing on the matter in hand. If those joint races had been
expelled from their former holdings by the Edomites, Amorites,
and Moabites, how little should Israel, led by the Almighty,
fear such adversaries. Their history demands just exactly
that reference. And let us notice the next parenthesis (2:9),
which reads, ‘”which Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion and
the Amorites called it Senir.” They say that these names are
given to Mount Sinai at a much later date, therefore the man
that wrote that must have lived at a much later date than
Moses lived. Now, the names given Mount Hermon are all
pertinent, and express historical facts well in the knowledge
of Moses, and helped to identify the mount. Moses called it
Mount Hermon) not Sinai. The Phoenicians gave it the name
of Sirion. Other people called it a different name. All of these
names were given before the time of Moses. They are just
mistaken in the fact that these names were given it at a later
period.
Now let us look at the next objection (3:11). It is the de_
scription of the bedstead of Og. This objection is but an
expression of unbelief in the veracity of the historian and re_
sults from their own ignorance. Well, little fellows like
higher critics would never need a big bed. You would have
to stretch them and expand them to make them fit. But it
is a historical fact that the bones of a person fitting that bed
have been recently dug up near that place. I am regarded
as a pretty tall man and when a friend of mine saw me get
off the train with some giants, he commenced laughing and
said, „B. H., I always thought you were a big man, but you
are a dwarf; just look at those people.” Now we know, in
history, of people big enough to fill that bed. The penta_
teuchal references to giants are supported rather than dis_
credited by modern discoveries on the scene of the story.
Now let us take up the other, (3:14). It says, „Even unto
this day.” Now, they say that whoever wrote that expression
must have been a man very remote from that time, hundreds
and hundreds of years must have passed away. When that
writer says, „Even unto this day,” therefore, some other man
than Moses must have written the book. Their criticism .is the
merest assumption. The phrase, „even unto this day,” does
not necessarily imply a long time, and we will find it used in
the book of Joshua to mean a very short period of time. Moses
could say, „Even unto this day,” since his reason for using
that expression is that he sometimes refers to a place that had
changed names, he says that it used to be called a certain
name; that it used to be called Rephaim a long time ago, or
at such a time it was called a certain name. It is still that
name „unto this day.” The phrase simply means this, whether
it be a long interval or a short interval of time.
I will give you one more (4:41_43) : „Then Moses set apart
three cities on the side of Jordan toward the sunrising; that the
man_slayer might flee thither.” In other words, he there sets
apart three cities of refuge before he crosses the Jordan. Now,
the objection to this speech is that Moses breaks the connec_
tion. My reply is that it does not break the connection of the
speech. His speech was ended, and a piece of history comes in
before he makes another speech. Now, you will think these
are very small matters, and yet men covered with medals from
the universities of Europe gravely sit down and attack the
Pentateuch on these things.
Every public speaker, whether preacher or politician, may
profitably study Carlyle’s „Essay on Stump Speaking,” in
which he submits substantially the following conditions of a
great oration:
First, there must be a great occasion to call it forth. Now,
you know the difference in getting up in a debating society
with nothing involved and having a case to come up in real
life. One is an occasion and the other a make_believe. There
must be a great occasion.
Second, the speaker must be equal to the occasion.
Third, he must daringly seize the opportunity flying by
swiftly. If he has not the capacity to seize that opportunity,
he never can be an orator.
Fourth, he must have something to say. Neither froth, nor
fancies, nor oratorical declamation fits a great occasion. There
must be matter and body to his thought.
Fifth (and here is the point upon which I do all my study_
ing on great occasions when I make speeches), he must so say
things that they will stick, lodge, burn in the mind of the
hearer. Now, those are the points by Carlyle on stump speak_
ing; and I want to apply them to the book of Deuteronomy.
In the first place it has been shown that Moses had a great
occasion; second, it has been shown how he was the one man
in all the world equal to the demands of that occasion; third,
it has been shown how, in the last days of his life, he seized
the flying opportunity to utilize the occasion. And now, from
the addresses themselves and subsequent history, we have to
determine whether he had something to say and so said it that
it stuck.
Now fix your attention carefully on a phrase, the most im_
portant in the whole book, as determining the character of
the book (1:5). Just six words, „began Moses to declare this
law.” You must not construe this to mean that Moses began
to enact new laws. „To declare” here means to unfold, to ex_
pound, to dig under, to dig up past law. The book does not tell
of the legislator making the laws, but of an orator expounding
law, giving the sense of it and applying its meaning. This text
is a matchless theme for a sermon when you desire to show
how Moses began to take up this law, to expound, to declare
this law, and what the significance. It means that the Bible
is not so much a book for reading, but a book to be studied.
That you must open up its heart. Now, a student can do this.
An idiot can read the Bible, but he cannot dig it out. Now
an example: When our Lord met those two people going to
Emmaus he said, „You fools and slow of heart to believe all
that the prophets have said concerning me,” and then he dug
up and expounded all the meanings of this scripture. „Now,
you didn’t believe these things; you simply read them; now I
will expound them; I will dig them up and let you see the real
meaning of them.” Therefore I say that this gives us the
character of the book. It is an exposition and not legislation.
I repeat, this teaching is a matchless theme when you desire
to show the necessity of Bible study; that the Scriptures are
not so much to be read as to be studied.
Another point is that Moses uses the words, „the law,” and
he does not limit them to mere previous legislation, but in_
cludes all the historical setting. The whole of the first address
which is called an expounding of the law is but an exposition
of the connecting history. With the Jews later and with Christ
and his Apostles, the Torah, the Law, means all the Penta_
teuch, both history and legislation. It has that meaning in
the remarkable history found in 2 Kings 12 and 2 Chronicles
34. The book found is the Pentateuch. The unity of the
Pentateuch cannot ever be overemphasized. Moses in his ad_
dress of exposition goes back to the Genesis record of Abra_
ham, Isaac, and Jacob, and even to the first creation of man.
He goes back to Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers in both his_
tory and legislation. And as we shall see at the close of this
book, he finishes the continuous record and deposits it as a
witness forever in the ark in the custody of the priests. You
should study Dr. Green of Princeton in Biblical Introduction
on the unity of Genesis, the unity of the Pentateuch and the
unity of the Old Testament.

QUESTIONS
1. Give an analysis of Deuteronomy.
2. What do the higher critics allege as to the first two verses and
how do you answer it?
3. What the higher critics’ second objection, and the answer?
4. What their third objection and what the answer?
5. Show the relevancy of each of these parenthetical clauses.
6. What their fourth objection and the reply thereto?
7. What the objection based on the phrase „unto this day,” and
your reply?
8. What the objection based on 4:41_43, and your reply thereto?
9. What essay on „Stump Speaking” is cited? What are the con_
ditions of a great oration as submitted by this author?
10. Show how the first three of these conditions apply to Moses.
11. What is the meaning of 1:5 and what the bearing on the char_
acter of the book?
12. What line of thought suggested for a sermon on this text and.
its application?

XII
FIRST AND SECOND
ORATION, PART I
Deuteronomy 1:6_11 :32

FIRST ORATION
The occasion is great and awe inspiring. Death is just
ahead of the speaker, about one month off, and yet the old
man stands before us in the vigor of youth. He does not die
from decay of either mental or physical power but simply
because God is going to take him. He has carried these peo_
ple in his heart eighty years and has borne them in fact for
forty marvelous years of eventful history; has suffered un_
speakably in their behalf, and now is burdened with the spirit
of prophecy which unfolds to his eagle eye their disastrous
future for thousands of years, brightened for a time by the
coming of the Prophet, like himself but infinitely greater, and
the prospect of their final restoration. He starts out with a
reference to Horeb where they entered into covenant relations
with God, and where he himself sat, with the chiefs of the
tribes, of thousands, of hundreds, of tens, to hear all minor
causes, appealing to him only in great matters. The qualifi_
cations of these judges are set forth in Exodus 17:21, and
„they were able men such as fear God, men of truth, hating
covetousness,” and here, as „wise men, well_known chiefs of
the tribes, full of understanding.” He rehearses his original
charge to these judges: they must fairly hear all cases, must
judge righteously, must be impartial, must fear no face of
man, must remember that the judgment is Jehovah’s. The
object of the reference is to show that they left Sinai
thoroughly organized and equipped; left there in numbers
more than the stars shown to Abraham and with their leader
praying, „The Lord of your fathers make you a thousand
times as many more as ye are, and bless you as he hath prom_
ised you.”
They left there at God’s command to go at once to take
possession of their long promised country. But alas, on
account of their sins they lost thirty_seven days in getting
to Kadesh_barnea and then with the imperative command
ringing in their ears, the Lord said as before, „Come and take
possession”; they again are delayed forty days in order to
get a report from spies, and after that report and an awful
breach of the covenant they lost thirty_eight years more of
weary wandering, then when again assembled at Kadesh_
barnea sinned again and caused Moses himself to sin, and so
debarred him from the Promised Land. Then, through un_
belief in God, through fear of man, through presumption
toward God, through fleshly lusts, they had utterly failed to
enter in.
Moreover, they had lied in attributing their attitude of
rebellion to parental concern for their children, which God
rebuked by showing that he could lead those helpless children
into the Promised Land without the loss of one, while the
bones of the parents whitened in the wilderness. And now,
though at Kadesh_barnea again, when entrance was no more
than stepping over a line drawn in the sand, they must turn
down toward the Red Sea, and by a long, weary and circui_
tous march approach the country on the other side; a path
must compass Mountain Seir, skirt Edom, Moab, and Ammon
and bring them into deadly conflict with Sihon, king of the
Amorites, Og, king of Bashan, and all the hosts of Midian.
That circuitous march was marked by some great sins and
made memorable by some great deliverances. Aaron died at
Mountain Hor. Moses is about to die, without passing over
into the Promised Land.
Now, this oration, having thus briefly reviewed the legisla_
tion, makes that survey the basis of his exhortation by way

of application. Learn from this model, 0 preachers, how to
revive the lost art of exhortation. That used to be the custom
for men that were called to exhort who could not preach.
They could not preach a sermon but they could sit down and
listen to a preacher preach and then move people mightily by
exhortation. I have heard men, ignorant as they were in
books, give exhortations that would make the stars sparkle.
Dr. Burleson preached a sermon at Huntsville and at the
close of the sermon J. W. D. Creath got up and commenced by
slapping his thigh and you could have heard him a hundred
yards. He said, „The spirit of God is here, and the devil is
fighting hard.” The people were converted by the hundreds
and the biggest man was Sam Houston. A Negro boy on the
outside was convicted of sin and came to the front, not
understanding but feeling the power of God, he knelt at Sam
Houston’s feet saying, „Massa Houston, save me.” Sam
Houston said to the boy, „Ask the clergy, I am just a poor
lost sinner myself.” We bad Deacon Pruitt; he never
preached but Judge Baylor never held a meeting but he got
Brother Pruitt to help him. He always wanted him to exhort
after he preached. Moses determined to exhort these people,
and in order to exhort them, he takes up the survery. They
keep forgetting the times of his exhortation. The points are
stated thus:
(1) Hearken unto God’s word and do it.
(2) Do not add to his law nor diminish it. „Heaven and
earth,” says our Lord, „must pass away, but my word shall
not pass away.”
(3) Be warned by your own history. History teaches les_
sons and imposes obligations. Preachers especially should
be students of history in order to understand God’s govern_
ment over nations and the way of his providence.
(4) In view of its impression on other nations obedience
will be your highest wisdom. They will thereby recognize

your relations with Jehovah and marvel at your prosperity
and fear your power.
(5) Do not forget. Teach this law diligently to your chil_
dren.
(6) Remember that you yourselves and your nation alone
heard God’s own awful voice pronounce your Decalogue and
that you have his autograph copy preserved as a witness.
(7) Remember that when you heard his voice you saw no
likeness of him and beware that you make no graven image
of anything that is in heaven above, nor earth below; do not
fall down and worship it. We should all become iconoclasts,
breakers of images. „Icon,” the image; „Iconoclast,” the
breaker of images.
(8) Remember that Jehovah is a jealous God and will
look upon sin with no degree of allowance, and be sure that
he will find out your sins and be sure that he will punish
your sins. Don’t you become so sweetly sentimental that you
will think it impolite to say the word „hell.” Let us remem_
ber the awful words of our Lord, greater than Moses, who
said, „Fear him that is able to destroy both soul and body
in hell,” who said, „Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlast_
ing fire prepared for the devil and his angels.” So this is the
first exhortation of Moses.

SECOND ORATION, PART I
The scripture of this part is chapter 4:44, to the end of
the eleventh chapter. Like the first oration, the second has
an introduction giving the time, place, and circumstances of
delivery. The closing: paragraph of chapter 4 gives this in_
troduction in verses 44_49. There is nothing in it calling for
additional comment beyond the fact that it marks an interval
of undetermined time between the two Orations.
This part of the oration consists of a rehearsal of the whole
Decalogue, stated in an offhand, oratorical form, without

attempting the exact verbal quotations, and of an exposition
of the first table, that is, the four commandments embodying
our relation to God) and then an earnest exhortation by way
of application. Note the verbal differences between this off_
hand rehearsal of the Decalogue by Moses and the Exodus
record of it as spoken in the very words of Jehovah himself,
and written by him on tablets of stone. From Revised Ver_
sion, read Exodus 20:2_17, and then read the corresponding
Commandments in the same version from Deuteronomy 5:6_
21. You must consider the Exodus form as the true original,
and the Deuteronomy form as a substantial restatement by
a public speaker, and note that Deuteronomy 5:15, is not an
attempt to quote the Fourth Commandment as originally
given, but merely a passing exhortation, assigning an addi_
tional motive for remembering the sabbath day. The reader
will also note that Romanists combine the first and the second
according to our division, to make their first, and then divide
our tenth to make their ninth and tenth. This does not affect
the matter, only the numbering of the parts.
I asked you to read the Decalogue in Exodus and Deu_
teronomy alternately because enemies of the Bible have made
so much of the fact that there is not an exact verbal agree_
ment, and hence they have denied the verbal inspiration of
the Scriptures. The reply to it is that the divine original in
God’s own handwriting is the Commandments as they were
delivered; second, in this case there is an inspired substantial
restatement of the original in oratorical form and this re_
statement is just as much inspired as the original. Remember
the sabbath because God rested on that day and it is pro_
phetic, in an indirect way, of the New Testament sabbath.
As God rested from creation when he had finished the work
and the day commemorated an historical fact, so Jesus, hav_
ing accomplished the great redemption (so that the Jewish
sabbath is nailed to the cross of Christ), rested from his work

and there remaineth a sabbath_keeping to the people of God.
Jesus entered into this rest, as God did his.
Here I pause to commend, first, the exposition of the Deca_
logue in the Catechism of the Presbyterian Confession of
Faith. This catechetical exposition has been taught to more
children than perhaps any other in the world. Let us always
commend the Presbyterians for their fidelity in family in_
struction, and always confess and lament Baptist delinquency
on this line until we repent and do better. Second, it now
gratifies me to be able to commend a Baptist exposition of
the Decalogue, which, in my judgment, is the best in all
literature. Not very long ago, a venerable man, soon to pass
away, was helped upon the platform and introduced at the
Southern Baptist Convention, and he received the Chautau_
qua salute. It was George Dana Boardman of missionary
fame. He is the author of University Lectures on the Ten
Commandments. The lectures were delivered before the stu_
dents of Pennsylvania University, and the book was issued
by the American Baptist Publication Society. Study it care_
fully and assimilate it into your very life. On the Fourth
Commandment, perhaps without immodesty, I may ask you
to read the three sermons on the sabbath in my first published
volume of sermons.
My reason for speaking of these books is that Moses him_
self is now to devote eight chapters to an exposition of the
Decalogue in the oration under consideration. You will make
special note that Moses emphasizes the fact that the Deca_
logue was the only part of the covenant actually voiced by
Jehovah, and that this divine autograph was then filed away
in the ark as an eternal witness. The fact is also emphasized
that no other people had even heard God’s voice or possessed
his autograph. Thousands of the younger generation now
addressed by Moses were present that awful day when Sinai
smoked and trembled and was crested with fire, and the loud
and ever louder trumpet smote their ears as no other trumpet
will smite the ears of men until the great judgment day. They
might well recall their terror when from the fires of Sinai this
awful penetrating voice solemnly pronounced in thunder tones
those Commandments one after another. They themselves
could recall how they begged not to hear that voice any more
and implored Moses to hear for them as mediator and to
repeat to them in human voice any other words of God.
I have already sought to impress you that Deuteronomy is
an exposition of the law rather than a giving of the law. The
orator and expositor not only shows that these Command_
ments of God are exceedingly broad, but he attempts to show
their depths and reveal their heights, yea, to lay bare their
very heart and spirit.
This heart and spirit he finds in the word „love.” „Hear,
0 Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah, and thou shalt
love Jehovah thy God with all thy soul, with all thy might.”
He compresses the first four Commandments into „Thou shalt
love Jehovah,” as later in this book he compresses the last six
into „Love thy neighbour as thyself.” When our Lord an_
swers the question, „Which is the first commandment of the
law?” He quotes Deuteronomy in his answer: „This is the
first and great commandment, Thou shalt love the Lord thy
God with all thy heart, and all thy mind, and all thy strength,
and the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour
as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law
and the prophets.”
And as the second is impossible without the first, a New
Testament writer may well say, „All the law is fulfilled in
this: Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.” And another
says, „Love is the fulfilling of the law.” Or as Paul to Tim_
othy declares its widest scope, „Now the end of the command_
ment is love, out of a pure heart, out of a good conscience,
out of faith unfeigned.” In one word then, that grandest
thing in the world, LOVE, Moses expounds the Decalogue.
On this matter he founds his exhortation thus:
(1) „Thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children
and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and
when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down,
and when thou risest up, and they shall be as frontlets be_
tween thine eyes, and thou shalt write them on the posts of
thine house, and on thy gates.” What a course of family
instruction! What a theme of family conversation! What a
safeguard at home, at the gate, at the door, at the hearth, at
the bed! As the Jew awoke in the morning, the Law greeted
him; as he passed the door, it saluted him; as he passed
through the gate, it hailed him; in all his walking beyond the
gate it accompanied him. It governed the words of his
tongue; it remained between his eyes to regulate sight; it
dwelt in his heart to regulate emotion; and remained in his
mind to prescribe and proscribe thought, purpose and scheme.
Its hand of authority touched the scales and yardstick and
restrained within its bounds all his business. His fruit, his
grain, his flock, and all other treasures acknowledged its
supremacy. It provoked the questions of children by its
object lessons and supplied the answers to the questions.
(2) When prosperity comes with its fulness of blessings) do
not forget God, (6:10_15).
(3) When adversity and trial overtake you do not tempt
God as you tempted him at Massah, saying, „Is God among
òus?” (6:16). Just here the psalmist says, „My feet had well_
nigh slipped, for I was envious of the prosperity of the wicked
and said, In vain have I washed my hands in innocency and
compassed thine altars, 0 Lord of Hosts.” How often have
we been bitter in heart and counted God our adversary and
ourselves the target of his arrows and lightning.
(4) „Remember that the destruction of the Canaanites is
essential to your fidelity to this law. They will corrupt you
if you spare them. You shall not pity them, for the measure
of their iniquity is full.” You are God’s sheriff executing
his will, not yours, p.s mercilessly as a pestilence, a cyclone,
an earthquake, or a flood, indiscriminatingly obey his will.
Make no covenant with these doomed and incorrigible nations.
l)o not intermarry with them. Covet none of their possessions
devoted to God’s curse. Ah, if only Achan later had remem_
bered this and had not brought defeat upon his people and
ruin to himself and house!
(5) Remember the bearing of this law on Self:
(a) When walls crumble before you and the sun and moon
stand still to complete your victory, beware lest you attribute
your victories to your own strength.
(b) Or to your numbers.
(c) And especially beware of self_righteousness. All your
history avouches you to be a stiff_necked and rebellious peo_
ple. There was no good in your origin. „A Syrian ready to
perish was your father.” At the Red Sea, at the waters of
Marah, when you thirsted, when you hungered, in all the wil_
derness, and at Kadesh_barnea, through the cunning of Balaam
even until now you have sinned and kept sinning, and will
continue to sin, existing as monuments of grace and mercy.
Who are you, to be puffed up with conceit and pride of self_
righteousness?
(6) Consider how reasonable all of Jehovah’s command_
ments are: „And now, Israel, what doth Jehovah thy God
require of thee but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all his
ways and to love him, and to serve Jehovah thy God with all
thy soul, with all thy heart, to keep the commandments of
Jehovah and his statutes, which I command thee this day for
thy good?” (10:12).
A later prophet shall re_echo the thought: „He hath showed
thee, 0 man, what is good; and what doth Jehovah require of
thee but to do justly and to love kindness, and to walk humbly
with thy God.”
(7) Finally, blessings crown your obedience and curses
follow your disobedience. The inexorable alternative is set
forth before you. Obey and live; disobey and die. And ye
yourselves, over yonder, shall stand on opposing mountains
while this law is read in a valley between, and those on
Gerizirn shall call out the blessings, and those on Ebal shall
pronounce the curses. And you will in one loud Bounding
voice say, „Amen, so let it be.”

QUESTIONS
1. What briefly the occasion of the first oration?
2. What the substance, appeal and application of the first oration?
3. What lost art here referred to, and what examples of this art
cited?
4. What the several points of his exhortation?
5. Where do you find introduction to the second oration and what
the time, place and circumstances of its delivery?
6. Of what does Part 2 of the second oration consist?
7. What are the verbal differences between the Exodus form and
the Deuteronomy form of the Decalogue and how account for them?
8. Which is the true, original form?
9. What of Moses’ statement here of the Fourth Commandment?
10. How do the Romanists number the commandments?
11. What charge is sometimes brought against the Bible because of
these verbal differences and the reply thereto?
12. What books on the Ten Commandments commended?
13. What facts in connection with the giving of the Ten Command_
ments especially emphasized by Moses?
14. What was Mosea’ summary of the Ten Commandments and what
Christ’s use of it?
15. Kame the points of his exhortation.
16. How was the importance of teaching the law emphasized?
17. What exhortation relating to prosperity?
18. What one relating to adversity?
19. What charge concerning the Canaanites, and why?
20. What the bearing of this Law on self?
21. How does he show the reasonableness of God’s law?
22. What alternative set before them, and what prophecy concern_
ing blessings and curses here given by Moses?

XIII
SECOND GREAT ORATION, PART 2
Deuteronomy 12_26

This section is on the second part of the second great oration
of Moses, as embodied in chapters 12_26 inclusive, of the book
of Deuteronomy. If you have carefully read all this section,
it will be easier for me to emphasize in the brief limits of this
chapter the most salient points and easier for you to grasp
and retain them. By the grouping of correlated matters under
specific heads, the important distinction between many statutes
and the constitutional principle from which they are logically
derived will become manifest. A constitution is a relatively
brief document of great principles, but legislative enactments
developing and enlarging them become a library, which con_
tinually enlarges, as new conditions require new statement
and application.
Yet again you must note that while one discussion arranges
in order many statutes, it necessarily leaves out much of the
homiletical value of each special statute. Each one of them
may be made a text for a profitable sermon. Indeed these
fifteen chapters constitute a gold mine of texts for the atten_
tive preacher.
First of all, it should be noted that Moses is speaking here
to the whole people as a national unit and concerning the
future national life in the Promised Land which they are
about to occupy. He carefully puts before them the national
ideal of a people belonging to Jehovah separated from other
nations and devoted to a special mission. Because addressing
the whole people he recalls the history and law in Genesis,
Exodus, and Numbers much more particularly than the spe_
cial legislation of Leviticus relating mainly to the official
duties of a single tribe.
Secondly, when he touches the tribe of Levi in Deuteron_
omy, it is as a part of the nation rather than about their
specific duties as priests and Levites. On this account Deu_
teronomy is called the people’s code and Leviticus the priest’s
code. This fact will help us much to understand tithing in
Deuteronomy when compared with tithing in the preceding
books. Note carefully this point.
While it is difficult to classify satisfactorily such a multi_
tude of topics and laws, we may profitably group the whole
section under the following heads:

I. Unity in the Place of National Worship, 12:5
In their pilgrimage history the cloud and the ark, shifting
from place to place according to the exigency of travel,
designated day by day the central place of worship. But the
people are here admonished that when they conquer the land
and become a settled people, God himself will designate one
fixed locality as the center of national unity and one perma_
nent place of national worship. In Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and
I Samuel, when we get to those books, we shall find only a
temporary central place, and occasionally, more than one at
the same time, the land not yet all conquered, the people not
yet all settled, but in David’s time everything prescribed about
the central place of worship is fulfilled, Jerusalem is the place
thenceforward throughout their history until Jesus, that
prophet like unto Moses, comes and says to the woman of
Samaria, „Believe me, the hour cometh when neither in this
mountain nor in Jerusalem shall ye worship the Father. Ye
worship that which ye know not; we worship that which we
know, for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour cometh,
and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the
Father in Spirit and Truth.”
To this place, that is, the central place of worship, three
times a year must the tribes come in national assembly to
keep the great festivals of the Passover, Pentecost, and Taber_

nacles, and as a nation they must observe the great day of
atonement. In this connection observe particularly that the
tithing in Deuteronomy, to which we have before referred, is
not the first tithe of the other books, which was the Lord’s
inheritance and devoted to the general support of the great
festivals, in which indeed the Levites share as a part of the
people. Hence the Levitee’ share of this tithe does not cor_
respond to their title to the whole of the first tithe, and hence
the third year’s provision in Deuteronomy for the poor is un_
like any provision of the first tithe. If you have that point
fixed in your minds, you are able to answer one of the gravest
objections ever brought against Deuteronomy, that is, that it
contradicts, on the question of tithes, what had been previ_
ously said in other books.
The marvelous effect of this one fixed place of national
worship, and of these great festivals, on national unity, on
the preservation of a pure worship, appears in all their sub_
sequent history and becomes the theme of psalm, song, and
elegy. When we get over into the Psalms and the Lamenta_
tions of Jeremiah, we will see backward references to this
central place of worship. It is in the light of this law that
we discover the sin in the later migration of the Danites and
their setting up a new place of worship (Judg. 18, particularly
verses 27_31); the sin of Jeroboam (I Kings 12:26_33); the
sin of the Samaritans later, and the sin of a temple in Egypt.
That is the first thought, the unity in national worship. For
an account of the Samaritan Temple see Josephus, „Antiqui_
ties,” Book XI, chapter 8, and for the Egyptian Temple see
„Antiquities,” Book XIII, chapter 3, misinterpreting Isaiah
21:19.

2. Unity in the Object of Worship
The second thought in this oration is unity in the object
of worship, the exclusive worship of Jehovah. Under this
head the section prescribes the death penalty on the following:
(1) The false prophet, who however attested by signs and
wonders, shall seek to divert the people to the worship of
some other god.
(2) Any member of a family, however near and dear the
tie of kindred, who sought to induce the rest of the family
to turn away from the worship of Jehovah to worship another
god, that member of the family had to die.
(3) Any city that turned aside as a municipality to other
worship, that city must be placed under the ban and blotted
out. If you have been much of a student of classic literature,
you must have noticed how each city stresses the worship of
some particular patron divinity, as Minerva at Athens, Diana
in the City of Ephesus and Venus at Corinth. Now, this law
teaches that any city, in its municipal life, turning aside from
the worship of Jehovah to worship a false god for local advan_
tage shall be blotted off the face of the map. The underlying
principle here is of immense importance in our times. Cities
are tempted continually to sacrifice the paramount spiritual
and moral interests of the community in order to promote ma_
terial interests. So in their annual fairs which bring local
advantage in commercial affairs, they lose sight of God and
handicap what is commendable in these enterprises by over_
loading them with poisonous and corrupting attachments, and
count any man an enemy to his home place, however much
he may approve the good, if he protest against the bad. See
the striking examples and illustrations in the cases at Philippi
and Ephesus (Acts 16:19).
(4) To show more emphatically that Jehovah alone is God
and must be worshiped, the death penalty was assessed on
any necromancer, soothsayer or wizard who sought by illicit
ways to understand and interpret the future. To Jehovah
alone must the people come to know secret things. What he
chose to reveal was for them and their children. What he
withheld must remain hidden. All prurient curiosity into
Jehovah’s domain of revelation must be rebuked; all seeking
unto the dead, all fortunetelling and divinations were mortal
sins and punishable by death in every case.
(5) All persons guilty of crimes against nature; the nature
of the subject forbids me to specify. They were such out_
rageous violations of the dignity of man made in God’s image,
and indicated such disregard for Jehovah that capital pun_
ishment alone would meet the requirements of the case.
(6) Every breaker of the covenant must be put to death.
If any had knowledge that another had violated the covenant,
it became his duty to investigate the case and bring the atten_
tion of the magistrates to it. There is a reference to that in
the letter to the Hebrews, where it is said, „He that despised
Moses’ law died without mercy under two or three witnesses:
of how much sorer punishment, think ye, shall he be thought
worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God [offense
against the Father], and hath counted the blood of the ever_
lasting covenant an unholy thing [sin against the Son], and
hath done despite unto the Spirit of Grace [sin against the
Holy Spirit, and an unpardonable sin]?” (Heb. 10:28_29).
(7) To impress still more this thought of the exclusive wor_
ship of Jehovah: There must be no borrowing from other re_
ligions in bewailing the dead; Jehovah’s law alone was the one
exclusive standard. The custom of cutting themselves, and
disfiguring themselves in the days of their mourning as prac_
ticed in other religions, finds here a positive prohibition.
I stop to say, Oh, what a pity that so soon after apostolic
times, in the great apostasy which Paul predicted and which
took place in the Roman Catholic development, there was
borrowing old robes of every religion in the world.

3. All Administrations of Law Subject to Jehovah
Whether ceremonial law, moral or civil and criminal law,
all administration of law was subject to Jehovah. The govern_
ment was a theocracy pure and simple, no matter whether it

remained a republic or became a kingdom, as it did in the
days of Saul, it was a theocracy, God was the only real King
and governed all officers himself, whether executive, judicial,
or religious.
(1) They were representatives of Jehovah and must first
of all consider his honor, justice, and mercy. This fact de_
termined the prescribed character and qualifications of every
prince, ruler, elder, judge, sheriff and scribe. These officers
must be God_fearing men, hating covetousness, impartial and
fearing not the face of any man.
(2) They must in judging hear all evidence fairly.
(3) They must not convict except upon adequate testimony.
(4) It took two good witnesses to prove any point.
(5) They must justify the innocent and condemn the guilty
without any regard for age, sex, social position, or financial
position. Even and exact justice must be administered to all.
(6) Decision when given must be enforced speedily.
(7) If the case was too hard for them, they must appeal
to Jehovah and no other for light. A provision was made by
which Jehovah would give the right answer in every such case
of appeal. What a pity we have not that kind of a supreme
court!
(8) The conduct of all their wars must be under the laws
prescribed by Jehovah. War must not be declared against any
nation except upon his direction. Their later history fur_
nishes many examples of referring the declaration of war to
Jehovah, and it furnishes many examples of disaster befalling
them when they went to war in their own wisdom and strength.
The regulations touching war covered all material points,
such as sanitary measures in camp, treatment of prisoners,
conducting sieges, and sparing fruit trees when besieging a
city. The boasted progress of modern civilization falls far
short of the Mosaic code in ameliorating the sufferings and
horrors of war. A great Federal general of the War Between

the States well said, in view of his own practice in conduct_
ing it, „War is hell!”
(9) On account of this subordination to Jehovah, note the
remarkable paragraph 21:1_9, touching civic responsibility in
a case of murder where the offender is unknown. In my
prohibition speech in the last prohibition contest in Waco, I
used that paragraph as a principle upon which prohibition is
based. If you will look at the passage in your Bible and
mark it, you will notice that the case is this: A man is found
murdered and it is not known who killed him; the nearest city
thereto is determined by measurement and must purge itself
of responsibility for the crime. The municipal officers in that
city must come in the presence of that dead body, hold up
their hands before God and swear that they are innocent of
the blood.
In my speech I recalled the case of the County Attorney of
Tarrant County who was shot down on the streets of Fort
Worth, his murderer also being killed; nobody could be held
directly responsible for the murder. I said, „Suppose the
mayor, the city council, and all the other city officers had been
required to place their hands on that dead body and swear
that no negligence on their part was resposnible for that
murder. They could not have taken the oath. Every one
would have been convicted, because they were responsible for
the conditions that not only made that particular murder
possible, but made murder in some cases certain.”
(10) The numerous statutes concerning charities, mercy,
and humanity constrain the people to imitate Jehovah him_
self in dealing with the poor and with the unfortunate. Indeed
some of the most beautiful and pathetic of these laws relating
to treatment of the lower creatures embody principles capable
of application in a wider range of higher things. They repro_
bate all cruelty and the infliction of all unnecessary suffering
as hateful to Jehovah, for example: „Thou shalt not muzzle

the ox that treadeth out the corn”; and „Thou shalt not seethe
a kid in its mother’s milk.”
Once in Waco a young man whom I had known when he
was a little fellow came to me bringing a letter purporting to
be from his father, commending this young man to me and
asking me to help him in any way I could. When he next
came and asked me to endorse a paper for thirty dollars, I
endorsed it. When it matured, I had to pay it. I wrote to
the father about it and he replied that his son had forged
that letter, and that is was only one case out of many. That
son had broken him up. The boy was arrested on a similar
case at Corsicana and sent to the penitentiary. When it was
suggested that I testify against him, I would not, because of
this scripture, „Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother’s
milk.” The only way I could help to convict that boy would
be to submit his father’s testimony to prove that he was a
forger.
(11) In like manner all laws regulating business, such as
weights and measures. Once I called upon a man whose
name I will not give, and asked him why, when he bought
goods, he weighed on one scale and when he sold goods he
sold by another. He said. „They are all right.” I said, „No,
sir, you have loaded the one you sell by and whoever buys
from you does not get full weight.” All laws touching busi_
ness, such as weights and measures, the restraints on exacting
pledges for debt, the withholding of wages for day laborers
which they have fairly earned, the limitations on usury and
the like are but expressions of divine mercy and justice and
tended to build up an honest and righteous people, not for_
getful of mercy.
(12) The social laws concerning marriage, slavery, parental
power over children, while far from the highest expression of
God’s will, do yet in every particular prohibit many current
evils freely practiced in other nations. Our Lord himself ex_
plains that on account of their hardness of heart and low
order of development imperfect laws were suffered. „The peo_
ple but recently were a nation of slaves, with much more of the
slave spirit remaining. It cannot be denied that even the
civil and criminal codes on these points were far superior to
the codes of other nations. The sanctity of human life, the
sanctity of the home, and the sanctity of the family are mar_
velously safeguarded in these laws. And wherever this code
touched an evil custom, it never approved the evil but limited
the power and scope of the evil, as far as the unprepared
people were able to bear it.
(13) Restrictions on entering the covenant, 23:1_7, con_
stitute a paragraph very few people understand. This applied
to proselytes from other nations. The body politic must not
be corrupted by alien additions that could not be easily as_
similated. On that line our own nation is gravely troubled
by loose naturalization laws that permit the scum and off_
scourings of other nations to be absorbed into our national
life and so fearfully endanger the perpetuity of free institu_
tions and make our great cities cesspools of iniquity. An
orator once prayed, „0 that an ocean of fire rolled between us
and Europe!” The Pacific Slope seems also praying ,”0 that
an ocean of fire rolled between us and the Orient!”
(14) The governing Jehovah idea appears in an emphatic
way in the paragraph 24:1_11, where by an offering of a bas_
ket of firstfruits the Israelite must confess Jehovah’s absolute
ownership over his products and his own unworthy derivation.
The oration concludes with his general result: „Thou hast
avouched Jehovah this day to be thy God, and that thou
wouldest walk in his ways and keep his statutes, and his com_
mandments, and his ordinances, and hearken unto his voice:
and Jehovah hath avouched thee this day to be a people for
his own possession, as he hath promised thee, and that thou
shouldest keep all his commandments, etc.”

QUESTIONS
1. What the importance of grouping correlated matters under
specific needs and what is a constitution?
2. What the homiletic value of these fifteen chapters?
3. What two things especially noted concerning the second part of
Oration Two?
4. Under what three heads does the author group all the mattel
of these fifteen chapters?
5. Under the first head, when was the central place of worship to
be established; when, where and by whom actually established; how long continued?
6. How often and at what festivals must the nation assemble at
this central place of worship?
7. What bearing has this fact on the tithing question of Detueronomy?
8. What the marvelous effects of this one fixed place of national
worship?
9. Give examples of the violation of this law, and what their par_
ticular sin?
10. Under the second head, what cases of violation called for capital
punishment?
11. What underlying principle governing the cities is of great im_
portance in our times? Illustrate.
12. What reference to the covenant breaker in the New Testament,
and what the threefold ain therein described?
13. Which of these prohibitions are Romanists most guilty of
violating?
14. Under the third head
(1) What must be the qualifications of all officers?
(2) What their several duties?
(3) If the case was too hard for them what were they to do?
What the provision for Jehovah’s answer?
(4) What prescriptions concerning war?
(5) How determine civic responsibility in the case of murder
where the murderer was unknown? Present day appli_
cation and illustrate.
(6) What laws relating to the poor and to lower animals?
(7) What laws regulating business?
(8) What social laws?
(9) What the restrictions on entering the covenant and the
present day application?
(10) How does the governing Jehovah idea appear emphatically
15. How does the oration conclude?

XIV
THIRD, FOURTH, AND FIFTH ORATIONS
Deuteronomy 27:1 to 31:13

It is customary to classify the words of Moses in Deu_
teronomy into three orations, a song and a benediction, but
this classification is not exact. His third address is contained
in chapters 27_28. A fourth distinct address with its introduc_
tion is contained in chapters 29_30. A fifth address distinct in
introduction and matter is to be found in chapter 31, covering
only thirteen verses. So that there are at least five distinct
addresses, besides the song and benediction, each with an
appropriate historical introduction. We consider in this dis_
cussion the third, fourth, and fifth addresses.

THE THIRD ORATION
This oration first provided for a most elaborate and im_
pressive renewal and ratification of the covenant when Israel
shall have entered the Promised Land, and closes with a most
earnest exhortation to obedience, including a notable and far_
reaching prophecy of the curses that will certainly follow dis_
obedience. The parts of this third oration are very distinct:
(1) Associating with him the elders of Israel, he directs that
on entrance into the Land of Promise, plastered monumental
stones shall be erected on Mount Ebal and thereon plainly
inscribed all the laws of the covenant, as a perpetual memorial
and witness of their possession of the land by Jehovah’s power
and grace, conditioned upon their observance of the terms of
the covenant. What a lasting library of stone! What a wit_
ness to the grounds of their tenure of the land!
(2) The erection of an altar after the model given in the
original covenant at Sinai (Ex. 20:24_26) and the sacrifice
thereon of burnt offerings as originally provided, thus renew_
ing the ratification of the covenant.
(3) The sacrifice of peace offerings followed by a Joyful
communion feast showing forth peace with Jehovah (arising
from the blood of the covenant) and their enjoyment of him.
(4) Then associating himself with the priests and Levites,
he provides for the solemn announcement that they are Je_
hovah’s people and must obey him.
(5) He then charges the whole people that on this great
day they must take their places in two great divisions, six
tribes on Gerizirn and six on Ebal, prepared to repeat after the
Levites the responsive blessings and curses of the law.
He directs that on this great day the Levites shall stand
in the valley between the two mountains and solemnly pro_
nounce alternatively twelve blessings and tweleve curses, the
first eleven of each special statutes as specimens of the whole,
and the twelfth of each touching the whole law as a unit.
That as each course on disobedience is pronounced by the Le_
vites, the six tribes on Ebal shall repeat it, and as the alternate
blessing on obedience is pronounced, the other six tribes on
Gerizirn shall repeat it, and when the twelfth blessing and
curse touching the whole covenant are repeated, then all the
tribes on both mountains in one loud, blended chorus shall
say, „Amen.” We shall find in Joshua all these directions
becoming history. The history of the world furnishes no
parallel in solemnity and sublimity to this great transaction
in conception here, and in fulfilment later.
Chapter 28 is devoted to exhortation based upon these direc_
tions and prophecies. It is difficult to summarize this awful
exhortation, but we may profitably emphasize the following
points of the exhortation:
(1) If you keep this covenant you shall be blessed in na_
tional position and with God. Jehovah shall be your God
and ye shall be the head and not the tail; shall be above and

not below. Jehovah shall smite all your enemies. Coming
against you in one way, they shall flee in seven ways. All
other nations shall see that you are called by Jehovah’s name
and shall be afraid. Jehovah will establish you as a holy
people unto himself.
If ye keep this covenant ye shall be blessed in all places:
in the city, in the field, in the home, in the barn, and in the
kitchen.
Ye shall be cursed in all things: in children, in crops, in
herds, in vineyards, in the seasons, and in business (lending
to others but not borrowing), in health, in your outgoings
and incomings, and especially in peace of mind and joy of
heart.
(2) But if you disobey this covenant and break it, all these
gorups of blessings shall be reversed into their opposites:
Ye shall lose your exalted position among the nations, and
with God. Ye shall be outcasts from God; ye shall be the
tail of all nations and not the head. Ye shall be beaten in
wars; ye shall flee in all battles; ye shall be dispersed seven
ways where you went out one. Now you see this curse is
national, just like the corresponding blessing was national.
Ye shall be cursed in all places: in the city, in the home,
in the field, in the barn, in the kitchen, and in all lands of
dispersion.
Ye shall be cursed in all things: in children, in crops, in
herds, vineyards, wars, outgoings, incomings, and especially
shall ye be cursed in your mind and heart. Ye shall have
neither peace of mind nor joy of heart. Here is the curse of
mind and heart; it is as awful a thing as I ever read in my
life:
“And among these nations shalt thou find no ease, and
there shall be no rest for the sole of thy foot: but Jehovah
will give thee there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and
pining of soul; and thy life shall hang in doubt before thee;

and thou shalt fear night and day, and shalt have no assur_
ance of thy life. In the morning thou shalt say, Would it
were even I And at even thou shalt say, Would it were morn_
ing! for the fear of thy heart which thou shalt fear, and for
the sight of thine eyes which thou shalt see” (Deut. 28:65_67).
Note particularly the awful picture of their disaster when
besieged by enemies, as set forth in verses 49_57, so literally
fulfilled when Jerusalem was taken by Titus in A.D. 70, and so
fearfully depicted by Josephus. The prophecy closes with a
reversal of their deliverance from Egypt since as captives
they again shall be transported back in ships to become once
more a nation of slaves in Egypt. This going into Egyptian
bondage we shall find verified in the closing days of Jeremiah.
His book of Lamentations furnishes the commentary on a
part of this fearful prophecy. Poor man! he himself was
carried there, and died there at the downfall of the Jewish
monarchy.

FOURTH ORATION
The fourth address is contained in chapters 29_30, according
to our chapter divisions. The occasion of this address as set
forth in the introductory verse is a special present renewing
of the Sinaitic covenant by oath, but it is not followed by
ratification by sacrifices. The address recites again their
miraclous deliverance from Egypt by Jehovah with signs and
wonders, his merciful providence in miraculously supplying
all their needs throughout their wanderings even though they
had not eyes to see nor heart to appreciate. These blessings
were light by night and shade by day, guidance in travel,
water from the rock, bread from heaven, clothing and shoes
that did not wax old or wear out, oracles for perplexities, for_
giveness of ein through faith in the antitype of sacrifices,
healing when poisoned, health so miraculous that there was
not a feeble one in all the host, deliverance in battle. And
now after reciting the Egyptian deliverance and the provi_
dential miracles while wandering, he tells them that they all
stand before Jehovah to renew the oath of the covenant. Par_
ticularly note how comprehensive the statement of the human
parties to the covenant:
„Ye stand this day all of you before Jehovah your God;
your heads, your tribes, your elders, and your officers, even all
the men of Israel, your little ones, your wives, and thy so_
journer that is in the midst of thy camps, from the hewer of
thy wood unto the drawer of thy water; that thou mayest
enter into the covenant of Jehovah thy God, and into his
oath, which Jehovah thy God maketh with thee this day; that
he may establish thee this day unto himself for a people, and
that he may be unto thee a God, as he spake unto thee, and
as he sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to
Jacob. Neither with you only do I make this covenant and
this oath, etc.”
Elders, tribes, officers, men, women, children, sojourners,
and slaves and their children to the latest posterity, and as a
national unit, and all touching every individual are bound by
this covenant. Now later after that statement of the case he
commences his exhortation:
(1) He warns against the arising of any root or germ of
bitterness (v. 18). How radical the law! It does not wait
to condemn the stem, or branches, or flowers, or fruit, but
strikes at the root hidden from sight. So our Saviour in_
terprets the law condemning the heart fountain from which
flow all the streams of blasphemy, murder, adultery, and other
overt actions. And so the wise man: „Keep thy heart with
all diligence, for out of it are the issues of life.” And so the
letter to the Hebrews quotes this very passage (12:15) warn_
ing them „lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you,
and thereby the many be defiled.”
(2) The second point in his exhortation is that he warns
them against the vain confidence of security, even though
the law be broken. He describes a man or a woman in con_
fidence saying to the heart: „I am all right if I did break the
law,” that vain confidence of feeling secure with the law
broken, and then he goes on to show that nothing under the
heavens is so certain as that Jehovah saw that breach of the
covenant and will punish it.
(3) He foretells that other nations in future days, seeing
the awful desolation of their once beautiful land, shall count
it a land accursed of God on account of the sins of Israel.
That is just exactly what you would say if you were to go
there and look at the country. You would be astonished that
such a land was ever described as flowing with milk and honey;
you would not be able to understand how such a land ever
was so beautiful and fruitful as described. You would see it
under a curse.
(4) He warns them that while some things are hidden,
inscrutable, the property of God, the revealed things touching
both blessing and curse belong to them and to their children.
Whatever God reveals, that is worthy of study; whatever he
hides, let it alone.
(5) Then he graciously unfolds this special mercy of God,
that if when smitten and scattered and oppressed by all other
nations they will in far_off lands of exile and dispersion repent
and turn to God, he will forgive and restore them. It was this
promise of restoration that prompted the notable paragraph
in Solomon’s prayer at the dedication of the temple (I Kings
8:33_40), and encouraged the later prophets, like Zechariah,
Ezekiel and Daniel in days of exile, and still later the Apostles,
like Paul in his disscussion, Romans II, concerning the res_
toration of the Jews.
(6) He then assures them that obedience to this law is
neither too hard nor too far off, but very nigh to them. Alas,
it was both too far off and too hard to be obeyed by unre_
newed and unbelieving hearts without faith in Christ. It
remained for Paul, a later Jew, and the only other man in all
show how by faith alone this salvation was both nigh and
easy. (See Rom. 10.)
He closes with a most touching invocation to both heaven
and earth to bear witness that he that very day set before
them these awful, inexorable alternatives: Life and good go
together; death and evil are indissoluble.

FIFTH ORATION
This, the last and shortest address, is contained in 31:1_13.
The first part, verses 1_8, touchingly refers to his age, „I am
now one hundred and twenty years old,” and to the vacation
of his office. The great leader can no more go out and come in
before them. But they need neither despair nor fear on that
account. God’s cause does not die with its great advocates.
Moses indeed will be gone, but Jehovah himself will remain
their guide and protector. And even a human successor, Josh_
ua, has already been trained to be their captain.
The second part of this last oration directs that every sev_
enth year, the year of release, the great Land Sabbath, a sab_
bath a year long, the whole people must be assembled, men,
women and children, and that very year in which they have to
do no work because the land lies idle, is to be devoted to study_
ing and understanding the entire Pentateuch. I am sometimes
blamed for devoting so much time to the Pentateuch. Here
is my warrant. The year of the Land Sabbath was to be so
devoted. It calls for a year. Happy the man who can master
it in one year. What a Sunday school is here, men, women
and children devoting a year to the study of the Law! Let
us here find the original Sunday school idea; that it is not a
school for only little children. The Sunday school idea is that
men, women, and children shall come together and hear and
be made to understand that Word of God. For example of
fulfilment, see the remarkable history in Nehemiah 8:1_8.
Illustrations may be given of the tremendous power of even
a month’s concentration of mind on one study, viz.: the case

of a thirty days’ school in geography, arithmetic, writing or
mathematics. I would suggest the trial of one summer month
devoted to the Pentateuch, the Gospels, Paul’s Letters,
Eschatology, the Prophets) the Poetical Books, or the Mon_
archy.

QUESTIONS
1. What chapters contain the third oration and of what does it
consist?
2. Itemize the provisions for a renewal of the covenant after en_
trance into the Promised Land.
3. Of what does the twenty_eighth chapter consist?
4. Give a summary of the exhortation based on the required re_
newal of the covenant.
5. What the blessings promised for obedience?
6. What the curses threatened for disobedience?
7. What chapters contain the fourth oration?
8. What its occasion?
9. In what does it consist?
10. Wherein does this retaking of the oath of the covenant in
Oration Four, before they cross the Jordan, differ from the full re_
newal of the covenant required after they cross the Jordan, aa set
forth in Oration Three?
11. What blessings recited here?
12. Who were the human parties to the covenant?
13. Give a summary of the exhortation of the Fourth Oration.
14. How does he close this oration?
15. Where do we find the Fifth Oration?
16. In what does it consist?
17. Did they ever, apart from the one case cited in Nehemiah, attempt even to keep any part of this Land Sabbath, or its culmination,
the Year of Jubilee?
18. What exact and awful judgment in their later history became
the penalty for disregarding the seventh year, or Land Sabbath, and its accompanying year_study of the Law?
19. Cite the scriptures that prove the enforcement of the penalty
for not keeping it.

XV
THE SONG, PRAYER, AND BENEDICTION OF MOSES
Deuteronomy 31:14 to 33:29; Psalm 90

This section has its scope from chapter 31:14 to 33:29, and
in connection with it we study the ninetieth Psalm. The theme
of this section is the Song of Moses, Prayer of Moses, and
Benediction of Moses.
The introduction gives the origin, reason and purpose of the
song. The origin is God; God commanded it and God in_
spired it. The reason is that he foresaw the apostasy of Israel.
The purpose was that the song should be a witness.
The poetic and prophetic form of this inspired piece of
writing was well adapted to secure the object that God had in
view. The songs of the people were memorized by the people.
I suppose that every Israelite child learned that song by heart,
so that from the lips of any child in the nation there could be
a recitation that would witness against the people if they did
apostasize from Jehovah.
It is not my purpose to discuss here the prayer of Moses,
but merely tell you that Psalm 90, ascribed to Moses and
rightly so, was composed about this time. It contrasts the
eternity of Jehovah with the transitory life of man, and it ac_
counts for the transitory life of man by his sin. Sin made his
life short. The Psalm concludes with a prayer that God
would so teach us the number of the few days here so as to
apply our hearts unto wisdom, and that he would establish
the work of our hands upon us. It is a masterly production.
The benediction is also poetic and prophetic. It softens
the hard parts of the song. It is more hopeful but does not
reach 80 far into the future.
Before concluding these introductory remarks, it is neces_
sary to compare the song, the ninetieth Psalm and the bene_
diction with a previous song of Moses which you will find in
the book of Exodus, and which we considered when we went
over that book, and with the book of Job, which this author
ascribes to Moses. The Exodus song Moses wrote to com_
memorate the deliverance of the children of Israel from
Pharaoh and Pharaoh’s destruction in the Red Sea. In Revela_
tion 15 we have this reference to this first song of Moses:
„And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire; and
them that come off victorious from the beast, and from his
image, and from the number of his name, standing by the
sea of glass, having harps of God. And they sing the song of
Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying,
Great and marvellous are thy works, 0 Lord God, the Al_
mighty; righteous and true are thy ways, thou King of the
ages.”
The sea of glass mingled with fire was the Red Sea in a type.The Red Sea divided, standing up in frozen walls, Israel
passed through that gravelike canyon, and the pillar of fire
being the lid of it, the light of the pillar of fire shone on the
icy walls and was reflected back and forth, so that it looked
like a sea of glass mingled with fire. They were baptized in
that sea and that cloud, and escaping in that way Moses
writes the song of deliverance. Now, in the book of Revela_
tion John uses that passage through those icy walls mingled
with fire and the song that commemorated it to typify the de_
liverance of the saints in resisting the oppressions by an
apostate church. So we have this clear assurance that Moses
is the author of a song that will be sung in heaven. It is a
great thing to be the author of the ballads of a nation here
on earth; it is a greater thing to be the author of songs that
we shall sing in the land of everlasting deliverance.
Now, these matchless hymns all show clearly a common
author; the Exodus song of deliverance, the song that we are

now about to study, the ninetieth Psalm composed about the
same time, and the benediction. These poetic and prophetic
hymns of Moses are not to be surpassed in the poetry of the
world. He was great in prose, he was great in history, he was
as great as any man upon whom the afflatus rested as a writer
of poetry.
The next thing in our introduction is that Moses is described
as having finished the Pentateuch, including the song, and
filing the book with the priests, and having it placed inside
the ark of the covenant, so that throughout their future it
should be a witness. When we come to study 2 Kings we learn
that the finding of the lost Pentateuch in the days of Josiah
and the reading of it brought about a great reformation among
the people of Judah. After that monarchy fell, after Judah
went into captivity, and on their return from captivity,
through the decrees of the Persian king in the days of Ezra
and Nehemiah, the same Pentateuch, a copy of which Ezra
brought back with him, is read in the hearing of all the peo_
ple, causing them to reestablish the commonwealth of Israel.
A song is not so susceptible of analysis as a logical argu_
ment, hence all attempts at an analytical summary of this
song fail to satisfy, but I am sure that we can agree on these
things:
The song commences with invoking heaven and earth as
auditors. All heaven might well listen, all earth might well
listen, should listen to this song, so sweet that it might be
compared to the falling rain in the time of a drouth, or the
distilling dew upon the parched ground.
The theme of the song is evident: Jehovah’s fidelity and
Israel’s infidelity. It not only commences with a statement of
that fact, but it goes on to develop in the thought just what
Jehovah did to prove that he was faithful and just what Israel
did to prove that he was unfaithful.
There are two illustrations in that song that need to be
studied by a public speaker. Nine times in the song Jehovah
is compared to a rock, indicating stability, his being the place
of refuge. Then the eagle upon the mountaintop, wishing to
brain her young, will scatter the sticks of her nest and push
the young birds over the precipice, and they shrieking seem
about to fall to destruction, but she swoops down under them
and carries them on her wings and soars away; then she gets
far under them and lets them fall again. After a while they
learn to fly and are very proud of themselves. This illustra_
tion is to show how Jehovah has borne this ever falling peo_
ple on his wings. Both of these illustrations are very beautiful.
This song sets forth the character of Jehovah in his
sovereignty, in his holiness, in his justice, in his fidelity, and in
his mercy. The song also sets forth the character of the peo_
ple as foolish, perverse, ungrateful, wicked, and rebellious. The
song then submits evidence to prove these affirmations of dis_
tinction between the character of Jehovah and the character
of his people. It tells us what Jehovah did and what they did.
Jehovah, when he divided the nations, away back yonder
soon after the days of Noah, as we learned when we passed
over Genesis, at the time when he divided the nations of the
earth, he allotted Palestine, which we call the Holy Land, to
his foreseen people. He intended at that time that they should
have this territory. They were not yet in existence except in
their ancestors, and their direct ancestor, Abraham, had not
yet been born, but even then God, who owned all the land,
selected that strategic, eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea
connecting Mesopotamia and its great cities, Babylon and
Nineveh, with Egypt. It was a passageway between nations
north and south as well as of commerce and caravans east and
west. It was the best place in the world to plant a people that
should become the religious teacher of all nations.
The song tells how he found them, referring to their history
in Exodus, Numbers and Deuteronomy; they were a desolate
people in the howling wilderness, utterly helpless, and as an
eagle bears up her young, he bore them up and brought them
safely to the point where this song is now being sung. Then
he made that nation his inheritance, Jacob being God’s por_
tion. He selected a particular line from Adam, Seth, Noah,
Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, the twelve sons all the way
down, and he said, „These people shall be my lot, my in_
heritance, and I will use them in carrying out my purposes for
the salvation of the world.” He regarded this nation as the
very apple of his eye. He was just as sensitive with reference
to them as the eye is sensitive to an unfriendly touch.
Finally, this song, which is prophetic and regards the future
as if it were present, states that he put them in possession of
the land and blessed them beyond the power of words to ex_
press. Now, the song tells us what they did:
„When Jeshurun waxed fat he kicked.” A very expressive
proverb. You may see a poor, gaunt hack horse that you
may safely approach and lead by the mane, without a bridle.
But when you feed him and care for him, and curry him, and
he becomes sleek, the first thing that you know he kicks. The
bounding life within him abhors restraint. This illustration
shows what the people did. Their prosperity under good
treatment becomes the occasion of their revolt.
They sacrificed to idols, things that were nothing, and they
sacrificed to demons who were the authors of this idolatry.
Now, having contrasted what he did with what they did, the
song, still looking far ahead into the future, tells what he will
do; inasmuch as they have provoked him to jealousy by se_
lecting a people that have hitherto been no people. In other
words, here is a plain intimation of the things fulfilled in the
New Testament days, viz.: The kingdom of heaven is taken
away from the Jews and given to a people that will bring forth
fruits of righteousness.
The song tells us that he will make expiation for the land,
foretelling the time when the Antitype of their sacrifices in the
person of the true Lamb of God shall make the great expiation
for sin. The song tells further that they, on account of their
sin, referring, of course, to their sin against this expiation, will
be dispersed among all nations and there have an awful time
for an awful length of time.
Having thus shown what he would do, he now discloses
through the song what his mercy will be in the last day; that
there is coming a time when he will look with pity upon this
poor downtrodden, oppressed people, and have compassion and
pour out upon them the grace of supplication, and when in
their penitence they look to him whom they have pierced, he
will forgive them.
The last great thought of the song is similar to the thought
of Paul in Romans II, viz.: that if the casting off of the chil_
dren of Israel be life to the Gentile world, what shall their
restoration be but life from the dead? If their downfall brought
Joy to other nations, how much more shall their restoration
bring joy to other nations? And so this song calls upon all
people to rejoice when his people are forgiven and restored.
Benediction, Deuteronomy 33. Here you must compare our
text with Genesis 49 and also Revelation 7. In Genesis 49,
Jacob, the old dying patriarch, summoned his children before
him and pronounced a benediction upon each of them. And
in Revelation 7 there is an account of the 144,000 redeemed by
the power of the gospel out of the twelve tribes of Israel. Now,
when we look at these lists as given in Genesis 49, Deuteron_
omy 33 and Revelation 7, we find that the order in which the
names come is not the same in any two accounts. In Genesis,
Jacob blesses them in this order: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah,
Zebulun, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph and
Benjamin. Moses blesses them in this order: Reuben, Judah,
Levi, Benjamin, Joseph, Zebulun, Issachar, Gad, Dan,
Naphtali and Asher. He leaves out Simeon. In Revelation
the order is this: Judah, Reuben, Gad, Asher, Naphtali,
Manasseh, Simeon, Levi, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph (which is
Ephraim) and Benjamin, leving out Dan.

Why does Moses leave out Simeon? You will remember
that in submitting to the seductive counsels of Balaam, Zimri
of the tribe of Simeon committed the presumptuous sin pun_
ished by Phinehas. It may be that all of the 24,000 people
that perished in that plague were of the tribe of Simeon, which
in turn may account for the fact that this tribe, according to
the first census numbering 59,300, is found by the second
census, immediately following, to be only 22,000. Now, I say
that the sin of Zimri may have prompted Moses to leave out
Simeon.
But I will give you a reason much more probable. In the
allotment of the tribes Simeon got no special territory, and as
Moses is thinking of the tribes as they occupy the land, we
can see how he might leave out Simeon, since Simeon’s terri_
tory is included in Judah’s. When we come to Revelation, it
is hard to tell why Dan is left out. It may be because that
after going over to the Promised Land Dan left his territory
by a migration which you will discover in Judges, went out_
side of the Promised Land and captured a home and there set
up an alien worship. It may be that on this account he is
left out. I do not dogmatize on that. Jewish Christians say
that Dan was left out because of the character of the tribe as
described by Jacob: „A serpent in the way, an adder in the
path.” When we were going over Genesis, I called your at_
tention to that awful secret band among the Mormons called
the „Danites,” based upon the prophetic character of Dan in
Genesis, and the song of Joaquin Miller, which utterly wiped
them off the face of the earth.
The next thought arising from a comparison of these lists
is that some who in Jacob’s blessing had a dark prospect ahead
of them found a brighter prospect in the case of their descen_
dants in Moses’ time. For instance, read what is said about
Reuben in Genesis 49 and immediately following with what
Moses predicts concerning him. Reuben’s prospects brighten
in the Mosaic account, and so with some other. Levi, in the
prophecy of his father Jacob, in Genesis 49, has a dark pros_
pect before him, but in the Mosaic blessing his prospects are
intensely brightened. In this case the children are doing bet_
ter than the fathers.
Without going over it all, it is my suggestion that the read_
er take Genesis 49 and Deuteronomy 33 and compare tribe by
tribe, and see what. the variations are in this lapse of time.
The lesson to be learned from this is that a family through its
head may start out bad and give taint to all the descendants
of that man, visiting the iniquities of the fathers upon the
children to the third and fourth generations, but after a while
some of the children will establish themselves in righteousness
and bring honor to that name. And likewise a family may start
out with a distinguished head and for quite a long time the
descendants of this man will share in his fame and glory,
but if they do nothing themselves to keep up his reputation,
then they become more exposed in their worthlessness by the
very fact that they had an illustrious sire.
I can illustrate: There was once a canvass going on in Mc_
Lennan County for County Attorney, one of the candidates
was accustomed in opening his speeches to refer to his progeni_
tors; that as far back as records went they were illustrious
people. The opposing candidate got up and said: „Fellow
citizens, I know but little about my progenitors. If they were
good men they ought to have held office in their time, but on
account of their goodness I should not hold office now; so,
replying to all that my very well_descended opponent has said
in favor of his candidacy, I will just make this remark: I
would rather be a horse without a pedigree than a pedigree
without a horse.” He was elected.

QUESTIONS
1. What the literary form of the sixth and seventh addresses of
does the introduction to the sixth address contain?
2. What does the introduction to the sixth address contain?
3. What the origin, reason and purpose of this song?
4. Why was the poetic and prophetic form of this address well
adapted to secure its object?
5. What the subject of Psalm 90, how doea it account for the tran_
sitory life of man and whose exposition of it was commended?
6. What the form of the benediction, and how does it compare with
certain parts of the song?
7. With what preceding song of Moses should the sixth address
be compared?
8. What other book besides the Pentateuch does the author ascribe
to Moses and what the similarity of the problem in this book with
the problem of his own people when he wrote it?
9. Expound the allusion to this preceding song in Revelation
15:2_4.
10. What can you say of Moses as a poet?
11. How was the Pentateuch, when finished, preserved and when do
we hear of it again?
12. Give an analysis of this song as follows:
(1) The invocation.
(2) The theme.
(3) The illustrations.
(4) The characters set forth.
(5) The strategic position of God’8 people.
(6) God’s care for his people.
(7) The prophecies.
13. With what other scripture must the benediction be compared?
the prophecies concerning the names?
14. In comparing the tribe lists in these three scriptures, what vari_
ations do you find as to the order of names, omission of names and the prophecies concerning the names?
15. What lessons on heredity and individuality may be learned from
the fact that in the Mosaic benediction when compared with the benediction of Jacob, the prospect brightens for some tribes and darkens for others? What illustration given by the author?
16. Why did Moses leave out Simeon, and Revelation omit Dan?

XVI
THE CHARACTER AND GREATNESS OF MOSES
Deuteronomy 34:1_12

Deuteronomy 34 consists of the following parts:
1. The vision of the Promised Land accorded to Moses
from the summit of Pisgah; his eyes enabled him to see all
the land that God originally promised to Abraham.
2. The unique death and burial of Moses. No other man
in human history died this way or was buried this way. He
was not sick, though one hundred and twenty years old, his
eye not dim, his strength unabated. He died not from any
natural causes. In Geikie’s Hours with the Bible there are
several very touching legends, mythical of course, concern_
ing the death of Aaron and Moses, and the one concerning
Moses is that after he was stretched out on the place where
God told him to lie down, Jehovah called to the soul to come
out of the body, but the soul would not come. He spake to the
soul again, but the soul would not leave the body. Then
God leaned over and kissed him and the soul went up to
heaven on the wings of that kiss. It was God who buried
him, and no man was ever able to find the place, the reason
of which is obvious, viz.: the Israelites would have deified
the sepulchre of Moses; would have made pilgrimages to it
and made it a shrine of worship. The New Testament gives
us an additional particular concerning the body of Moses,
that you do not find anywhere in the Old Testament, con_
cerning a contest over that body between the Devil and
Michael. The interpretation of that remarkable New Testa_
ment passage we must reserve until we come to study the
book in which it is given.

The next thing set forth in this chapter is the mourning
for thirty days, then after a reference to Joshua comes this
encomium which is our text: „There hath not arisen a
prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom Jehovah knew
face to face, in all the signs and wonders, which Jehovah
sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to all
his servants, and to all his land, and in all the mighty hand,
and in all the great terror, which Moses wrought in the
sight of all Israel.” That places Moses in a unique position.
Special stress is laid upon his miracle_working power. In
fact, in teaching the Bible I do not so much discuss miracles
when I come to them in the life of Christ as I discuss them
in the life of Moses. The miracles by Moses constitute the
first great group and are surpassed in wonder by no miracles
ever wrought on the face of the earth by anybody, Christ and
the apostles not excepted. In studying the Bible this is the
place to study miracles as they are set forth in the life ol
Moses.
Now from the text, „There hath not arisen a prophet
since in Israel like unto Moses,” I want to discuss bis char_
acter and his greatness. In our studies in Exodus we con_
sidered the materials for the life of Moses; biblical, Jewish,
Mohammedan, heathen, modern, archaeological, and legend_
ary.
We found the biblical material gathered mainly from the
Pentateuch, but somewhat from the other Old Testament
books, and somewhat from the New Testament references, to
be really the only reliable historical material, except that the
results of modern archaeological research, fairly interpreted,
confirm the Mosaic history. This is one of the most important
contributions of archaeology. For quite a while it was
claimed that the Mosaic period was a period of ignorance,
that the people could neither read nor write, but what a revela_
tion archaeology has flashed upon that false contention, show_
ing that it was an intensely literary period, and demonstrating
that Moses made no such mistakes as the higher critics a long
time ago were accustomed to attribute to him. So that with
this amount of material it is not difficult to construct a con_
nected history of this, the greatest man from Adam to the
New Testament time. No other man in all that vast period
of time has left such an impress on the human race. The
most illustrious heroes of antiquity in profane stories are,
when compared to Moses, as the stars in the solar system to
the sun.
He was the youngest child of Arnram and Jochebed, of the
tribe of Levi. His sister Miriam and his brother Aaron be_
came illustrious through association with him. He was born
during the period of Egyptian bondage during the oppression
of the Israelites under the dynasty that „knew not Joseph.”
We find a gracious providence protecting his infancy, and
your attention in studying Exodus was called to the follow_
ing elements of preparation, which account for his greatneaa.
I have been compelled on suitable occasions to remark that
only prepared men ever accomplished great things. The
elements of his preparation were as follows:
1. The faith of his parents trained his early years so ef_
fectually that he never in the marvellous vicissitudes of after
life forgot that he was a child of Abraham and bore on his
body the mark of the covenant which isolated him from all
other nations.
2. His training in the Egyptian court. This is a very great
element of his preparation for his life work, for according
to Stephen he became learned in all the wisdom of the Egyp_
tians and was mighty in words and deeds. So far, therefore,
as this court training and opportunity could afford, he was
an expert in literature, war, agriculture, legislation, juris_
prudence, medicine, organization, and comparative religions.
3. The third element of his preparation consisted of the
crisis that came in his life when forty years old, through a
revelation that was made to him by Jehovah that he was
destined to deliver his people from bondage. The fact of
such a revelation is evident form Stephen’s speech in Acts
7:23_25. The entrance into his heart of a desire to visit his
brethren and to defend them from oppression, and the sup_
position on his part that they would know that God by his
hand was giving deliverance to Israel, all abundantly show
that God had appeared unto him and commissioned him. It
was this revelation that necessitated the great life decision
recorded in Hebrews 11:24_26: „By faith Moses, when he was
grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daugh_
ter; choosing rather to share ill treatment with the people of
God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; ac_
counting the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treas_
ures of Egypt; for he looked unto the recompense of reward.”
But as faith comes by hearing and hearing by the Word of
God, there must have been a revelation to him which, coupled
with his training in the promises and prophecies vouchsafed
to his fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, impelled him to the
decisive step which he took. Revelation touching both time
and eternity is the basis of his faith. He made no mistake in
his call to be a deliverer, nor in the choice following the call.
But he did make a mistake in not leaving it to God to deter_
mine the time of the deliverance and its method for accom_
plishment. When he was forty years old, he presumptuously
and rashly „butted in,” as one might say, Pharaoh not ready,
not sufficiently prepared, his people not ready and Canaan not
ready to be occupied. In rashness and presumption he struck
too soon. So we find the next element of his preparation:
4. Forty years of retirement and meditation in Midian.
Forty years more of preparation were needed all around. The
meekness and patience of subsequent years could not fruit
from his prosperity in Egypt. „Tribulation worketh patience,
patience experience, and experience hope.” There must be in
preparation for great things a time for meditation and reflec_
tion, when the mind turns over and assimilates the knowledge
acquired. Christ was retired until thirty, John the Baptist
until thirty and Paul for three years in Arabia. We ara so
busy in modern times and want to rush out so speedily into
life that we are not willing to take time to reflect or meditate.
Moses needed a greater knowledge of that Sinaitic peninsula
to be the scene of another forty years of activity. In the quiet
pastoral life in Midian it is very probable that Moses wrote
first the book of Job. When we come to that book, I think
I can give you an unanswerable argument in proof that Moses
was its author and that it was the first book of the Bible
written, and that it was suggested by the undeserved affliction
of his people over in Egypt. Job’s case was another burning
bush case. And it is almost certain, indeed it is morally cer_
tain, that he wrote the book of Genesis in that period of
retirement, because when we commence to read Exodus, Levit_
icus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, there is always a presup_
position that the people are familiar with the facts of Genesis.
5. The last element of his preparation comes with the
miracle of the burning bush and all the attendant history.
Now, as we have just finished our study of the Pentateuch
written by Moses, let us fix our minds upon the forces from
which character resulted and the elements of his greatness.
Character is not an accident. Character cannot be improvised.
Character is a result, a crystallization of preceding causes.
We find that the great character of Moses is the result,
1. Of faithful family training. Oliver Wendell Holmes, as
I have told you before, when asked when you should com_
mence the education of a child, said, „Commence with its
grandmother,” and in another instance says that „man is an
omnibus in which all of his ancestors ride.” The reason why
so many men of genius are never great is the lack of family
training.
2. It was the result of personal faith in God and a sense of
personal responsibility to God. „What a man thinks, that he
is.” There can be no greater mistake than the hasty, ill_con_
sidered statement, „It makes no difference what a man be_
lieves.” His character was the result of his faith.
3. It was the result of his conviction concerning the future
life. It is a slander upon the Old Testament to say that it
discovers nothing of future life. To Moses’ mind the world
to come was as clear as it is to your mind, and he had „respect
unto the recompense of reward.” No man could deliberately
turn from earthly power, position, honor, riches, pleasures,
and take the position which he took of reproach and toil and
poverty unless prompted by a thought of the life to come.
4. His character was the result of marvelous secular edu_
cation. Our Lord has not made great learning a condition
of the ministerial office, but it is a fact that the wider your
range of general information, the more you are acquainted
with affairs, the more your mind is disciplined in the study
of the things taught in colleges and universities, certainly the
greater your power will be as a preacher. Moses had a secular
education ahead of any other man of his time.
5. It was the result of great personal trials and long con_
tinued discipline. Character comes out of a furnace and no
man can lay any very loud claims to character who has not
been tried. He does not know what he will be when he passes
through the fire.
6. It was the result of long continued service and labor.
Moses was a worker, and the man who works develops char_
acter. How can an idle person have character?
7. It was the result of profound meditation and reflection.
We may know a lot, just keep on knowing, knowing and know_
ing, but if we do not assimilate that knowledge, the mind be_
comes an old garret full of odds and ends and scraps, none
available when needed. It is not the quantity you eat but
what you digest that builds up your body, and you cannot
assimilate mind food without meditation. The Duchess De_
Berri once said, „If associating with the twelve apostles kept
me from solitary meditative thoughts of God, and prayer, I
would give up the company of the twelve apostles.”
8. His character was the result of great opportunities and
high positions carefully utilized.
Now, looking at the result of such forces, what do we dis_
cover in Moses?
1. He was a man of piety. Nothing on earth can make up
for the lack of personal piety. Gifts cannot do it.
2. A man of wisdom. Somebody – and a schoolteacher –
recently asked me to give a synopsis of a lecture delivered be_
fore his school on the distinction between wisdom and knowl_
edge. Wisdom is the application of knowledge. „Knowledge
comes but wisdom lingers.”
3. He was a man of decision, as is evident by the choice
he made. Many a poor fellow spends his life astraddle of the
fence, like Mr. Lincoln’s ox that jumped half_way over the
fence and then could not butt the dogs that were baying him
in front nor kick the dogs that were biting him behind.
4. He was a man of great organizing capacity, or great
administrative ability.
5. A faithful man in all offices of trust. That is one of the
tributes borne to him in the letter to the Hebrews.
6. He was a man of surpassing meekness and patience. He
did fly off the handle one time, but some of us stay off the
handle.
7. He was a man of sublime courage. And what a high
quality of courage!
8. He was an intensely patriotic man: „If thou wilt not
forgive their sin; blot my name out of thy book.”
9. He was an intensely unselfish man. I remember once
when I was a boy being much impressed with this: A newly
elected representative of Drew County, Arkansas, was ap_
proached to know if he was going to obey what his constitu_
ents would tell him to do. He said, „First, I am God’s man.
I will do nothing that violates my idea of personal responsi_
bility to God. Second, I am my nation’s man. I will do
nothing that will tend to disrupt the whole country. Third,.
I am my State’s man. I will do nothing for this particular
county that is prejudicial to the interests of the whole State.
Fourth, I am my own man. I will do nothing that will destroy
my own individuality. And now, if a man who is God’s man,
his Nation’s man, his State’s man, and his own man, is al_
lowed to represent your people, I will represent you.” It made
a very great impression on my mind.
Now, having such a character, in what phases did his great_
ness display itself?
First of all, as a historian. Common custom calls Herodotus
the father of history) but what is Herodotus compared to
Moses? Moses gives us the only history of a third part of
the time so far allotted to this world.
He was a great legislator. All civilization to_day is bottomed
on the Mosaic legislation. He was a great jurist; the prin_
ciples of law and equity are better set forth by Moses than in
all the publications of the chancellors of England and the
Supreme Court of the United States.
He was a great poet, as we have found in considering the
song of the Red Sea, the song just before he passed away,
Psalm 90, written in his old age, the benediction which he
pronounced upon his people, and his high thought in the book
of Job, illustrative of the great problem, the undeserved afflic_
tions of his people.
He was a great orator. Whoever can read and study Deu_
teronomy intelligently and then deny that Moses was a master
orator) is not intelligent, if you will permit such a statement.
He was a great prophet. Take the prophecies of his Levi_
tical legislation, the types. Who can understand Christ who
has not understood the paschal Lamb, the two goats on the
day of atonement, the red heifer, the brazen serpent, and mul_
titudinous others? Then the prophecy concerning Christ and
his great prophecies in Deuteronomy concerning his people
that have been fulfilling ever since his time, and some yet to be
fulfilled. In every land on the earth today there stand living
monuments to attest the accuracy of the forecasts of his
prophetic mind.
He was a great mediator between God and man. God se_
lected him to mediate, and the people selected him to mediate.
In a sense, with one hand he touched divinity and with the
other he touched humanity.
He was a type of Christ. He represents the people before
God and represents God before the people, and in a most
remarkable way. His mediation appears in his powerful inter_
cession when the people sin; he would come to God, state the
sin, then plead for its pardon.
Now let us look at his faults. Ingersoll was accustomed to
speak of the mistakes of Moses. The first one that we are
able to discover comes after God said to him, „You shall de_
liver Israel.” He rushed at it, not leaving to God to deter_
mine when and how, and started a plan of his own by killing
that Egyptian, and that fault, as is usually the case, became
the father of the next fault. You know when a man „butts in”
prematurely and gets „sawed off,” his pride is so wounded that
the next time he will „sulk in his tent.”
When God came to him at the burning bush, he was still so
sore that God almost had to drag him by the hair of his head
to make him try again. That was his second fault.
The third fault was neglecting to circumcise his children,
and he came within an inch of losing his life by it. His wife
was the cause of this, but a man must not let his wife keep
him from obeying God.
The fourth sin that he committed was when he spoke ill_
advisedly with his lips at Kadesh, and forgetting that the rock
must be smitten but once, and forgetting that the waters
flowed afterwards by petition and not by smiting, he violated
God’s word and struck the rock. For 120 years he had car_
ried this burden, like Atlas holding the world on his shoulders;
he had been nagged, he had been misunderstood, slandered and
misrepresented, and just then his superb patience gave away.
When I look at it, I feel that I want to lift my hat to the man
whose patience gave way just one time.

QUESTIONS
1. Who probably wrote Deuteronomy 34?
2. State the items of its contents.
3. What constitutes the death of Moses the most unique death of history?
4. Give a legend concerning his death.
5. What additional particular concerning Moses’ body found in
the New Testament?
6. What his encomium in this chapter?
7. Upon what is special stress laid in the life of Moses, and why?
8. What the materials for a life of Moses?
9. What his impress on the ages, and how does he compare with
the men of profane history?
10. What the circumstances of his birth and childhood, his paren_
tage and the other members of his family?
11. What the elements of preparation for his life work?
12. What three great periods of his life?
13. What did the faith of his parents do for him?
14. Of what did his learning at the Egyptian court consist?
15. What the great crisis of his life, and what mistake did he make
relative to it?
16. Why the forty years in Midian and what other Bible examples?
17. What the last element of his preparation?
18. What the forces which contributed to the formation of his character?
19. What does Oliver Wendell Holmes say of family training?
20. What the relation of his faith to his character?
21. Did Moses know of the future life? What the evidence?
22. What the importance of secular education?
23. What the importance of trials in relation to character?
24. What the relation of labor to character?
25. What the importance of meditation and reflection in relation to character?
26, What the importance of utilizing opportunities in relation to character?
27. What the resultant character?
28. In what phases did his greatness display itself?
29. What his antitype?
30. What his faults?

XVII
THE HOMILETIC VALUE OF DEUTERONOMY

The book of Deuteronomy, like the letters to the Romans
and to the Hebrews, is expository, abounding in both single
texts and topics. It is a mine from which a preacher or plat_
form speaker digs the richest themes. So our Saviour and his
apostles found it and used it more than they did, perhaps,
any other book in the Old Testament. You have followed
these discussions and have done what studying you have done
to very little purpose if you have not filled your quiver with
feathered, sharp, and polished arrows.
On account of the homiletical value of the book arising
from its expository nature, I have thought it well to devote
this last section to calling your attention to some of the many
great pulpit themes in the book.
When I was a young preacher, I studied this book a solid
month and then carefully wrote out a list of 250 special
sermon outlines from texts selected from the book. Of course
I am not going to inflict any 250 on you in this discussion.
The first time I ever read Deuteronomy, I felt as if I had
gotten into a rich mine from which a good miner could dig
tons and tons of preaching material.

TEXTS FOR SERMONS
1. 1:5: „Moses began to declare [expound] this law.” I
take that first because it marks the character of the book; to
declare, to dig up, to get under, to expound, not to enact or
proclaim.
2. 1:9_18) a topical theme: Israel’s Judicial System. In
discussing that I have four divisions: (1) Its graded courts
or a division of labor, judges over tens, fifties, hundreds, thou_

sands and so on up, its appellate court being the oracle of God.
This judicial system brings before our minds the first system
of graded courts. (2) The character and qualifications of the
judges. (3) The methods of trial and hearing evidence. (4)
Verdict and penalty. These are the four divisions of the
theme, Israel’s Judicial System.
3. 1:2: „It is eleven days’ journey from Horeb by the way
of Mount Seir unto Kadesh_barnea.” On account of sin they
lost thirty_seven days in getting there the first time, and
thirty_eight years in getting there the second time, so that
the theme for that text is, „Sin makes a short way very long.”
4. 1:39: „The excuse about children.” Men never quit
making it. How many times do parents justify wrongdoing
by attributing it to their concern for the little folks?
5. 1:41_45, theme: „They who will not war with Jehovah
as leader better not war without him.” They would not go
with him as leader and afterwards presumptuously went and
he would not go with them.
6. Based upon the parenthetical statements in the second
and third chapters. This refers to the giants, Emims, Rephims,
Zamzummins, etc. Theme: „Giants are not invincible.” Moses
brings in the history of these giants to show that if giants
could be overcome by the Edomites, by a people who were
not Jehovah’s people, why on earth should his people tremble
because there were giants in the way? Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s
Progress tells how a whole host of Christian people being come
together at the house of Gaius and one said that it was not
right for that many of God’s people to be together and do
nothing for the cause, saying, „Let’s go out and kill a giant,”
which they proceeded to do. I oftentimes quote that at Asso_
ciations and Conventions where the brethren come together
to resolve, resolve, and adjourn. God’s people should kill giants
when they assemble.
7. 4:15: „Ye saw no manner of form,” no similitude or like-_
ness of God.
8. 4:32: „The days that are past” or Memory’s use of
history.
9. 6:4: „Love the fulfilling of the law.”
10. 6:7: „Family instruction.”
11. 7:2_3: „Beware of entangling alliances.” I am quot_
ing the theme from Washington’s farewell address, „Beware
of entangling alliances with other nations.”
12. „Man doth not live by bread alone.” This was used
by our Saviour and with it he turned the devil down in the
temptation. In the early days of my pastorate, I was walking
down the street one day and saw a man who, just as soon as
he saw me, tried to hide his face. I went into his house and
saw that he was one of my members who had not been to
church for a good while. He was running a little retail dram
shop. I never said a word, just looked at him. „A man must
make a living somehow,” he said; „a man must make a living
somehow,” repeating just that over and over. „Not neces_
sarily,” I said: „you are not bound to live. It certainly is
necessary for you to obey God and you are not doing it.”
„Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that
proceedeth out of the mouth of Jehovah.”
13. The greater part of chapter 9 is on „Beware of self_
righteousness.” This is one of the finest chapters in the Bible.
Do not attribute your spiritual prosperity to your own right_
eousness.
14. 9:25, presents to us the intercession of Moses, that
mighty man of prayer.
15. 10:12, gives us the summary of duty, showing that God’s
commandments are reasonable commandments.
16. 10:16, gives us the spiritual meaning of circumcision,
showing what is its true antitype, not baptism, but circum_
cision of the heart; in other words, regeneration is the anti_
type of circumcision.

17. A topical subject without specifying a particular place.
The Deuteronomy tithe as compared with the Levitical tithe.
In other words, the second tithe of the Law and what it is for.
18. 13:1_3: „No sign can attest a false prophet or false
doctrine.”
19. 18:15_19, the greatest text in the book: That prophet
like unto Moses.
20. Now we come to another topical theme, national in_
struction as based on chapter 16, giving an account of the
feasts, and in a later chapter which tells how the whole nation,
men, women and children, shall come together and be in_
structed for a whole year in the Law. National instruction.
21. 17:14_20: The king and the book.
22. 19:1_11: Purpose of the cities of refuge.
23. Chapter 20: Laws of war.
24. 21:1_9: Civic responsibility for crime.
25. 21:22: Cursed is every man that hangeth upon a tree.
You can carry that over into the New Testament.
26. 24:16: Personal responsibility.
27. 26:1_11: Acknowledgment of Jehovah’s ownership.
28. 29:5: Jehovah’s providence.
29. 30:1: Jehovah’s mercy for the penitent.
30. 30:11: Now I come to one that I put next to the great_
est one. I called the one in 18:18, the greatest. The Law not
hard nor far off, the one that Paul explains in Romans 10,
and to which Christ refers when he says, „My yoke is easy
and my burden is light.”
31. 30:19: Indissoluble pairs; life and good, death and evil.
32. 31:2_3: The cause does not die with its advocates.
Moses dies, Jehovah remains, and Joshua succeeds.
33. 31:8: Comfort and power of Jehovah’s guidance.
34. I leave you to find the expression, but the next theme is
„God is a consuming fire.” It is just as essential to preach
God as a consuming fire as „God is love.” For instance,
some of you are married and have children. Now that love
is not merely manifested in feeding them, clothing them, and
petting them. What if you saw a rattlesnake just about to
strike your child? What if you saw a wolf come into your
tent and just about to grab one of your children? What would
love do? What if you saw that child about to be ruined by.
association with incorrigible, awful children, would you sep_
arate them? Now you can see how love digs hell.
35. Here is a text that I used to preach from a great deal,
„Write it plain.”
36. 29:18: „A root of bitterness.” That is a fine text for
showing how the Law goes to the bottom and does not wait
until it comes out into overt acts.
37. 28:56: „The delicate lady.” When you get over in the
New Testament, if you look at the Greek of a certain expres_
sion of Paul, it means „little women,” not small in stature or
youthful in age as Miss Alcott’s Little Women, but little in a
moral sense.
38. Now, another one of the very greatest texts in the book.
If you ever want to be transcendently eloquent and impressive
in a revival sermon, and your heart is in it, take this theme:
28:65_67, „The mental torture of the lost,” „A scorpion
circled with fire,” as one writer calls it. One of the most re_
markable illustrations on account of sin is found in Tiberius,
the great Roman Emperor. He had become such a tyrant;
he had sinned so much that all power of discrimination be_
tween right and wrong had been lost. The assembled Senate
was waiting to receive his message to guide deliberation on
important matters. This was his message: „What to write
you, Conscript Fathers, or how to write or what not to write,
may all the gods and goddesses destroy me more than I feel
they are daily destroying me, if I know.” Shakespeare more
than any other author portrays this despair in Richard III,
Macbeth, and other dramas.
39. 27:26: „Amen.” Now, how would you discuss it? The
word means let it be so. God, by putting half the people on
Ebal and half on Gerizirn, committed them to the repetition
of every curse and every blessing, and when they got through
with all the curses and blessings he made every one say,
„Amen,” „Let it be just that way.” The greatest triumph of
our Lord is set forth in one of Paul’s letters where he says,
„Every knee shall bow and every tongue shall confess.” That
when he comes to judge the world and brings the lost from
hell, and the saved from heaven, not one of whom has fully
understood all of the reasons why he is saved or lost, so clearly
will everything be brought out that even the lost when they
turn away to enter hell forever will say, „Amen.” They will
have to testify that what has been done has been done well.
40. 29:29: „Hidden and revealed things.” Hidden things
belong to God, but revealed things we are to teach to our chil_
dren. The purpose and limits of revelation.
41. Here is a great topical theme: „God’s provision for the
record, preservation, and publication of his Law.” The first
central part of the Law God spoke to Moses, and then wrote
an autograph copy and filed it as a witness. Every seventh
year had to be devoted to going over the entire Law and the
exposition of it. You can carry the idea out into the whole of
the Old Testament written in Hebrew, then translated into
Greek, then into Latin, then into English, and a thousand
other languages.
42. 32:31: „Their rock is not our rock, even our enemies
themselves being judges.” A fine theme.
43. 33:32: „For their vine is of the vine of Sodom.”
44. The last one that I have: „There hath not arisen a
prophet like unto Moses.”
These are some of the greatest preaching themes in the book.
I could give you a thousand just as well as the forty_odd that
I have given you. It is the richest mine for a preacher, it
seems to me, in the whole Bible.

QUESTIONS
1. What the nature of the book of Deuteronomy?
2. Mark each text pointed out and be able to give the line of
thought and application suggested.
3. The Sinaitic covenant is a development of what preceding covenant?
4. What chapters in Exodus contain the Sinaitic covenant in germ,
or its constitution, and what its three elements?
5. Of which of these three elements is Leviticus a development,
and of which are Numbers and Deuteronomy a development?
6. In chapter 31:24_26, does „this book of the Law” which Moses
finished writing mean Deuteronomy only, or does it include the whole Pentateuch? Answer the same question concerning the „Book of the Law” found in Josiah’s time, (2 Kings 22) and the „Book of the Law” from which Ezra read, (Neh. 8:1).
7. Were the social laws touching marriage, divorce, slavery, par_
ental power over children, perfect like the moral law, and if not, why not, and did they regulate these things in a way to improve them as practised by the heathen nations?
8. What is the best book on Old Testament ethics?
9. What five New Testament uses of the words of Moses most
emphasize the value of his books?
10. What New Testament appearance and consociation of persons
best illustrates his position in Revelation?
11. What one word best accounts for Moses?

XVIII
THE BOOK OF JOSHUA
HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

1. What is the relation of this book to the Old Testament?
Ans. – (1) On the face of it, it is a sequel to the Pentateuch,
whose history it continues without a break, 1:2.
(2) It is the first book of the series called „The Earlier
Prophets,” which comprises Joshua, Judges, I and 2 Samuel,
I and 2 Kings, the whole series being the first part of the
grand division called „The Prophets.”
(3) Its history underlies all subsequent history of the Jew_
ish people and its most marvelous events are cited as history
in the Psalms, Psalm 44:23; 78:55; Isaiah 28:21; Habakkuk
3:11.
2. What is the testimony of the New Testament to its events
as history?
Ans. – Stephen in Acts 7:45; James in 2:25; Paul in He_
brews 4:8; 11:30_31, all cite its most miraculous events as
plain history.
3. What, therefore, is its right to a place in the canon of
the Old Testament?
Ans. – It has never been disputed by Jew or Gentile.
4. In his very able work on The Bible; Its Structure and
Purpose, what remarkable fact is cited by John Urquhart as
bearing upon the grouping of the historical books of the Old
Testament?
Ans. – That very many of these books of the Old Testament
commence with the conjunction „and,” the rendering of a
small Hebrew letter, which enables us to divide all the his_
torical books into four groups, indicating the most intelligent
purpose as to structure.
5. State these four groups and show how the conjunction
„and” plays its part in the groupings.
Ans. – (1) Israel outside the Land. Exodus, Leviticus and
Numbers all commence with „and” continuing the story of
the leading book, Genesis.
(2) Israel in the Land. Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges,
Ruth, I and 2 Samuel, I and 2 Kings. Deuteronomy, being
prospective or introductory to entering the land, is the leading
book with all the others in order, commencing with the con_
junction „and” and so continuing the story of the leading
book.
(3) Israel returning to the Land after the Babylonian
Captivity. I and 2 Chronicles and Ezra. Here I Chronicles
is the leading book, making an entirely new start in history,
commencing with Adam, and the other two books commenc_
ing with the conjunction „and” carry on the story of the lead_
ing book.
(4) Israel that never returnedùor the Dispersion. Nehe_
miah himself, while twice visiting Jerusalem, lived and died
a Babylonian Jew at the Persian Court.
Therefore we find that Joshua commences with „and” and
that it carries on the story started by Deuteronomy, and
„and” will go on until we get to the second book of Kings.
This „and,” just a stroke, next to the smallest letter in the
Hebrew alphabet, determines the structural form of all the
historical books of the Old Testament.
6. Who is the author of the book of Joshua?
Ans. – The only direct testimony is in 24:26, where the
writing of the farewell addresses, at least, is expressly ascribed
to Joshua. In the making of a final record for a witness, he
but follows the example of Moses. No other was so well quali_
fied to describe events in which he, by divine appointment,
acted a leading part. Hence, except the account of his own
death, as in a similar case of Moses, the Jews and the early
Christian fathers ascribed the book to Joshua, from whom in

any event the material of the history must have been obtained.
The style indicates an eyewitness as the author, and a par_
ticipant. But what is mainly to the purpose is the fact that
not even a historical book could get into the Hebrew canon
that was not written by an inspired prophet. And it is recog_
nized by the Prophets and recognized, in that respect, by our
Lord as inspired.
7. What objections are urged against Joshua’s authorship?
Ans. – (1) The book tells in chapter 15 of the capture of
Hebron by Caleb, and the capture of Debir by Othniel, Joshua
15:13_20, which it is alleged occurred in the period of Judges,
Judges 1:10_15.
(2) The remark that the „Jebusites dwelt with the children
of Judah at Jerusalem,” Joshua 15:63, when the capture of
Jerusalem also occurred in the period of the Judges, Judges 1:8.
(3) The capture of Laish by the warriors of Dan, Joshua
19:47, which event also belongs to the period of the Judges,
Judges 28:7.
8. What is the reply to these objections?
Ans. – There is nothing in any of these three events to prove
clearly that they occurred after Joshua’s death. Long before
his death he had retired from the position of active leadership
to his own estate. He had executed all his commissions and
only just before his death reappeared to deliver his farewell
address. What is briefly referred to in the book of Joshua is
restated and elaborated in the book of Judges, i.e., so far as
these three events are concerned. We know that in Joshua’s
lifetime he threw upon the tribes the responsibility of com_
pleting the conquest of the territory assigned to them, as ap_
pears from his reply to the complaints of the sons of Joseph,
17:14_18.
9. What the period of time covered by the book of Joshua?

Ans. – We are told that Joshua was 110 years old when he
died, and that he was a young man, perhaps forty years old,
at the exodus from Egypt, and as the pilgrimage lasted forty
years, there remains a period of about thirty years for the book
of Joshua.
10. What the purpose of the book?
Ans. – (1) To show how faithfully Jehovah fulfilled all his
promises in putting them in possession of the Promised Land,
and in giving victory over all their enemies.
(2) To show Jehovah’s government of the nations, bringing
about judgment upon the nations that forget God and become
incorrigible in their wickedness.
11. What the great moral problem in this book and how do
you solve it?
Ans. – Now I will tell you the problemùthe destruction of
the Canaanites root and branch, men, women and children,
everything that breathes. On that account in every age of
the world people, some good people, and some „goody” peo_
ple have questioned the morals of the book and of the Old
Testament, i.e., on account of the cruelty, the awful cruelty of
such indiscriminate wholesale slaughter of thirty_odd nations.
Now, how do you solve it? I will give some general remarks
on the solution. Wm. Paley answers that question. (You may
find his book among some of the old_time books presented to
the Library.) W. A. Jarrell, in his book on Old Testament
Ethics Vindicated, gives his solution of that problem. In the
third place, Oehier, the noted German theologian, discusses it;
quite a number of the Baptist authorities and the commen_
taries all discuss it. What is the best explanation of this in_
discriminate destruction of many nations, none of them, not
even the children left alive, men, women and children? That
is a fact. Now the question is about the morality of the fact.
Josephus also gives an account of it and he gives his philoso_
phy of it.

The substance of all this is that Israel, God’s chosen people,
had a religious mission to fill. They were to bring the Messiah
to the world and they had to be a separate people in order to
do that. They could not amalgamate with other peoples and
keep a pure Jewish blood which was necessary to accomplish
the result. Besides this, the cup of their iniquity was full and
the day of their execution was at hand. As to the infants,
they were a thousand times better off to die in infancy. So
it was really an act of mercy to them.
12. Give an account of the life and character of Joshua up
to the time that book commences.
Ans. – He appears first in battle with Amaiek (Ex. 17);
then at Mount Sinai with Moses on the Mount, (Ex. 24) ; next,
coming down from the mountain, (Ex. 32) ; next he appears in
the story of Eldad and Medad, (Num. II); then we find him
sent out by Moses as a spy, (Num. 13) ; his ordination (Num.
27) ; in Deuteronomy 31 we have the record of his charge from
Jehovah; in the same chapter we find him called Hoshea and
he heard Moses’ song; then in Deuteronomy 34 we have him
succeeding Moses. He was of the tribe of Ephraim, held the
office of General and was Minister to Moses.
13. Of whom was Joshua a type?
Ans. – Christ. See page 169 for fuller answer.
14. Finally comes the analysis of the book.
Ans. – Now, it is very seldom that I am willing to accept
any analysis of a book other than my own, but I have ac_
cepted the „Cambridge Bible” analysis. It is fine, only I
would like to suggest some improvements. Indeed the whole
of the commentary on Joshua is good. When I was a young
man, I heard William Carey Crane, President of Baylor Uni_
versity at Independence, preach a funeral oration on the death
of Sam Houston. He took an expression in the book of Joshua
as his text and his sermon was the comparison of Joshua,
the great soldier and statesman, with Sam Houston, the great

soldier and statesman, and strange to say that very thing was
done when Lord Wellington died and his funeral was preached.
The comparison was not only between Wellington and Joshua,
but the great English poem is quoted as bearing upon the deep
signification of this book.
I will say this much about the character of the man. He
had the highest qualifications of a soldier, viz.: to obey orders
implicitly. He never turned to the right hand nor to the
left hand; what God gave him to do, he never questioned, he
just did it. Just exactly what God said do. He, as a general,
exacted that kind of obedience from all the soldiers that fought
under him. Now, it is remarkable that this man so great in
war, when the war was over and he had never lost a battle,
when he had conquered thirty_two kingdoms, took nothing
for himself and when the land was divided asked only a little,
modest place, that the people granted to him, where he might
have a little estate with his tribe. That shows that he was
without covetousness. His farewell address is always to be
studied in connection with the farewell address of Moses, the
farewell address of Samuel, the farewell address of Paul to the
Elders at Miletus and Washington’s farewell address. What
a pity that more of us, when we come to die, cannot look
back over the entire life, a well_regulated life, a well_regulated
life with no stain on it, no lie spoken, no fraud practiced; up_
rightness, absolute integrity of conduct.
I asked you a question a while ago which I now answer in
part. Joshua was pre_eminently a type of Jesus. The names
Jesus and Joshua are the same originally. His name was
Hoshea but by putting the ehovah prefix it means the God
of Salvation. He was a type of Jesus. He was commissioned
to conquer the Promised Land and to give the people rest in
that Promised Land, and so the Captain of our salvation,
greater than Joshua, was to conquer a promised land (the
whole world) and give rest to the people of God.

ANALYSIS OF THE BOOK OF JOSHUA

PART I.
THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN, 1_12

Section 1.– The Preparation.
1. The Summons of the War.
(1) The command of God to Joshua, 1:1_9.
(2) The command of Joshua to the people, 1:10_18.
2. The Mission of the Spies to Jericho.
(1) The sending of the spies, 2:1_7.
(2) Their reception by Rahab, 2:8_21.
(3) Their return to Joshua, 2:22_24.

Section II. – The Passage of the Jordan.
1. The Divine Guidance.
(1) The preparation of Joshua, 3:1_13.
(2) Jordan turned backward, 3:14_17.
(3) Completion of the passage, 4:1_18.
(4) The memorial at Gilgal, 4:19_24.
2. The Consecration of the Holy War.
(1) Renewal of the rite of circumcision, 5:1_9.
(2) Celebration of the Passover, 5:10_12.
(3) Appearance of the Prince of Jehovah’s Host, 5:13_15.
(4) Instruction as to the capture of Jericho, 6:1_5.

Section III. – The Conquest of Central and Southern Canaan.
1. The Capture of Jericho.
(1) The preparations, 6:6_14.
(2) The capture and destruction of the city, 6:15_27.
2. First Advance Against Ai.
(1) The sin of Achan, 7:1.
(2) The repulse from Ai, 7:2_5.
(3) Joshua’s prayer, 7:6_15.
(4) Detection and punishment of Achan, 7:16_26.
3. Second Advance Against Ai.
(1) Stratagem of Joshua, 8:1_13.
(2) Capture and destruction of the city, 8:14_29.
(3) Renewal of the covenant at Ebal, 8:30_35.
4. The Battle of Beth_horon.
(1) League of the Canaanite kings against Israel, 9:1_2.
(2) The fraud of the Gibeonites, 9:3_15.
(3) The league with Gibeon, 9:16_27.
(4) Investment of Gibeon by the Five Kings, 10:1_15.
(5) Flight and destruction of the Five Kings, 10:16_43.

Section IV. – The Conquest of Northern Canaan.
1. The Northern League.
(1) The gathering of the kings, 11:1_5.
(2) The battle of the waters of Merom, 11:6_9.
(3) The defeat of Jabin, 11:10.
(4) Subjugation of the north, 11:11_23.
2. Review of the Conquest. Catalogue of the Conquered
Kings.
(1) Of eastern Palestine, 12:1_6.

PART 2.
THE DIVISION OF CANAAN, 13_21

Section 1. – The Partition of Eastern Canaan.
1. The Mosaic Settlement.
(1) The divine command to divide the land, 13:1_7.
(2) Provision for the tribe of Levi, 13:8_14.
(3) Possessions of the tribe of Reuben, 13:15_23.
(4) Possessions of the tribe of Gad, 13:24_28.
(5) Possessions of the half_tribe of Manasseh, 13:29_33.
2. Commencement of the distribution, 14:1_5.
3. The possessions of Caleb, 14:6_15.

Section II. – Division of Western Palestine.
1. Territory of the Tribe of Judah.
(1) Its boundaries, 15:1_12.
(2) Petition of Achsah, 15:13_20.
(3) Cities in the south, 15:21_32.
(4) Cities in the lowlands, 15:33_47.
(5) Cities in the mountains, 15:48_60.
(6) Cities in the wilderness, 15:61_63.
2. Territory of the Tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh.
(1) Boundaries of the territory, 16:1_4.
(2) Territory of the tribe of Ephraim, 16:5_10.
(3) Territory of the tribe of Manasseh, 17:1_13.
(4) Complaint of the sons of Joseph, 17:14_16.
(5) Reply of Joshua, 17:17_19.
3. Territory of the Seven Remaining Tribes.
(1) The tabernacle set up at Shiloh, 18:1_10.
(2) Territory of Benjamin, 18:11_28.
(3) Territory of Simeon, 10:1_9.
(4) Territory of the tribe of Zebulun, 19:10_16.
(5) Territory of the tribe of Issachar, 19:17_23.
(6) Territory of the tribe of Asher, 19:24_31.
(7) Territory of the tribe of Naphtali, 19:32_39.
(8) Territory of the tribe of Dan, 19:40_48.
(9) Joshua’s possession, 19:49_51.

Section III. – Appointment of the Cities of Refuge.
1. The Divine Command, 20:1_3.
(1) Choice of the cities, 30:4_6.
(2) Three east of the Jordan, 20:7.
(3) Three west of the Jordan, 20:8_9.

Section IV. – Appointment of the Priestly and Levitical Cities.
1. The Demand of the Levites, 21:1_3.
(1) The Compliance, 21:4_8.
(2) Cities of the Kohathites.
(a) The sons of Aaron, 21:9_19.
(b) The Other Kohathites, 21:20_26.
(3) Cities of the Gershonites, 21:27_33.
(4) Cities of Merarites, 21:34_42.
(5) Conclusion, 21:43_45.

PART 3.
JOSHUA’S FAREWELL, 22_24

Section 1. – Release of the Two Tribes and a Half.
1. The Departure,
(1) The exhortation of Joshua, 22:1_8.
(2) Return of the tribes, 22:9.
2. The disagreement.
(1) Erection of the altar, 22:10.
(2) Embassy of Israel, 22:11_20.
(3) The explanation, 22:21_31.
(4) Return of the embassy, 22:32_34.

Section II. – The Parting of Joshua.
1. The First Address.
(1) Exhortations to fidelity, 23:1_11.
(2) Warnings against apostasy, 23:12_16.
2. The Second Address.
(1) The last counsels, 24:1_15.
(2) Renewal of the Covenant, 24:16_28.
(3) Death of Joshua, 24:29_31.
(4) Burial of the bones of Joseph, 24:32.
(5) Death of Eleazar, 24:33.

XIX
JEHOVAH’S CHARGE TO JOSHUA
Joshua 1:1_9

Our discussion commences in Joshua I, and I shall present
it in the form of questions and answers.
1. Where was Israel at this time?
Ans. – Israel was camped in what is called the „Meadow
of the Acacias,” near the upper part of the Dead Sea and
opposite the river Jordan.
2. What time?
Ans. – It is forty years after leaving Egypt in the spring
of the year, in the month of Abib. Later that month is called
Nisan, and it comes nearer to answering to our April than
any other time. The Jews had lunar months and we have
calendar months; hence every one of our months covers a
part of two of their months.
3. What incidental evidences from the text of the time of
the year?
Ans. – One is that the harlot Rahab had on the top of her
house spread out the stalks of flax. That was an April har_
vest. Flax stalks are dried out and the fibrous covering of
the stalk is used to make thread and other things. Another
circumstance is that it is stated that after they got over into
the Promised Land they ate the new corn. Our text says
old corn, but it doesn’t mean old corn. It means the produce
of the fields, which was barley. The barley harvest and the
flax came in the spring of the year, in April.
4. What are the circumstances of the people of Israel at
this time?

Ans. – Moses, Aaron, and Miriam are all dead. The entire
generation of grown men that set out from Egypt except two
are dead. It is a new generation. But while Moses is gone,
God is still present, and under a new leader they are to pro_
ceed with their history, and they have already conquered all
the territory east of the Jordan River, Moab and Gilead, and
have settled there two tribes and a half, Reuben is the land of
Moab, Gad in the land of Ammon, and the half_tribe of
Manasseh in Gilead further up. Their organization is com_
pact, they have just sworn to renew the covenant. These arc
the circumstances.
5. The book commences in English with the word „now,”
it really means „and,” and it is a connective. The question
is, What is the force of the connective?
Ans. – That has been explained several times before. It
shows that it succeeds regularly the preceding book. Genesis,
the first of the first group, is followed by Exodus, Leviticus,
and then Numbers; then Deuteronomy, the first of the second
group, is followed by Joshua, which commences with „and,”
and so on until we get through 2 Kings. I have explained
before about the force of that connective.
6. What thoughts on succession suggested by the first verse,
„After the death of Moses Jehovah spake unto Joshua”?
Ans. – The thoughts are these: Human leaders die, God
lives. As one human leader drops out, God has prepared
another to take his place. If Elijah’s time has expired, Elisha
is ready to take his place; and so it is with reference to the
church. There has been a succession of the churches from the
day that Christ said, „The gates of hell shall not prevail
against it,” and a succession of preachers. Paul dies, but
before he dies he appoints faithful men to come after him to
take up the work and carry it on.
7. Cite passages showing how Joshua has been prepared,
appointed, qualified, and charged for this work.

Ans. – Now, here are the passages: Numbers 27:15_23,
Deuteronomy 31:7_8, 14_15; Deuteronomy 34:9. These
passages show that a provision was made while Moses was
yet well and the leader, to designate a successor, to appoint
that successor, qualify that successor, to deliver solemn
charges from both God and Moses to that successor. Read
very carefully every one of these passages.
8. Moses is called the „servant of the Lord” and Joshua is
called „the minister of Moses”: „Jehovah after the death of
Moses, the servant of the Lord, spoke unto Joshua, Moses’
minister.” My question is, Distinguish between the meaning
of „servant” and „minister,” and show which one is the higher
term, and show when the higher term became Joshua’s.
Ans. – To call one „the servant of Jehovah” is the highest
title you can confer on him. „Minister” means attendant. It
is a different word in the Hebrew. It means Moses’ attendant.
In other words, just as the apostles were attendants of Christ
(they were about with him while he prepared them to take
his place after he is gone), so Joshua was Moses’ attendant or
minister. „Servant” was applied to Joshua in Joshua 24:29.
9. Analyze Jehovah’s command to Joshua, its imperative
conditions, its promises, its exhortations, and the meaning of
„this book of the law.”
Ans. – The analysis is: It is very imperative, very peremp_
tory: „Go over this river and take this land that I promised
to Israel.” And the exhortation is „be strong; don’t be a
weakling; be courageous; don’t get rattled and scared.” And
the promises are (1) „I will be to you as I was to Moses.”
(2) „I will never forsake you,” and (3) „I will put high
honour on you.” Those are the promises. Those promises
are to you and to any Christian preacher. Now, the condi_
tions were, „You take this book of the Law.” That shows
that the Pentateuch had been written, that everything was
recorded at that time, that the Pentateuch was the constitu_

tion of Israel and its statute book as well. „You take this
book of the Law and meditate on it night and day and observe
to do exactly as it says. Don’t you go to the right hand or to
the left hand; plumb the track; keep in the middle of the
road.” These are the conditions. „Now, if you will rigidly
obey orders I will never leave you nor forsake you; never
under any circumstances shall enemies be able to stand up
before you.”
It is said that preachers are the most disobedient of all
Christians; that they understand less than any other class of
Christians the principles of rigid obedience. One man asked
Wellington concerning a certain mission, „What are we to do
about it in view of that difficulty?” Wellington said, „What
are your marching orders?” And they turned to the commis_
sion and read it and he said, „There is nothing to ask ques_
tions about. Do what you are told to do. Don’t stop to
consider the difficulties.” I have just been reading of the
education of Frederick the Great, and there isn’t a preacher
in Texas that could have stood it three days; what he had to
go through with from the time he was five years old until he
became a grown man. Now I will give you one of the rules,
and his whole life had to be according to rule. At six o’clock
he had to be waked up, and if it was a week day, had just
fifteen minutes in which to say his prayers, bathe, and dress
and eat his breakfast, while the servant dressed his hair –
just fifteen minutes) not a second over; as soon as the servant
touched him to wake him up, he must bounce out of bed and
say prayers and bathe, dress, and eat his breakfast while they
were dressing his hair. Then for every half_hour there was a
duty: „You take up grammar there, mathematics here, etc.”
After a while in the day would come a rest spell, but there
was no vacation, year in and year out.
Now, Joshua was a soldier like Wellington. When God gave
him this command, „Go across the Jordan; keep this book in
your hand; meditate on it day and night, just obey! obey!
obey!” from the day that he was commended until he died
he never swerved. This is one of the most remarkable cases
of implicit obedience of which we have any record. The
meaning of „this book of the Law” is the Pentateuch.
10. What three famous rivers are mentioned in God’s com_
mand to Joshua?
Ans. – The Nile, the Jordan, and the Euphrates.
11. What is the meaning of „Jordan”?
Ans. – It means the Descender. And that is what it strictly
is. It is a sharp inclined plane from its spring in Lebanon to
its entrance into the Dead Sea. It certainly does descend
more than any other river in the world. There is no other
river on the map of the world of such a length that descends
as much in that distance; therefore, of course, it is not navi_
gable.
12. What is the peculiarity of the usage of this name
„Jordan”?
Ans. – The Cambridge Bible says on that, „It is never
called ‘The River Jordan’ or ‘Brook Jordan.’ It is always
‘Jordan.'” The Cambridge Bible is mistaken. The word
„Jordan” is used 189 times in the Bible; fifty times by Moses,
sixty_two times in Joshua, fifty_seven times in the other Old
Testament books and a number of times in the New Testa_
ment; 189 times in all, but one time it is called „the river
Jordan,” and that is in Mark’s Gospel, 1:5: „They were
baptized of him in the river Jordan.” But that is a remark_
able peculiarity. You apply the word „river” to the Nile,
the Euphrates and every other river in the world, but when
you come to the Jordan, you don’t say „river.” I got so
interested in that that I finally got down my facsimile of the
old manuscripts to see if this was in them and it is in all of
them, i.e., this one mistake in the Cambridge Bible. That is
the peculiarity of the usage of the name.
13. Describe it.

Ans. – Now, we are going to have so much to do with the
Jordan in Bible history that you ought to be able to describe
this river. Take it as it winds (and it winds very much), it
is 240 miles long from its springs to the Dead Sea into which
it flows or empties. A straight line from the Dead Sea to its
springs would be one hundred and twenty miles. So it goes
twice the distance going that way. Its general course is
straight; it does not go off; it goes in a straight line, like the
firing of a rifle ball from a gun. It has two heads, one of
them in near Caesarea at Philippi, and those big springs come
down and form a lake, called Lake Merom, and it looks like
those springs are going to be swallowed up, but they come
out of that lake into another lake, the Sea of Galilee; then it
comes out of that lake about 70 feet wide and over a great
many descents it goes deeper, down and down until it gets to
the Dead Sea. Even the Sea of Galilee is five hundred feet
lower than the sea level and the Dead Sea is over 1,200 feet
lower than the sea level. So you see that river starts and runs
into the earth and goes away down. It would be impossible
for the Dead Sea to have an outlet; it would have to flow up_
hill to get out of the hole it is in.
Now, this is a very famous river. Once I preached a ser_
mon, making the river Jordan a string and on it I strung the
beads of history, and there was a cluster of beads at the Sea
of Galilee and on down, down, down to the Dead Sea, taking
the striking events of its history. Then I preached another
sermon using the Dead Sea for an illustration of a man who
receives and never gives out. The historic Jordan flows into
it. Christ’s miracles, walking on the water, Christ’s passage
and Joshua’s passage, and yet the Dead Sea swallows all that
water up and never gives out anything. Its water is so salty
that a fish cannot live in it, and even the apples on trees
along the banks) when you touch them, crumble and go up
into dust. Now, that is the man that continually takes in
from every side and never dispenses anything. You ought
always to have in your mind a picture of that Descender, that
river Jordan.
14. The command says to go over and take possession of
the land which „I have given the children of Israel, which I
promised to their fathers, which I repromised to Moses, and
now concerning the allotment of that particular piece of land,
to the children of Israel.” On this I give a number of sub_
questions :
(1) What is the principle of this giving?
Ans. – Turn to Acts 17:26: „I made of one every nation of
men to dwell on all the face of the earth, having determined
their appointed seasons,” that is, when a nation shall arise,
when it shall fall, „and the bounds of their habitation that
they shall seek God.” That shows that the location of nations
is of divine direction, and that the boundaries of nations are
of divine direction, as a general principle.
(2) When was the division of the earth made among the
several nations?
Ans. – You will find the answer to that question in Genesis
10:25. Concerning Peleg, the son of Shem, it is said, „In his
day the earth was divided,” allotted among the nations. That
is what Peleg means, and not at the Tower of Babel after the
tongues were confused. The order was for each nation to go
where it had been allotted.
(3) What was the reason of that division which allots the
Holy Land to Israel?
Ans. – Turn to Deuteronomy 32:8. Now, God does not
always tell us his reasons; he had a reason, and when he
allotted that particular section of the country to the people
that were to be his chosen people, with a view to their in_
fluence over other people, he gave them a strategical position
with reference to the countries of the world. He located them
in the right place, showing how far_reaching is God’s plan;
that he had picked out that section and allotted that section.

This has a good deal of bearing on the question of the dis_
position of the Canaanites.
(4) The descendants of what son of Noah ignored the
allotment?
Ans. – Children of Ham. When they went from Babel, they
took possession of the country that was to be Shem’s. So
these Hamites took possession of that country.
(5) Our lesson says that God is giving them this land he
promised their fathers. Now, prove that he had made that
promise to the fathers.
Ans. – Read Genesis 15:18_21: „In that day Jehovah made
a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given
this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the
river Euphrates: the Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kad_
monite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim,
and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Girgashite, and
the Jebusite.” That is the first promise to the fathers, which
was four hundred years before this crowd of people stood on
the bank of the river Jordan.
Our section says, „as I spake unto Moses.” Now, I want
to see where he said it to Moses. Turn to Deuteronomy 11:24,
and Numbers 34:1. Now, what was promised to Abram was
restated to Moses: „And I will set thy border from the Red
Sea even unto the sea of the Philistines) and from the wilder_
ness unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the
land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before
thee,” (Ex. 23:31). „And the Lord spake unto Moses saying,
etc.,” (Num. 34:1_12). „Every place whereon the sole of
your foot shall tread shall be yours: from the wilderness, and
Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the
hinder sea shall be your border” (Deut. 11:24).
15. What the boundaries of the land?
Ans. – Numbers 34:3: „Your south quarter shall be from
the wilderness of Zin along by the side of Edom, and your

south border shall be from the end of the Salt Sea eastward;
and your border shall turn about southward of the ascent of
Akrabbim, and pass along to Zin; and the goings out thereof
shall be southward of Kadesh_barnea; . . . unto the brook of
Egypt [that is a bad translation; it is river, i.e., „river of
Egypt”] and the goings out thereof shall be at the Sea.”
Notice that these translators are not willing that the Nile
shall be one of the boundaries. They changed the word
„river” to brook of Egypt, which is as dry as a powder house.
So instead of brook, I shall read river. „Now for the western
border, ye shall have the great sea [Mediterranean] and the
border thereof; this shall be your west border. And this shall
be your north border: from the great sea ye shall mark out
for you Mount Hor; from Mount Hor ye shall mark out unto
the entrance of Hamath;… and the border shall go forth to
Ziphron; . . .this shall be the north border. And ye shall
mark out your east border from Hazar_enan to Shepham;
. . . and the border shall go down to the Jordan, and the goings
out thereof shall be at the Salt Sea. [That is the Dead Sea.]
This shall be your land according to the borders thereof
round about.” Now, I have been thus particular in giving
you the Genesis account of the boundaries of the countries
and the Mosaic accounts and that leads to the next question.

16. Can you take a map and show the boundaries?
Ans. – 1 never saw anyone yet that could do it. I have
tried it, I suppose, on 100 Doctors of Divinity. Now, here
are some sub_questions:
(1) What the difficulty in determining the boundaries?
Ans. – What is meant by the river of Egypt? The transla_
tors translate it „brook,” being unwilling to think that it
touched the Nile, which is called the river of Egypt.
(2) What bearing has the name, Shihor, in determining
what is the river of Egypt?
Ans. – Here are the scriptures: Joshua 13:3; I Chronicles
13:5; Isaiah 23:3; Jeremiah 2:18. These passages show that
the „river of Egypt” means the Nile. That is where Shihor
comes in in all those passages and is what is called the east
fork of the Nile, the Pelusium fork. You see when the Nile
gets low down it divides itself into a great many channels
forming a delta, all of which run into the Mediterranean Sea.
The most eastern is called the Pelusium. Now, this is where
the Promised Land commenced. It was to be that Nile and
follow the fork of the Nile down until it struck the Mediter_
ranean Sea.
(3) What is the southwest starting point in getting this
boundary?
Ans. – On the Mediterranean where the eastern branch of
the Nile comes into the Mediterranean Sea. There you get
your start.
(4) Now give the western line.
Ans. – You follow the Mediterranean Sea up until you get
to what is called the entering in of Hamath.
(5) Northern line?
Ans. – 1 had my son to explore that line for me. He was
then studying for his Ph.D. degree in Berlin and he and two
other boys explored the boundaries of the Promised Land.
And his letter was particularly interesting in which he told
of the entering of Hamath. It went above Damascus and
beyond Damascus until it struck the Euphrates River. So
from the entering in of Hamath is the northern line.
(6) Eastern line?
Ans. – Now when it left the Euphrates to get the eastern
line it came down the wilderness of Arabia, leaving Gilead,
Moab, and the Jordan River, and strikes the lower side of the
Dead Sea.
Now, the hardest of all borders is the southern. Moses

tells exactly the line to follow in that Numbers passage. You
start at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea and go to
Kadesh_barnea, going just south of it, and go across to that
eastern branch of the Nile. It is an oblique line, Just like
the northern line is an oblique one.
(7) What things must determine the southern line?
Ans. – The following things must determine: First, it must
commence at the southern part of the Dead Sea; second, it
must not take in any of Edom: that is Esau’s country; they
are expressly forbidden to enter that. Therefore it must not
go west from there but it must go northwest, leaving Kadesh_
barnea to the left, and go across the desert until it strikes the
Pelusium, that eastern branch of the Nile
(8) When were these boundaries realized?
Ans. – Certainly not in Joshua’s time, but they were in
David and Solomon’s time. All the countries described in the
Genesis 15, Numbers 34, and Deuteronomy II, that entire
country, embraced the kingdom of David and Solomon.
17. (1) Who the people in the land, and how located?
Ans. – These people, as I told you, were the descendants
of Ham, who had usurped the country that was never allotted
to them. The list of the nations, the great division of the na_
tions, is given three times. I shall give one of them. This list
includes seven, though there were many subdivisions: First,
the Canaanites. Were these descendants of Canaan, the son
of Ham? Some of them were the descendants of Canaan, the
son of Ham. But the word „Canaanites” simply means low_
landers. The Canaanites dwelt in the low places. Second,
the Amorites, that means highlanders. They lived in the
mountains. Third, the Hittites. Hittites means descendants
of Heth. You remember that Abraham bought Machpelah
from the children of Heth. The fourth, the Jebusites, and
these people occupied the whole country which included Je_
rusalem. From Jebup came the name Jerusalem. Now, there
were subdivisions until they made thirty_two in all. Joshua
tells us that he conquered thirty_two kings in taking posses_
sion of this land. (For the location of all these and also the
Hivites, the Perizzites and the Girgashites see Bible Atlas.)
(2) What three nations besides these seven are very fam_
ous?
Ans. – First, the Philistines. They were on the Mediter_
ranean coast. Second, the Amalekites. The Amalekites dwelt
in the wilderness of Arabia south of the Holy Land. Third,
the Phoenicians. The chief cities of the Phoenicians are Tyre
and Sidon.
18. Describe their character.
Ans. – Some of them were very learned, but their habits
were very bestial. Their religion in its worship was the worst
form of prostitution. In other words, the Bible describes their
sin as so low down and beastly that the land was ready to
spew them out of its mouth.

XX
THE MIRACULOUS PASSAGE OF THE JORDAN
AND EVENTS AT GILGAL
Joshua 1:10 to 5:15

This section commences at Joshua 1:10 and extends to
chapter 5. We will make more rapid progress in the book,
having gotten through with the preliminaries. The theme is,
miraculous passage of the Jordan and the marvelous events
that occurred at Gilgal after they passed the Jordan.
1. Analyze Joshua’s commandment to the people.
Ana. – (1) He commanded them to get ready to cross the
Jordan in three days.
(2) He commanded that the armed men of the two tribes
located east of the Jordan, the Reubenites, Gadites and the
rest of the tribes help to conquer the lands on the east side.
2. What word is repeatedly stressed by Joshua in this com_
mand to the two and a half tribes? What use previously
made of this word by Moses and will be made of it by the
writers of both Old and New Testaments?
Ans. – The word „rest.” We find that Moses uses that
word in Deuteronomy 25:19, 19th verse) where he says, „When
you have been established in Canaan and God has given you
rest.” We find the same word employed in Psalm 95, where
there is a reference to those who did not enter into the rest
because of their disobedience. They died by the wayside.
And in Hebrews 3:7, and 4:13, there is a continuous dis_
cussion of that „rest” as applied to Joshua the type of Jesus
Christ. It will be very interesting for you to study that in
Hebrews particularly, because in it lies the cream of the dis_
cussion of the New Testament sabbath.
3. What condition was prescribed by Moses in allotting
territory east of the Jordan to the two and a half tribes, and
what solemn promises had they made?
Ans. – If you will turn to Numbers 32:20_24, you will find
that Moses, when these people asked to have the east part as
their part, told them that the only condition upon which it
would be granted was that when the Jordan was crossed they
should send these tribes and help to conquer the other land,
and they made a solemn promise to Moses that when the time
came they would do that very thing_
4. How did they respond to that promise, and what the
later evidence of a fair fulfilment of it?
Ans. – You learn from your lesson 1:16_18, that they readily
recalled what they had promised to Moses and promptly an_
nounced their Willingness to do what they said they would
do. If you turn to Joshua 22:1_8, you will find that at the
end of the conquest Joshua gives them a receipt in full of
having kept their promise to the letter.

5. How long were they thus away from their own homes,
wives and children and property, that is, the men of the
Reubenites, Gadites and the half_tribe of Manasseh, and what
comment do you make on this fidelity?
Ans. – Generally, I will say that they were away from their
wives and children and property seven years. And the com_
ment is that there is no parallel to this in the history of the
world. All the able_bodied men leaving their homes, wives
and children and property and going away armed to engage
in a terrible war that was to be prosecuted west of the river,
fulfilling their engagement to the letter before they ever go
back and enjoy their rest as the other tribes were now pre_
pared to do.

6. What event preceded the passage of the Jordan, and
what the salient points of the story?

Ans. – This event was the sending out of the two spies by
Joshua to find out the condition of the country and report
back to Joshua. The salient points of the story are: (1) When
these two men went into Jericho they were received at this lodg_
ing_house of a harlot. Why? Probably if they had gone to
one of the regular inns or caravansaries they would have
been apprehended by the officers of the king. But the true
reason was that this woman, because she believed in Jehovah,
invited them to come to her house. (2) What the evidences
of her faith? These evidences are as follows:
(a) What she did. She received, lodged, sheltered, and
protected the messengers of God’s people because they were
God’s people. That was her motive, illustrating the words
of our Lord in his address to his apostles, „When I send you
into the city, you go to a house, and if there be a son of peace
in that house, let your peace rest on that house” (Matt. 10).
And where he further says, „Whosoever receiveth you re_
ceiveth me, and whosoever receiveth a prophet in the name of
a prophet shall receive a prophet’s reward.” Now, this woman
did so receive these people.
(b) What she said. Read exactly what she said, chapter
2:8_11: „And before they were laid down she came up unto
them upon the roof; and she said unto the men, I know that
the Lord hath given you the land, and that your terror is
fallen upon us. For we have heard how the Lord dried up
the water of the Red Sea for you, when you came out of
Egypt; and what you did to the two kings of the Amorites,
that were on the other side of the Jordan, Sihon and Og,
whom ye utterly destroyed. And as soon as we heard these
things our hearts did melt because of you; ‘for the Lord your
God he is in heaven above and in earth beneath.” Now,
that is what she said. Then notice further (c) what she did
as an evidence of her faith.
She asked that as she had sheltered them as messengers
of God’s people, when they came to take possession of Jeri_
cho, they would exempt her and her family from the
doom that would fall upon the city. And they gave her a
duty to perform as a token. First, that she would bring her
kindred into her house and stay there. The walls of Jericho
would fall in the other parts of the city but not in that part.
Second, that she was to hang a scarlet cord out of the window
through which she had let down the spies to enable them to
escape over the wall. The binding of the scarlet thread in
the window was the token.
(d) The fourth evidence is found in Hebrews 11:31, and
James 2:25. Another salient point in connection with the
story of the spies is that this woman married an Israelite and
became an ancestress of Boaz, David, and our Lord. We
read about that when we come to Ruth and when we read
the genealogy in the New Testament.
The next incident is the great sermon preached by Spurg_
eon on the text, „And she bound the scarlet thread in the
window.” He puts a good deal of stress on the „scarlet” as
referring to the blood of salvation.
The last point is, the spies returned and reported to Joshua
that their enemies were panic stricken.
7. What the arrangement or program of crossing the
Jordan?
Ans. – (1) They must sanctify themselves. That means
that they were to perform the ablutions that are required in
that kind of setting apart to the service of God, and offer the
sacrifice_
(2) That the ark must precede the marching by a sabbath
day’s journey, 2,000 cubits.
(3) That God himself would that day magnify Joshua in
the eyes of the people as he had magnified Moses at the
passage of the Red Sea.
(4) That God’s presence would be manifested in mar_
velous power.

(5) The cutting off of the waters of the Jordan, not divid_
ing them as the Red Sea was divided, but cutting them off.
(6) That Israel should pass over safely.
(7) That a memorial should be erected of that passage.
8. Describe the execution of this program and the effect
on their enemies, Joshua 5:1.
Ans. – It is of thrilling interest that just as at the passage
of the Red Sea they were to stand still and see the power of
the Lord, so here. That was something which God would do,
not they themselves. Just as soon as the priests, carrying
the ark (a sabbath day’s journey), touched the edge of the
swollen waters of the Jordan, that very moment, as if a knife
had been let down from heaven, the Jordan was cut in two,
and all the waters below flowed on to the Dead Sea and all
the waters coming down from above, that mighty rush of the
„Descender,” were stayed there and massed up and the back_
water extended for over thirty miles. By the breath of the
Almighty, that turbulent tide in the day of its flood, flowing
over that down grade, stopped right there, damned up, not
by a wall, but by the Word of God, and there stood the priests
in silence, carrying the ark of God. As soon as the way was
open, the priests standing still, the whole of that mighty host
of 3,000,000 people with all of their animals and goods passed
over that empty bed of the river.
Joshua commanded one representative of each tribe to take
a rock out of the bed of the river and right where the priests
had been standing in the bed of the river, each one of the
men should take a rock on his shoulder, and they should
carry those stones, and they did just that way. Here came
twelve representatives and took up twelve huge rocks and
carried them ahead of the column and never put them down
until they got to the place where they were going to lodge,
and there those stones were placed together as an everlasting
memorial of that deliverance. The effect upon the enemy

was that it intensified their panic. God said that those Ca_
naanite inhabitants should know that he was God and the
story of that divine presence and the display of bis power
is circled around the world through all the succeeding ages.
9. How do you reconcile Joshua 4:9, with Joshua 4:20?
Ans. – Joshua 4:9, says that Joshua took stones and set up
a column right where the priests had stood in the bed of the
river, and 4:20, says that they took the stones across the
river and a memorial was erected at the place where they
stopped. There are only two ways of reconciling those two
statements. One is that the pillar that was erected by
Joshua where the priests stood was done not by the command
of God, but appropriately done to mark the spot where the
priests stood. It is not said that they used the twelve me_
morial stones carried by the representatives of the tribes, to
build that structure. A good many commentaries say there
were two monuments erected, one in the bed of the river and
another in the camp where they remained a long while, even
years. Now, that is one explanation and the more probable
one. Another explanation is, that in reading Joshua 4:9, you
read it this way, „and Joshua set up the twelve stones taken
from the midst of the Jordan where the feet of the priests
had stood who bare the Ark of the Covenant.” That is a
simple statement of what is going to be more elaborately
stated in verse 20 and provides for only one monument_ The
first is a brief statement and the second a more elaborate
statement. I will leave you to wrestle with the apparent
contradiction.
10. What evidences in the later prophets that Israel mis_
used this memorial of.Gilgal by making it a place of idolatry?
Give a similar case.
Ans. – (1) You will find in Hosea 4:15; 9:15, and Amos
4:4_5.
(2) The similar case was the case of the brazen serpent.
The brazen serpent that had been lifted up in the wilderness
was kept as a memorial, but in Hezekiah’s time the people
began to burn incense to it and Hezekiah broke it to pieces,
saying, „Nehushtan,” it is only a piece of brass.
11. What the educational uses of this memorial and what
similar use of a preceding memorial?
Ans. – This section tells us in 4:21_24, that when the chil_
dren asked, „Why do you bring these rocks from the river?
Why do you set them up here?” they should diligently teach
their children that it commemorated the great power of
God in cutting off the waters of the Jordan, that his people
might pass over in safety. What similar use of a preceding
memorial? You will find it in Exodus 12:26_27. They were
to eat the first Passover standing with their loins girt about
them. Now, after that in their later history the first thing
little children will say, „This is a strange dinner, being bit_
ter herbs, roasted lambs, and eating it standing.” Then you
may say to your children, „This is the Lord’s Passover.”
I think these two incidents about the educational use of the
memorials contains a very fine lesson showing the duty of
parents whenever a child asks, „Why these monuments?”
The first time I ever noticed the Fourth of July, I asked,
„Why, what does this mean?” A child naturally asks „why”
about Christmas. And a stranger looking at Bunker Hill
Monument will ask, „Why this monument?” In Austin,
near the Capitol, there is a monument that commemorates
the Alamo. On the battlefield of San Jacinto is one, and on
my pocketbook is inscribed what is written on the sides of
that monument.

12. What the name of the place where the memorial was
erected, its location, and how long did that place remain
headquarters of the nation?
Ans. – The place derived its name from an event that took
place there, viz.: circumcision. Gilgal was in the upper part
of Judea and not a great way, only a few miles, from Jericho,
and for years the Ark rested there, and it was the place of
assembly for the nation. It remained until we come to
Joshua 18; there, after the conquest, Shiloh is selected as the
headquarters until the ark was captured by the Philistines.
Later that ark was brought to Jerusalem, as their head_
quarters throughout the rest of their history.
13. What great events happened in that first camp?
Ans. – (1) The males of the younger generation were cir_
cumcised. They had not circumcised any children during
the thirty_eight years of wanderings. The old generation
had passed away and everybody born in the thirty_eight
years, of course, was uncircumcised. Now at that place they
were circumcised.
(2) The second great event that took place was that
their manna ceased. For forty years that manna had been
coming down from heaven) but now they were eating of the
new harvest of the Promised Land, and the temporary pro_
vision for their food ceased when it was no longer necessary;
the cessation of the manna which was a standing miracle for
forty years.
(3) The third great event was that there they kept the
Passover. No Passover had been kept since they left Mount
Sinai.
(4) The most important event that happened there was the
appearance to Joshua of a pre_manifestation of Christ, a man
with a drawn sword, the captain of the hosts of the Lord.
In other words, Joshua, the type, meets face to face, in pre_
manifestation, Christ, the antitype.
14. In the meantime what the state of Jericho, and why
was the enemy idle while Joshua was remaining so long at
Gilgal?
Ans. – See Joshua 5:11; 6:1. We learn from these pass_
ages of scripture, why. The first says the people of Jericho
were under an awful fear of the people whose God could

open that river, and the second reason is that they had shut
their gates; that Jericho was sealed up because the Israelites
were lying so near.
15. Describe and explain the meeting of Joshua, the type,
with the pre_maaifestation of Christ, the antitype.
Ans. – Now, that explanation is given in 5:13_15. Joshua
going his rounds meets a man standing with a drawn sword,
who approached him and said, „Are you for us or against
us?” The man said, „I am the captain of the host of Je_
hovah.” Later it says the Lord spoke to Joshua, but it
means Jehovah. The object of the meeting of the captain
on earth with the captain in heaven was to arrange the pro_
gram for the capture of Jericho. As for the things that
would follow that in overcoming the enemy, the people were
to do nothing active. Jericho was to be taken by the Al_
mighty and everything in it was devoted, put under ban,
consecrated to Jehovah; the inhabitants to die, the property
to go to the service of the sanctuary. This is he who later
becomes captain of our salvation, who is known in the New
Testament as the rider of the white horse, going forth, having
written on his thigh, „King of kings and Lord of lords.”
This premanifestation of Christ outlines Joshua’s campaign,
establishes them, God opening the way.
16. Now here is a question. It says, 5:9, „This day I
have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you.” Now,
what was this rolling away of the reproach of Egypt?
Ans. – „The reproach of Egypt” was the charge they made
that Jehovah Was not able to deliver Israel into the Prom_
ised Land. Now, since he has delivered them, he has
„rolled away the reproach of Egypt” from off them. (Ex.
32:12; Num. 14:13_16; Deut. 9:28).

XXI
THE FALL OF JERICHO, AI, EBAL, AND GERIZIM
Joshua 6:1 to 10:43

This section commences with Josh. 6:1 and the first item
of the discussion is the capture of Jericho. The method of
the capture of Jericho was intensely spectacular. The
dramatic feature of it was cumulative; it got more intense
every day. We have only to read two or three verses to see
just what was done, and such a thing as was never done be_
fore or since, but done in the taking of the city. No sword
was unsheathed, no man struck a blow in the capture of that
place. The priests with the jubilee trumpets, not the or_
dinary trumpets, led the procession, seven priests, seven
trumpets, seven days round that city. They would blow and
the people were silent, not a word in the ranks. Once a day
for six days they marched all around the high walls of Jeri_
cho and on the seventh day they went round it seven times,
and at the close of the seventh time the trumpets sounded
and the people shouted and the walls of Jericho fell, and each
one in his position in their circuit, marched over the fallen
walls and captured the city. It was God’s work through_
out. You will notice that this capture was discriminative;
that place in the wall where the house of Rahab stood did
not fall; every other place fell.
The next thought in the capture of this city is that it was
devoted. Learn the meaning of that word „devoted.” That
means, when it applies to man, that death occurs; when it
applies to materials as spoils, that it belongs to Jehovah.
The Israelites had nothing to do with the capture of the city.
It was entirely God’s. And the strongest prohibition was
issued, that no man must rob God by appropriating to him_

self any part of the spoils which had been set apart for
Jehovah’s own use.
Now, we come to another feature of the capture, and that
is a curse was pronounced on any man that ever attempted
to rebuild the walls of Jericho, not Jericho the city, for that
still existed, but the fortified part of the city, where the
arms were kept. It must never be rebuilt. Turn to I Kings
16:34, and read that verse: „In his days did Hiel the Bethe_
lite build Jericho; he laid the foundation thereof with the
loss of Abiram, his firstborn, and set up the gates thereof
with the loss of his youngest son Segub, according to the word
of Jehovah which he spake by Joshua the son of Nun.” That
is many hundred years after Joshua spoke that word, and
there you come to a great text and a very appropriate one,
if you are going to make a prohibition address. One of the
great arguments for the continuance of the sale of ardent
spirits in a city is that it promotes the interests of the city;
that the grass would grow in the streets of a city if you did
not allow it. The statement is erroneous, but if it were true,
men ought not to lay the foundation of the city in the souls of
men.
You will notice that the next says that Joshua, whom they
had supported as leader in this, acquired great fame by the
fall of Jericho throughout all the Promised Land; among the
enemies the fame and dread of Joshua spread.
It is in connection with the capture of this city that we come
across the sin of Achan, and that is the second thought for us
to discuss. The text says, „Israel’s sin,” and the context
shows that on Israel fell the punishment_ The real sinner
was one person, Achan. Now, the question comes up, With
what propriety can the action of a man with which the others
had nothing to do, be called the sin of Israel and the Israel_
ites be punished for the sin? You recall a passage in Cor_
inthians, recently studied, where Paul accuses the church of
sin in that it had retained one man and covered up the sin
of that man that took his father’s wife, and he went on to
say that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. So when
you look at the solidarity of the people, their unity, or the
solidarity of the church, a sin committed by one member that
passes unrebuked will become the sin of the entire organ_
ization, and the whole body must suffer the penalty for what
one does, because they being many constitute one body.
That is why this is called Israel’s sin.
I ask you to notice again the cause of this sin; it was
covetousness. He knew about the prohibition; that he
didn’t capture Jericho but God captured it, and that its
spoils were devoted by the word of God, but he saw some
gold and a goodly Babylonish garment and he took them and
hid them in his tent. The people knew nothing about this
sin. So far as they were concerned, it was a covered sin, and
it doesn’t keep a ship from sinking when a leak is there, be it
unknown to the captain of the crew. So that a covered sin
is even more dangerous than a sin that is in the open. A
fire that is merely smouldering, sending forth no blaze and no
smoke, is more dangerous than a fire that advertises itself
with its illumination and its roar, because in that case you
can hedge against its spreading, but if it is unseen it spreads
beyond control.
We now come to the nature of his offence. It was not
ordinary stealing. It was not ordinary dishonesty. It was
that blasphemy which robs God. You will recall in the New
Testament that when the church had just started on its
progress and donations were being given, people would sell
their land and come and say, „It is all the price of the land,”
Ananias and his wife conspired together to keep back
a portion of the price and thus lied not to man, but unto God,
and if that sin had not at the beginning been punished by
instant death, the church never would have retained its
power. Just as in this new nation coming among enemies
with a world of conquest just ahead of them, their sole de_
pendence was keeping in favor with God. Whoever then lost
them the favor of God practically would bring about their
destruction; therefore, it was not a case for mercy.
Now, we find Israel paying the penalty of that sin. A de_
tachment of men was sent out to Ai, their next stronghold,
and to their own surprise they became panic stricken and
fled and a number of them lost their lives. You can see the
significance of their defeat. The enemy had been panic
stricken and the only way to succeed was to keep up their
prestige. This defeat took away from the enemy their fear
of Israel, and unless that sin had been discovered and speed_
ily punished, Israel would have been beaten back across the
Jordan or enslaved in a very short time. But one of the
most remarkable things in connection with the sin of Achan
is God’s omniscient method of ascertaining and exposing it.
Dr. Burleson preached all over Texas from this text. „Be
sure your sin will find you out.”. And a great sermon of
Jonathan Edwards that spread over a quarter of the na_
tion and resulted in the conversion of 250,000 people was
from this text, „Their feet shall slide in due time.” „Sin_
ners in the hands of an angry God”; there is no escape from
the omniscient eye of God. There is no getting away from
his presence, there is no evasion of his omnipotence. A man
who has committed a sin is like a horse staked out on the
prairie; the stake rope may be long but yet it is not long
enough to enable him to be free. He can go only to the end
of his tether, and every time the horse walks around the
stake pin, shortens his tether, and after a time it brings his
nose right up to the stake pin. So is any sinner in the
hands of God.
When God maketh an inquisition for sin, he remembers,
he doesn’t forget, he knows where to go to look for it. It
has chanced that three times I have preached from the text,
„Be sure your sin will find you out,” at ten years’ interval,
and each time I preached some one came and made me a
confession that I never told, but the confessions of the
strangest and most awful sin, and one of them was a young
preacher. I have never been so puzzled as I have been puz_
zled by these three confessions. In two of these cases I was
able not only to suggest a remedy, but to put the remedy
into effect. The third case was not in any power of mine.
Now, God’s plan was this: The whole camp, 3,000,000 of
them, were drawn up and they were ordered to march by
Jehovah, that is, where his presence was, at the tabernacle,
and God would say which tribe, and he took one of the
twelve tribes, Judah, and they were required to march by
again and God designated which clan of Judah (the Zar_
hites) held the criminal, and that clan was required to pass
by and God designated the head of the family, and the
family was required to pass by and God designated the man.
It is a remarkable exhibition of sin by divine Providence.
When exposed, Achan confessed his sin and the Israelites,
by purging themselves, regained the power over their enemies
which they had lost. Following this detection and punish_
ment of Achan’s sin, Ai easily falls before Joshua, as our
chapter tells us and I need not repeat.
Now, with the conquest of Ai the children of Israel were
established in an exceedingly strong strategical position.
They struck a country sideways, about the center; they
camped in the mountainous part that held the open ways to
the south, and the open ways to the north, and the open
ways to the west. Therefore we have an account of the first
league. The nations around saw that no one nation could
stand before Israel, and that as Israel was coming against
all of them, it behooved them to make a defensive league.
All the Amorites who held mountain country entered into
that league except one nation, the Gibeonites, who held
four cities in the mountains and controlled certain mountain
passes. These Gibeonites came before Joshua disguised in
apparel and in every way, and they told Joshua that they
had heard of him and of Israel and that they came in peace.
Now, Israel was allowed to make a league with other na_
tions than the Canaanites, the enemies that inhabited the
territory of Israel, therefore it was necessary to make treaty
with these people. The only error of which they were guilty
was in not asking God before they made it. It was found
out that the Gibeonites’ territory lay in that path just ahead
of them, but the covenant had been made and it was agreed
that their lives should be spared, but they should become
hewers of wood and drawers of water for the Israelites. This
gave Joshua control of the crest of the land.
This brings us to consider the binding power of a nation’s
obligation to God. It is just as important as that of in_
dividuals. If the United States makes a treaty with another
nation, the national honor is involved in due observance of
that treaty. Therefore this treaty with the Gibeonites, hav_
ing been made, had to stand. Later we will see that Saul
violated that covenant and his sons were hanged to pay for
the violation of the covenant that was made with the Gibeon_
ites. There are some people who say that one generation
cannot bind another generation. Mr. Jefferson, in his works,
goes dangerously near if not altogether right up to the
thought that involves the very destruction of the idea of
national responsibility, viz.: that every generation should
be bound only by the obligations that that generation as_
sumed. That would not have worked and did not work in
the Achan case, and no statesman ought to stand in office
who advises the people to disregard a national obligation.
We have to meet it; we have to pay it. Suppose England
should repudiate its national debt because this generation did
not contract that debt, she would destroy all modem civili_
zation. If the British debt was repudiated, the foundation
of both continents would be destroyed.
Now, having obtained this strategical position, we come
to Ebal and Gerizim. They are the two mountains that face
each other. In Deuteronomy Moses commanded that when
they got over into the land they must place half of the peo_
ple on Mount Ebal and half on Mount Gerizirn and the
priests with the ark in between, and the law should be read.
When you come to the curses, the six tribes on Mount Ebal
shall cry out „Amen”; and when you come to the blessings
the six tribes on Mount Gerizirn shall cry out „Amen”; and
when you come to the end of the law, all of the twelve tribes
shall cry out „Amen.” It was a scene earth never witnessed
before, mountaintop speaking to mountaintop. The voice
of the people aligning themselves with the decrees of God
and pronouncing themselves to be cursed if they disobeyed
and to be blessed if they obeyed.
The next item in our history is that five mountain kings,
Adoni_zedek, king of Jerusalem, and Hoham, king of Hebron,
Piram, king of Jarmuth, and Japhia, king of Lachish, and
Debir, king of Eglon, were to make war on the Gibeonites
(Jebus means City of Judah, finally called Jerusalem), be_
cause they had practically surrendered to Joshua and it be_
hooved these nations to stand together and to punish the
traitor. This is what they thought. Notice that Adoni_
zedek is king of Jerusalem, that her king is no longer Mel_
chidedek. You will find in your Hurlbut’s Atlas many maps
that show Jerusalem, and you will have to study about
Jerusalem all through the Bible, and when you get up to
heaven to the New Jerusalem, you will still study about it.
This is the first time you come to it.
This brings us to the great decisive battle of Beth_horon.
When the Gibeonites found themselves invaded by these
five allied kings, they sent a rapid messenger to Joshua at
Gilgal, after he had gotten through the Ebal and Gerizirn
matter. It is a very urgent appeal, „Come quick!” And
Joshua marches all night and makes a certain attack and
that brings about the decisive battle of Beth_horon. There
are three stages: The first stage, Joshua attacks and dis_
comfits them; they begin to retreat and seem to be about to
get away. That brings us to the second stage, when God
intervenes with an electric storm, an awful storm of hail_
stones, and more of that allied army perish by hailstones
than by the sword of Joshua’s people. Hailstones are very
large sometimes. If you take your encyclopaedia, you will
find that a hailstone once fell that passed through a battle_
ship and sank it, and another hailstone fell on land that
buried itself, that weighed several tons, being as big as a
house. You remember the remarkable account of the plague
in Egypt and its awful destructive power, and if you ever
have a chance to go to see the moving picture show of the
life of Moses, you will see that hailstorm just as vividly as
if you were standing looking on it, and you will see it kill
cattle and people. In the third stage of the battle, the allies
had been defeated, then they had been discomfited by the
hailstorm. Joshua saw that a great deal depended on keep_
ing the ranks together and so with sublime audacity he said,
„Stand still,” to the sun, and „Thou moon,” that is, let the
day be prolonged, and the record says that the sun did stand
still and the moon, and that the day was so prolonged that
there was no day like it before in the history of the world
and none after it_ An infidel once said to me, „Do you
know what Joshua ought to have done? He ought to have
said, ‘Stand still, 0 earth.’ ” I said, „You are very smart in
your knowledge of science. You could not stop the earth
if you don’t stop the sun.” The earth is a satellite and the
moon is a satellite, and the earth’s motion is of two kinds,
centripetal and centrifugal, those forces combined make a
circular motion that carries the earth around the sun. Just
like a mechanic with a complicated piece of machinery in
order to stop the outlying wheels, all he has to do is to stop
the main wheel. If you want to talk about the language of
science Joshua said exactly the right thing.

Now comes up the question about that miracle. It is
perfectly foolish for people to waste time in the discussion
of the credibility of miracles, the supernatural. All you
have to do is just admit one thing – God. Now, if there be a
God, he can just as well control that which is above nature
as nature itself. According to Horace in his Art of Poetry,
„Never introduce a god unless there is a necessity for a god.”
Well, it certainly was necessary. Upon that battle hinged
all the southern part of the Promised Land. That battle
would have been no more than a skirmish if these nations
had gotten away and gotten into their walled cities. What
was necessary was to have time, daylight enough to prose_
cute the work_ So the God that intervened at the passage
of the Red Sea and at the Jordan, and in shaking down the
walls of Jericho, intervened here. Now, it is the object of
the miracle to accredit, to attest. Joshua needed to be ac_
credited; there must be the most overwhelming evidence that
he stood for God. If he stood in heat of battle and com_
manded the sun to stand still and the sun stood still, and
the moon, and God heard him, then he stood accredited be_
fore the people, before the nations of the earth.
This brings us to the book called Jasher. What is the
book of Jasher? „Is not this written in the book of Jash_
er?” Now notice the full quotation: „Is not this written in
the book of Jasher? so the sun stood still in the midst of
heaven) and hasted not to go down about a whole day. And
there was no day like that before it or after it, that the Lord
hearkened unto the voice of a man; for the Lord fought for
Israel. And Joshua returned and all Israel with him, unto
the camp to Gilgal.” That last sentence is a part of the
quotation, for Joshua had not returned yet, but after the
event, it was written in the book of Jasher. That was the
poem that was said to have been written in that book of
Jagher. It was a book of poems that selected the great
events in Jewish history. Twice it is referred to in the Old
Testament. David’s song was written in it and this poem
on the battle of Beth_horon was put in it.
Still going back to the battle, they pursued the enemy
until the five kings took refuge in a cave and Joshua sealed
the mouth of the cave with a stone and still pursued until
the destruction of the enemy was complete, and the result of
the battle was that while there were few enemies left in the
city, he kept marching on, taking one town after another
until we come to this description, that his conquest extended
from Goshen to Gath; from Goshen to Kadesh, Negeb, He_
bon, to the Dead Sea. Here comes up a question about
Joshua, and some of these people that can believe half thinga,
but are utterly at a loss to believe all things. Some believe
that Goshen was not a border of Israel. We will take the
definition of the Bible. Don’t look at your commentaries,
look at the Bible. It shows that by this one battle Joshua
captured all the country upon the Mediterranean coast to
Gath and from Gath to Jerusalem, and from there to Hebron,
and from there to the lower edge of the Dead Sea, and ex_
tending up on a line with Goshen. One battle practically
gave him the whole of the south country. I will add this,
that the five kings were executed and then hanged on a tree,
for „cursed is every man that is hanged on a tree.”
I have one other remark to make. Later on in the book and even in the book of Judges you will find references to the conquest of certain places in this southern country that only Joshua took, but when you look at the details it mentions the junior officers that took it. From instance, Kirby Smith attacked the Federal outposts on the Mississippi River near Vicksburg and all on one day, and yet it was General McCullough, one of his subordinate officers, that attacked one point, and General Young that attacked another point. Now, if I should see in the life of Kirby Smith that he accomplished all that, and later if I take up the life of General McCullough and find that he took certain points, I would know which one was there. I do know, for I was there in it. Now, just so with these later accounts that some people use to indicate that the book of Joshua was not written until after the book of Judges. There is no evidence to show that any of these events occurred after the book of Judges, but they are generally stated here, and later, in putting the events of Joshua’s life, they will be specifically considered as when we come to the tribe of Dan.

QUESTIONS
1. Describe the capture of Jericho.
2. What discrimination in this capture?
3. What is the meaning of „devoted,” & what prohibition was issued?
4. What curse was pronounced on the rebuilder of Jericho, its ful_
filment and a present day application of the text?
5. What exaltation of Joshua as the result, & the effect on his enemies?
6. Why called Israel’s sin and why Israel’s punishment? Give New
Testament explanation.
7. What its cause?
8. Its nature?
9. Its effect?
10. Effect of social sin?
11. Its result?
12. Significance of defeat of Ai?
13. What its method of exposure?
14. Its confession and punishment? Give New Testament example.
15. What was the first league?
16. Give the case of the Gibeonites.
17. What of the covenant made with them and who violated it and
the result?
18. What the application to modern nations?
19. What command did Moses give concerning this transaction?
20. Describe its fulfilment.
21. Describe the confederacy against the Gibeonites, and why its
necessity?
22. Describe the great decisive battle that followed, giving its 3stages.
23. What the book of Jasher? What other reference to it?
24. What the result of the campaign? Outline the South Country.

XXII
CONQUEST OF THE NORTHERN TRIBES; ALLOT_
MENT OF TERRITORY; ESTABLISHMENT OF A
CENTRAL PLACE OF WORSHIP.
Joshua 11_2l

This section commences with Joshua II and closes with
chapter 21. That is to say, we must cover in this discussion
eleven chapters,, and the matter is of such a nature that one
cannot make an oration on it, nor can one give a very in_
teresting discussion on it. It would be perfect folly for me to
take up the chapters verse by verse, when all you have to do
is to look on your map in the Biblical Atlas and glance at
any commentary and get the meaning and locality of each
town mentioned. All of the matters that require comment
will be commented on in these eleven chapters.
The first theme is the conquest of the tribes in the north_
ern part of the Holy Land, just as the preceding chapter
considered the central and southern part of the land. You
know I told you that Joshua, by entering the country at Jeri_
cho and then capturing Ai, occupied a strategical position,
the mountains on the right hand and the left hand and they
forced a passway by which he could go in any direction.
We found that all the southern part of the country, after
the capture at Jericho and Ai, was practically brought about
by one decisive battle, the battle of Beth_horon, where the
Almighty thundered and sent his hailstones and where the
sun stood still. Now, the northern conquest was brought
about by one decisive battle, all of the details that it is
necessary for me to give are these: When the northern tribes
learned of the subjugation of the southern tribes they saw
that it was a life and death matter.
From this viewpoint they would be conquered in detail.
As Benjamin Franklin said in a speech at the Continental
Congress, „Gentlemen, we cannot evade this issue; we must
either hang together or hang separately, every one of us if
we don’t unite will be hanged.” Now, that was in the minds
of those northern kings. We have had the account of Adoni_
zedek, the king of Jebus. Hazor was a well_known place
in the history of the countries. We will have it up again
in the book of Judges. It was not very far from Caesarea
Philippi, where Peter made his great confession in the time
of our Lord.
I will not enumerate the tribes and the names of the several
kings that were brought into this second league_ It not only
included the central and northern tribes, but they sent an
invitation to the remnant of the tribes that had been con_
quered. The place of rendezvous, or assemblage, for all of
these armies of these several kings was Lake Meron. You
will recall that in describing the Jordan, rising in the
mountains, after running a while, it spreads out into Lake
Merom, and lower down it spreads into the Sea of Galilee.
Well, now around that Merom Lake the ground is level,
very favorable for calvary and war chariots. For the first
time the war chariot was introduced. The war chariot was
more, in general, the shape of a dray than anything else –
two wheels, steps behind that one could go down, and one
chieftain and two or three captains stood up and drove two
or three horses, and they always drove the horses abreast,
no matter how many. The men who drove were very skillful
but unless they were very lucky they would fall to the
ground. In the time of Cyrus the Great, he built one with
blades that went out from the sides, so that it not only
crippled those he ran over but the scythes on each side would
mow them down.
Joshua learned of this combination of tribes and, under
the direction of the Almighty, he smote them before they

could organize. He was a Stonewall Jackson kind of a man
and struck quick and hard. He pressed and pursued them
and led his army up the valley of the Jordan by swift
marches and instantly attacked the enemy when he got upon
the ground and before they were prepared. Their defeat
was the most overwhelming in history. All of the leaders
were captured and slain; they dispersed in three directions
specified in the text, and he pursued them in all three direc_
tions. He gave them no time to rally, and when they had
been thoroughly discomfited, he took the towns. That bat_
tle was practically the end of the war of conquest. We may
say the whole thing was decided in this battle; there were
some details of conquest later, but this is Joshua’s part of it.
I must call attention specifically to this fact, overlooked
by many commentaries, that the general statement of the
conquest is given in the book of Joshua and the details of
some of these general statements are given more elaborately,
indeed the last great item, the migration of Dan, in the
book of Judges. All that happened before Joshua died.
Therefore the book of Judges and the book of Joshua over_
lap as to time. And for this reason, that as soon as Joshua
got through with his conquest, and the distribution of terri_
tory, he retired from leadership, living years afterward. The
instant the war was over, Joshua surrendered the general
leadership.
Just here I wish to answer another question. While the
record notes that Joshua conquered all the land that Jehovah
had originally promised to those people, yet the book of
Joshua also states that there remained certain portions of
the land that had not been conquered. The backbone of
the opposition was broken by these two battles and by the
cities that he captured after these battles, but the enemy
would come back and occupy their old position and some
of the walled towns were not taken.
I once heard the question asked a Sunday school, Why did
God permit the remnants that you will find described later
on in this section, the parts not subjugated, to remain? No_
body in the Sunday school could answer. Now, you will
find the answer to the question in Num. 33:55; Josh. 23:13;
Judges 2:3. Moses says, „If you do not utterly destroy
these people leaving none, then God will permit those rem_
nants that you spare to become thorns in your side, and
whenever you are weak they will rise against you; when_
ever you are disobedient to God they will triumph over you.”
It is stated here that the number of the kings of the sepa_
rate tribes overcome by Joshua was thirty_one_ Part of this
section says that Joshua waged war a long time with these
kings. While this battle was fought and became decisive
of the general results, the going out and capturing the dif_
ferent towns, completing the different details, required a
long time.
Now we come to the next theme of our lesson, viz.: The
distribution of the land, or allotment of specific parts of the
territory to the tribes. We have already found in the books
of Moses just how the eastern side of the Jordan was con_
quered and the allotment made to Reuben just above Moab,
and to Gad just above Reuben and to the half_tribe of Man_
asseh way up in Gilead. This is on the east side of the
Jordan, and the Biblical Atlas will show you at the first
glance where they are. So that is the first distribution:
Reuben, Gad and the half_tribe of Manasseh.
The next distribution takes place under the command_
ment of God. Joshua is old, well stricken in years and wants
the land divided while he lives because he knows it will be
divided right, and this, too, is the land allotted to Judah
and the land allotted to Joseph, or Ephraim, and the half_
tribe of Manasseh. So we have two and one_half tribes
receiving their portion on the west side of the Jordan. That
leaves seven tribes who have not yet received their land.

In giving Judah his part three interesting events occur_
red, all of which were in connection with Caleb. Caleb is
one of the original twelve men sent out by Moses to spy out
the land, and because of his fidelity God promised that he
should have Hebron, Abraham’s old home, which is not far
from the Dead Sea. It has always been a noted place and
is yet. Before this division took place, fflaleb presented
himself and asked for the fulfilment of the promise by Moses,
that his particular part should be Hebron and when that
was done, Caleb’s daughter, Achsah, steps forward and asks
of her father springs of water, and he gave her the upper
and nether springs.
The third fact is related at length in Judges, but it oc_
curs at this time. Caleb having the certain portion, Kiriath_
sepher, the enemy of Hebron, he said that whoever should
go over into that city first and capture it, he should have
his daughter for a wife, and a very brave fellow, a nephew
of Caleb, determined to try it and he took that city and got
the girl. Now, that was a deed of daring, and like it was
in the Middle Ages where a knight went forth and sought
adventures that would entitle him to be his lady’s husband.
All young fellows feel that they would surmount any diffi_
culty to win a girl. I have felt that way. I felt that way
when I was seven years old and about a certain young lady.
There isn’t anything too dangerous or too great a sacrifice
for a man to make in a case of that kind.
I told you when Judah received his part that Joseph’s
tribe received theirs. Now we come to an interesting epi_
sode; the tribe of Joseph, and particularly the tribe of
Ephraim, was always a tough proposition. You will find
that all the way through the Old Testament and even when
you come to the New Testament. Ephraim came up and when
the allotment was made he said, „We are not satisfied.” Did
you ever hear of people who were not satisfied about a
division of land? Joshua said, „What ia the trouble?” „Well,
they said, „we are a big tribe, many men of war, and we
are cooped up too much. We cannot go far west for there are
the mountains, and then all around are woods.” Now, what
did Joshua say to them? He said, „Well, you are indeed
a big tribe and you have many men of war; now go up and
cut down those woods and expand'” He determined to rest
some responsibility upon the tribes after the allotment had
been made. It is a fine piece of sarcasm. So Ephriam had
to take to the woods.
Now before any other division takes place a very notable
event occurred affecting the future history of the nation,
and that was the establishment of a central place of worship,
finding a home for the tabernacle. The tabernacle was es_
tablished at Shiloh, and this brings us to another general
question. How long did that tabernacle stay at Shiloh?
How long did the ark stay, and when it left there, where
did it go, and where was the ark finally brought? Trace
the history of the ark from Shiloh to where it was set up
in the tent, and then I want you to tell what became of the
tent and tell how long it stayed there and what became of it.
What became of the tabernacle? Some of the most interest_
ing things in history and song are found in the answer to
those questions.
I here propound another queston. Which tribe had no
inheritance, no section of the country allotted to it, and
why? This tribe that had no particular section allotted to
it was scattered over the whole nation and that leads to the
next question that you are to answer. Where do you find
the prophecy in the Pentateuch, in which book, and where,
that this tribe and another one, Simeon, should be scattered
over Israel? Where does Moses prophesy just what comes
to pass? If not Moses, then somebody else, and you are to
find out who did and when and where.
The next general remark that I have to make is that this
section tells us that Dan was shut up in a pretty tight place.
Three strong tribes, Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim held
them on one side and the Philistines on the other side, but
Dan didn’t come to Joshua. Perhaps he thought it but took
the question into his own hands. I suppose that he was
afraid that as Joshua told Ephraim to go to the woods,
he would tell Dan to capture those Philistine cities, and so
Dan sent out some spies and found a good place to settle,
and the story of the emigration of Dan is told at great
length in the book of Judges. Some of it is told in the book
of Joshua; that he took Laish and called it Dan and that
became its name. So we say, „from Dan to Beer_sheba.”
We will see all about how Dan improved it when we get to
the book of Judges. I am showing you that it occurred,
but when you get to the book of Judges you will have a de_
tailed account of it.
The next thought in these eleven chapters is that Joshua,
having ended his wars, obeyed God with singular fidelity.
(I don’t believe I explained that after they came to Shiloh
where he set the ark, the other tribes received their por_
tion by lots. Now your map will show you where Shiloh
was and Ephraim and Dan and the half_tribe of Manasseh,
and all the others. All you have to do is to look on your
map and see their location.) He, having finished the wars,
asked a small inheritance for himself, a little bit of a place.
How that does shine in comparison with the other great con_
querors! When they come to the division, they take the
lion’s share. Joshua took a very modest little place in his
own tribe. His retiring from public life devolved the work
upon the tribes themselves, and to their own judgment. He
remained in seclusion until he comes out to be considered in
the next section.
This leaves for consideration only two other thoughts in
the distribution of the territory, and I shall embody these
thoughts in questions for you to answer. Look at the six
cities of refuge established, three east of the Jordan and three
west of the Jordan. You can find them on a good map, and
as you look at them on the map, you are struck with the
wisdom of their locality when you consider the purpose of
these cities of refuge. And now what was the intent of these
cities of refuge? A thousand preachers have preached ser_
mons on the cities of refuge’ Spurgeon has one remarkable
sermon. The allusions to them are very frequent, so that
every one of you ought to have in your heart and on your
brain a clear conception of what is meant by the cities of
refuge. I am going to give you a brief answer, but you can
work this answer out and make it bigger.
Uinder the Mosaic law there was no sheriff in cases of
homicide, the killing of a man. In our cities the police go
after the murderer, and the sheriff in the country, but under
the Mosaic law the next of kin was made the „avenger of
blood.” If I, living at that day, had been slain, without rais_
ing a question as to how it was done, my brother, J. M.
Carroll, or my son, B. H. Carroll, Jr., under the law would be
the sheriff, and his injunction would be to start as soon as he
heard of the killing and to kill the killer on sight. Well, for
òus in that kind of a sheriff_law this difficulty would arise:
Suppose in the assumed case Just now that, while I had
been killed, it had been accidental; that we were all out
hunting and a man with me accidentally discharged his gun
and it killed me. Or suppose that, as Moses described it, two
men were chopping and one went to make a big lick with an
axe and the axe flew off and hit the other one and killed him,
yet that law says that life was a sacred thing. Now, as there
are several cases of manslaughter, of innocent men with no
purpose to kill them, so there must be a distinction made be_
tween accidental homicide and wilful murder.
The object of the cities of refuge, distributed as you see over the country, was to provide a place where one who had killed another, not intending to commit murder, might find a place of shelter until the matter could be investigated, and so, just as soon as a man killed another, he turned and commenced running. The avenger of blood, as soon as he heard of it, went after him and it was a race for life and death, to see which could get there first. Therefore the roads were kept in splendid con-dition, no rocks were left that the man fleeing for his life should stumble and be slain. The rabbis say they would not allow a straw to be left on the road lest they should stumble and fall.
Now, I close with just this question. I told you that one
tribe had no inheritance, no lot of land all together and they
had to go somewhere. So for that tribe certain cities with
their suburbs were set apart. Now, on your map look for the
cities of this tribe that had no inheritance.

QUESTIONS
1. Describe the strategical position of Jericho and Ai.
2. By what battle was the south country practically conquered?
3. What decisive battle brought about the northern conquest? De_
scribe it. With whom is Joshua as a general compared?
4. What the connection between the book of Joshua and the book of Judges?
5. How do you harmonize the statements that Joshua conquered
all the land that Jehovah had promised them and that there remained certain portions of the land that had not been conquered?
6. Why did God permit the remnants not subjugated to remain in
the land? Where in the Pentateuch do you find the answer?
7. Explain the expression, „Joshua waged war a long time with these kings.”
8. Locate the tribes on the east of the Jordan.
9. What the second distribution, and to whom?
10. What 3 interesting events in connection with giving Judah his portion?
11. What complaint was made by Ephraim, and Joshua’s reply?
12. Where was the central place of worship located? How long did the ark stay there? When it left where did it go? Where finally brought? How long did the tent, or tabernacle, stay there? What finally became of it?
13. What tribe had no inheritance & why? Where do you find the prophecy in the Pentateuch that this tribe & Simeon should be scattered over Israel?
14. How does Joshua’s spirit compare with the spirit of the other
great conquerors?
15. How did Dan get out of his straits?
16. Name and locate the cities of refuge. What the intent of these cities?
17. Locate the cities of the tribe that had no inheritance.

XXIII
BRIEF REVIEW; RETURN OF WARRIORS OF
THE TWO AND A HALF TRIBES
Joshua 22_24

We commence this discussion at Joshua 22, and there are
several things that I wish to discuss in this section.
First Theme: Brief review Joshua 13_21, enough to make
it clear what part of the territory was yet unoccupied, as well
as one or two other little things.
Second Theme: The return of the warriors of the two and a
half tribes whose territory lay east of the Jordan.
Third Theme: Joshua’s first address.
Fourth Theme: Joshua’s final address, 24:1_28.
Fifth Theme: The renewal of the covenant and its witness.
Sixth Theme: Completing the records, as was done in the
Pentateuch by Moses.
Seventh Theme: The death and burial of Joshua, the burial
of the bones of Joseph and the death and burial of Eleazar.
That part of chapter 24, just as a part of Deuteronomy as a
connecting link, was inserted by the later historians, and you
will see that not only here but it reopens in the next book.
Now those are the several themes that I shall discuss.
In the preceding section on the division of the land, chapters
13_21 inclusive, you will notice that on account of Joshua’s
age the Almighty instructed him to divide the land on the
west side of the Jordan as it had been divided on the east side
of the Jordan, and yet the record states that much land yet
remained to be possessed.
Now, in the part of the territory where they had not been
fully subjugated, their enemies were the Geshuri, very differ_

ent from the Geshurites that we shall learn about directly.
They occupied the Arabian desert from the river of Egypt
where it went into the Mediterranean Sea clear on up almost
to Kadesh_barnea, until it touched the Philistine country.
Now, that tribe of the Canaanites west of the Jordan in_
habiting that territory, while it had been divided, had not
been brought into complete subjugation. Their territory came
up to the narrow strip on the Mediterranean Sea, the five towns
of the Philistines that were not completely occupied, then
going further up by the Mediterranean Sea were the Phoenici_
ans, the chief towns of which were Tyre and Sidon, and
they were not completely conquered. So that what remained
to be conquered on the west were the Phoenicians and~he
Philistines.
Now, when it comes to the northern border, a strip of coun_
try commencing in the mountains of Lebanon and including
the entrance into Hamath, a stretch clear across into the
mountains of Gilead, where was the half tribe of Manasseh,
that strip had not been completely subjugated. So that on
three sides, the Geshuri on the south; on the west, the Philis_
tines and Phoenicians; on the north, the strip including a
number of small kingdoms, particularly the kingdom of
Maachi, and one other that the half tribe of Manasseh had
not overcome were not subjugated. Now, without going into
an elaborate detail, I determined to give you an idea of the
country, so that you could see that on the three borders,
south, west, and stretching clear across the north, there was
unpossessed territory.
The next thing to explain in that section is that the section
closes in 21:43_45, by stating that every promise that God
had made to them had been literally fulfilled and that they
had been put in possession of the land and that no enemy was
able to stand before them and that they had rest. The point
is, to reconcile that with those facts that I have just stated,
that on the north, on the west and on the south are portions of
territory that have not been occupied. How, then, is the con_
clusion of that section true? You will find by carefully
noting Exodus 23:29_30, and Deuteronomy 7:22, that God
had forewarned them that he would not put them in possession
of all this territory in one year. It would have been a destruc_
tion of the population before any other population could
move in and keep the land from going to waste, therefore, in
making the promise to put them in possession that promise
was modified. „I will not drive out the enemy the first year,
lest the land should go to waste, but I will drive them out
little by little, year after year.” That explains the apparent
discrepancy between the two statements.
The next thought that I wish to bring out is that in the
beginning God had appointed Joshua to make the general
conquest of the land where it required all Israel to be held
together in one army, the main battles to be fought and the
enemy to be defeated, so that they would not take the open
field. Then Joshua’s part must end, and the details of
driving out the remnants of the people devolved upon each
tribe, which God clearly foretold, as you will see in Numbers
33:55, and Joshua restates it in chapter 23:11_13. God
designedly left a portion of the inhabitants for each tribe, in
its tribal capacity, to grapple with and assured them that if
they were sluggish in completing that, then he would pre_
serve these remnants alive to be a thorn in their flesh; as a
test of their character. So that they understood that these
remnants would rise in punishment, as you will see illustrated
when you come to the book of Judges. So all of the statements
have been taken together and scripture compared with scrip_
ture. Some of the greatest sermons that have ever been pub_
lished are on those remnants of nations, God permitting them
to remain to try the tribes. Generally the sermons preached on
that make this scriptural application, viz.: that after regen_
eration there remain remnants of the fleshly nature to be
overcome by sanctification, and if a man does not cultivate
sanctification these remnants will rise up and conquer him
and bring him into temporary captivity at least. It is a fine
spiritual application.
The second theme is the return of the warriors of the two
and a half tribes whose territory lay east of the Jordan. That
proves that the conquest of Joshua was over, and the army
broken up. Joshua assembled these tribes and passed on them
the highest commendations that a general ever gave to sol_
diers. He said that they had not failed in any particular in
doing what Moses required and what they had promised.
There was not a blot on their record. Following that com_
mendation, which is as superb as anything I know of in
literature, he then exhorts them that on their return to their
old home they be as faithful in the future as they had been
in the past. Then he gives them a benediction and a blessing
is pronounced on them, and in that benediction he says, „You
go home; you go with great spoils and many riches, your part
of the conquest which has taken place.” And so they are dis_
missed, and this is the first item of the return of the tribes.
The next thought is that when these armies got to the river
Jordan they erected on the mountains near the Jordan a
very great and very conspicuous altar, an altar to be seen, as
your text says. You can even see it now, at least the site of
it and the ruins of it, and you see it a long way off.
Now, when the nine and a half tribes heard of the erection
of that altar, they misconstrued its intent and came rushing
together to make war on the two and a half tribes. But before
they declared war, somebody had sense enough to suggest the
sending of an ambassador to find out about this, and so they
selected a high priest and a deputation from the nine and a
half tribes, and they went over and interviewed the two and
a half tribes, and interviewed them very sternly. They
thought that the altar was the altar for burnt offerings and
that it was intended to be a line of separation between the two
and a half tribes and the nine and a half tribes, and that the
two and a half tribes would worship idols there and not the
true God; that it meant revolt from the central place of wor_
ship and the high priest makes an accusation.
The two and a half tribes turn them down very easily.
They say, „Brethren, this is not an altar of burnt offerings.
This is an altar of witness and the meaning is that, as long
as that hill stands and that altar stands, it is a pledge that
the tribes east of the Jordan are bound up with the tribes
west of the Jordan in unity of worship, and the unity of the
tribes is to be preserved.” I imagine that that deputation
looked foolish. Just before you go to war on people, read
David Crockett, who said: „Be sure you are right, and then
go ahead.” Stop long enough to be sure you have heard the
right of it. If we consider the truth of a thing, it will from
much dissension free us. So I think that the two and a half
tribes came out way ahead of that high priest as well as upon
the fidelity of their service. The two and a half tribes made
the name of that altar „Ed.” That means witness, not burnt
offerings, „witness,” like Jacob’s Mizpah, the meaning of
which is the same thing: „The Lord witness between me and
thee.” Somehow I was always charmed with that incident,
viz.: the going home of those tribes and their fidelity to the
unity of Israel and the true worship of God.
Now we come to the third theme. It is presented in Joshua
23. Joshua calls the people together, it doesn’t say where, but
presumably at Shiloh, and delivers them an address bearing
upon this point, viz.: The duty that devolved upon them in
their several tribal capacities to conquer the remnants: „Now
while I was your general, I represented the whole nation; I
commanded the army of the whole nation. You will bear
witness that God stood by me; that he gave us victory every
time; that no nation was able to stand before us. Now that
public general part is ended, and your particular part re_
mains to be done.” It is in that connection that he tells us
that if they are sluggish about driving out these remnants,
God would retain them and preserve them as thorns in their
sides_ In that connection he reminds them of the reason that
God commanded the extirpation of the Canaanites, viz.: they
were idolaters, they were outrageous sinners. Now says
Joshua, „If you do as they did, God will do to you as he did
to them. If you turn away from the true God and you lapse
into the idolatrous ways of these nations, and that can be
brought about by your intermarriage and your treaties with
them, if you do that, he will sponge you off the map as he
sponged them off the map for a like offense, and you will go
into captivity.” Now, you can see that presumably it was
at Shiloh, and the purpose of this assembly is quite distinct
from the purpose of the one next to be considered.
So now we come to chapter 24, the last part. Now he
commands all Israel to come together again and the place this
time is Shechem, not Shiloh. Why should it be Shechem?
Considering the objects that he had in view in calling them
together, why was Shechem the appropriate place?
First, Shechem was the place where Abraham halted when
he got to this land, and he built an altar and received from
God the promises of the land; it was to be given to him and
his children. When God sent him out, he went, not knowing
whither he went, but here at Shechem God outlines to him
that this very territory is to belong to him and his children.
That was the first altar and the first promise considering the
possession of the land.
The second thing is that when Jacob returned from Meso_
potamia, he stopped at Shechem and built an altar and there
was a renewal of the promises to him, and he there freed his
family from idolatry. You remember that .one of his wives
carried away the teraphim of Laban and Jacob made his wife
bury these things under an old tree.
Right there Jacob bought a particular section of land, set_
ting a price, and that land he was to deed to Joseph, and the
descendants of Joseph, Ephraim, and Manasseh, and right at
that place, as we learn later in this book, the bones of Joseph
were buried. In the last chapter of Genesis Joseph tells them
that he will die and he says, „Take my bones,” and Moses
took the bones of Joseph with him and we learn here that the
bones of Joseph were buried _there, and so we learn from
Stephen’s speech in Acts. There you have three reasons.
Let us see if we. cannot find another. When Joshua first
brought the people over into the Promised Land after they
had been circumcised and he kept the feast of the Passover,
it was to this place that he brought them with Mount Ebal
on one side and Mount Gerizirn on the other. He renewed the
covenant there and there he built an altar of stone, and on
the stones recorded the Pentateuch as a witness. Then we
learn next from Ebal and Gerizirn were enunciated in turn a
curse and a blessing of the covenant, and yet further we learn
that there this copy of the covenant, prepared by Joshua, was
set up so that the Pentateuch stood there and the altar of the
renewal of the covenant stood there and the echoes of the
blessings and curses, and the bones of Joseph were there, and
the altar of Abraham was there, and the altar of Jacob was
there. „So it was intensely appropriate that in his farewell
address he should gather them where they had renewed the
covenant on their first entrance into the Promised Land.
Now we come to the final address as it reviews their his_
tory. He reminded them that beyond the flood, that is, the
Euphrates River (that is the meaning of Euphrates, the flood),
in Ur of the Chaldees, their ancestor was Terah, an
idolater, and that from that idolatrous country God called
their immediate ancestor, Abraham, and brought him to this
place and made him that promise. He then shows their his_
tory under Moses when God leads them out of Egypt and
establishes with them his covenant at Mount Sinai, their
wandering in the wilderness and that God conquered for them
the tribes east of the Jordan, and God conquered for them the
tribes west of the Jordan.
Now, upon these historical facts he makes an exhortation
that is very thrilling. He shows if ever a nation in the world
was under obligations to keep the covenant given at Sinai
and renewed at Ebal and Gerizirn, that this people was under
obligations to do it. And he urges them to be faithful, in all
things, to their God and their religion. Having finished his
exhortation, the people reply, and they say that they will do
what he tells them to do. Then he said that they need not
think, and you and I need not think, that it is an easy thing
to live right in the sight of a jealous God. If you make a
vow to do anything, you had better thoughtfully consider it.
He having then cautioned them, they renewed their promise.
Then he said, „Now we will renew the covenant itself.”
While the book doesn’t give the details of how the covenant
was renewed, they renewed it just as before. There they built
an altar; there were certain burnt offerings, certain sanctifi_
cation and setting apart. Then there was the taking upon
themselves the vows of the covenant. Now that having been
done, Joshua makes that altar witness of the covenant.
Then he completes the records just as Moses finished up
the records of the Pentateuch and put them in the ark to be
preserved. Joshua completes the record of this time and takes
the Pentateuch out of the ark – and slips his record inside of
the holy ark of the covenant of God, and all the history in
connection with it as a witness.
Then follows an account, doubtless by Phinehas, the high
priest. As Joshua had finished the last part of Deuteronomy,
so here a record is made of Joshua’s death and his burial.
There is a singular thing in the Alexandrian version of the
Septuagint, which says that the knives with which the people
had been circumcised were buried with Joshua. It may have
been, I don’t know. Then follows the death of Eleazar, the
son of Aaron, and that closes up the book. Now, this is a
very brief discussion but it is sufficient, and in our next dis_
cussion we will take the period of the Judges, bearing in mind
that a considerable part of the book of Judges overlaps the
book of Joshua; that several things occurred before he died
and before his final address was delivered.

QUESTIONS
1. Why was the land now divided?
2. What land yet in the hands of the enemy?
3. How was God’s promise literally fulfilled?
4. What was Joshua’s part in the conquest of the land?
5. What each tribe’s part after the general conquest?
6. If they proved sluggish in this then what?
7. What commendation pronounced upon them by Joshua?
8. What exhortation to them?
9. The benediction on them?
10. The altar on the Jordan:
(1) Describe it.
(2) How construed by the nine and one_half tribes, and why?
(3) What steps did they take?
(4) What the response?
(5) What the effect on the nine and one_half tribes?
(6) What name did they give the altar and what its meaning?
(7) What the value of embassy before war?
III. Joshua’s First Address about the Completion of the Conquest
11. Where assembled?
12. What duty does he point out to them?
13. What the penalty for their failure?
14. Where?
15. Why there? (Give seven reasons.)
16. Give brief analysis of this address of Joshua, and their reply.
17. Give an account of the renewal of the covenant.
18. What the witness?
19. Tell how Joshua completed the records.
20. Who wrote the account of Joshua’s death and burial?
21. The fulfilment of what prophecy made by Joseph recorded here?
22. What other death recorded here?

XXIV
THE BOOK OF JUDGES
INTRODUCTION

This discussion is an introduction to the book of Judges,
and I present it in prepared words.

CONTEMPORANEOUS JEWISH LITERATURE
There is abundant evidence that apart from the sacred
biblical books there was a contemporaneous secular Israelite
or Jewish literature, both national and tribal, extending over
all the periods from the time of the writing of Genesis to the
last Old Testament record. Many of the Old Testament
books refer to this extant, contemporaneous literature which
covered broad grounds of genealogy, history, poetry, and other
matters.
Inspiration moved Old Testament writers not in the direc_
tion of a complete, consecutive, scientific history of Israel,
but in the selection and preservation of such facts as were
contributory to its unique purpose of showing the development
of the kingdom of God in one people that it might, in later
days, reach all peoples. The book of Judges is no exception
to this general rule.

PERIOD OF THE JUDGES
This period really extends from a time after Joshua’s death,
and the death of the elders contemporaneous with him, to the
establishment of the monarchy under Saul. The event which
marks the beginning of the period is the general apostasy of
the people from Jehovah worship to the worship of idols and
their consequent fall before the heathen nations whom they
have failed to destroy. This fact is clearly set forth in Judges
2:6_15, which is the real introduction to the period:
‘Now when Joshua had sent the people away, the children
of Israel went every man unto his inheritance to possess the
land. And the people served Jehovah all the days of Joshua
and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, who had
seen all the great work of Jehovah that he had wrought for
Israel. And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of Jehovah,
died, being a hundred and ten years old. And they buried
him in the border of his inheritance in Timnath_heres, in the
hill_country of Ephraim, on the north of the mountain of
Gaash. And also all that generation were gathered unto their
fathers: and there arose another generation after them, that
knew not Jehovah, nor yet the work which he had wrought
for Israel.
„And the children of Israel did that which was evil in the
sight of Jehovah, and served the Baalim [Baalim is the plural
of Baal, the Hebrew plural]; and they forsook Jehovah, the
God of their fathers, who brought them out of the land of
Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods of the peoples
that were round about them, and bowed themselves down unto
them: and they provoked Jehovah to anger. And they for_
sook Jehovah, and served Baal and Ashtaroth [Ashtaroth is
the female form of Baal, as you would say the moon is the
female form of the sun]. And the anger of Jehovah was
kindled against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of
spoilers that despoiled them; and he sold them into the hands
of their enemies round about, so that they could not any
longer stand before their enemies. Whithersoever they went
out, the hand of Jehovah was against them for evil, as Je_
hovah had spoken, and as Jehovah had sworn unto them:
and they were sore distressed.” That is the real introduction
to the period and tells why he raised up special deliverers.

THE KEY SENTENCE OF THE PERIOD
This sentence oft appears as a sad refrain and is the closing
sentence of this book: „In those days there was no king in
Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes.”

Commentators have inconsiderately interpreted this sen_
tence as referring to human kings, as if what the people
needed as a remedy was an earthly monarchy instead of a
theocracy. Our sentence refers to their forfeiture of allegiance
to Jehovah_king. „There was a king,” and they turned away
from him. When the monarchy came there came a further
revolt and was the culminating act in rejecting Jehovah, as is
evident from I Samuel 8:7_9:
„And Jehovah said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice
of the people in all that they say unto thee; for they have
not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should
not be king over them. According to all the works which
they have done since the day that I brought them up out of
Egypt even unto this day, in that they have forsaken me,
and served other gods, so do they also unto thee. Now there_
fore hearken unto their voice: howbeit thou shalt protest
solemnly unto them, and shalt show them the manner of the
king that shall reign over_them.”
And further, „And he said, This will be the manner of the
king that shall reign over you: he will take your sons, and
appoint them unto him, for his chariots, and to be his horse_
men: and they shall run before his chariots; and he will
appoint them unto him for captains of thousands, and captains
of fifties; and he will set some to plough his ground, and to
reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and
the instruments of his chariots. And he will take your
daughters to be perfumers, and to be cooks, and to be bakers.
And he will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your
olive yards, even the best of them, and give them to his
servants. And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of
your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his servants.
And he will take your men_servants, and your maid_servants,
and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them
to his work. He will take the tenth of your flocks: and ye
shall be his servants. And ye shall cry out in that day be_
cause of your king whom ye shall have chosen you; and
Jehovah will not answer you in that day.”
Get that clear as to what is the meaning of the key_
sentence of the book, „In those days there was no king in
Israel; every man did that which was right in his own eyes.”
This doesn’t have any reference to the human king subse_
quently appointed. Their clamor for an earthly king was
merely for a change from „every man doing what was right
in his own eyes” to every man doing what was right in the
eyes of other men, as is evident from I Samuel 8:9_18.
The purpose of the book is to show their general failure as
a preparation for the messianic kingdom: (1) In turning from
the central place of worship, as in the case of Gideon and
Abimelech. (2) The failure of their priesthood, as in the case
of the grandson of Moses setting up an image worship for the
migration part of Dan at Laish, and still later in the case of
Eli. (3) Their consequent loss of national unity, as in the
case of a number of the tribes from selfish considerations re_
fusing to help Deborah and Barak. As they failed under
Moses in the wilderness, and after Joshua’s conquest, so they
failed in the period of Judges (Judg. 2:17_19) and will fail
under the monarchy, and after the return from exile. And
all these failures, under the several transitory dispensations,
will complete the preparation for the setting up of the spiritual
kingdom, that will endure forever.

DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN JOSHUA AND THE JUDGES
Joshua was divinely appointed national leader charged
with the specific duties (1) of conquest in its national bear_
ings with a national army; (2) of the allotment of territory
to nine and a half tribes; (3) of the renewal of the covenant;
(4) of the establishment of a central place of worship, with
provision for priests and Levites, and cities of refuge. The
judges were special deliverers of particular tribal sections
when. on account of their sins, they were brought into bondage.
The date of the composition of the book. It was certainly
written before the first book of Samuel, as that book repeat_
edly and particularly quotes from it. It is more amusing than
edifying to note the radical critics quoting the phrase „there
was no king in Israel,” cited and explained above, to prove
that it must have been written in or after days when Israel
had human kings.
The author’s name is not given, but many scriptures show
that all Old Testament books were written by prophets, and
this book is the second of the earlier prophets, Joshua being
the first.

CHRONOLOGY
There are perhaps some difficulties in dating details because
the book is more concerned to give the facts than the dates.
Moreover it is evident that some of the judges may have been
contemporaneous, seeing that they represent different sections
and tribes and contended against different enemies. Hence
the order of some events may not be consecutive but simul_
taneous, though other events are consecutive, as is evident
from Deborah’s song, citing by name preceding events and
persons. But it is a mistake to conclude that the Jews were
careless in matters of chronology. No other people on earth
were more careful and painstaking on this point.
The difficulties in determining the chronology of the period
as a whole and its great events are more fanciful than real.
It is idle to seek to establish definitely the chronology from
the many genealogies of the period cited in both Old Testa_
ment and New Testament, since they themselves are indeter_
minate on one point, namely, giving every name. But we do
have chronological data every way reliable and sufficiently
determinate in substance to establish every material point.
In round numbers from the call of Abraham to the estab_
lishment in Canaan was 490 years; from the establishment
in Canaan to the establishment of the monarchy was 490
years; from the establishment of the monarchy till its down_
fall was 490 years; from the downfall of the monarchy to
the coming of the Messiah was 490 years. The date in Acts
13:20, makes it 450 years from the settlement of Canaan until
Samuel the prophet.. Add forty years for Samuel’s rule be_
fore the establishment of the monarchy and we have the full
period of the judges, 490 years. Every date given in the
book of Judges can be harmonized with this date of the full
period.
These are:
1. The story of Micah and the migration of the Danites,
chapters 27_28.
2. The story of the war of the other tribes against the tribe
of Benjamin, and how that tribe was perpetuated after being
almost annihilated, chapters 19_21.
To that period, not the book, belong also the story of Ruth,
the story of Eli, the story of Samuel up to the beginnings of
the monarchy.
The charge that this book and indeed the period is silent
on the matter of a central place of worship and general priest_
hood, coming from the radical critics and other infidels (I use
that expression advisedly) in order to discredit the Pentateuch
which they call the priest code and give it a post_exile date,
is without foundation. There never was a more gratuitous
charge. The radical critics didn’t originate it. Infidels orig_
inated it, and the radical critics adopted it. When I was an
infidel and had never heard of a radical critic I used to dis_
cuss it. I got it from my infidel library. I will show you why
this charge is without foundation by just citing a few points
in the book. First, the book of Joshua clearly shows that he
did establish the central place of worship and with the priest_
hood and giving the names of the high priests and the duties,
and that he did provide for the priesthood and the Levites,
as we have just learned in the book of Joshua. Now, the

book of Judges commences by stating that as long as Joshua
lived and as long as the elders lived who were contemporaries
with Joshua; as long as that leader lived they served Jehovah
faithfully and that faith included keeping up that central
place of worship, just as Joshua had commenced.
Now, the second point is that the first thing we have in the
book of Judges is the reference to the oracle of God in the
place of worship. This is the first time it is mentioned in the
book, and the last time in the book is concerning the Ben_
jaminites, and shows that the Benjaminites got their wives
by attending the festivals at Shiloh, the central place of wor_
ship, and going in and capturing a woman apiece. So the
book commences and so the book ends.
Then, if we look somewhat toward the central part of the
book, we find that when these Benjaminites upheld the in_
iquity of a certain member of their tribe the whole nation
came together, meeting at their central place of worship.
Now, I cite these facts and could cite others, but those are
sufficient to show that the infidel charge is false. The radical
critics endorse it because they want to discredit what Moses
said about the tabernacle and the central place of worship.
In other words, the radical critics affirm that all that part of
Exodus and the entire book of Leviticus and certain portions
of Numbers constitute what they call the priest’s code, and
Moses never wrote any of it, and it was written in the time of
Ezekiel in post_exile times, and they use the general silence
of the book of Judges about that central place of worship to
prove it. Now it is the purpose of Judges to show that in the
going from that place of worship they commit a sin, and
when they set up images and bow down before them, that is
an offense against God, an offense also against the unity of
the nation.
That is sufficient on the introduction of the book of Judges.

QUESTIONS
1. Discuss the contemporaneous Jewish literature.
Period of the Judges
2. What the extent of time?
3. What event marks the beginning of the period?
4. Where do you find this, and what its relation to the book?
The Key_Sentence of the Period
5. What is it?
6. What misinterpretation of this sentence?
7. What was the result when the monarchy came?
The Purpose of the Book
8 What is it?
9 How does it show such failure?
Distinction Between Joshua and the Judges
10 State clearly these differences.
Date and Composition of the Book11. When written? Reason for your answer.
12. What the higher critics’ position?
13. Who the author?
Chronology
14. What the difficulties?
15. Give limits of four great Jewish periods.
The Episodes in the Book
16. Name them.
17. Name some in the period but not in the book.
18. What the charge of the radical critics, and why?
19. Give a summary of the answer to this charge.

XXV
INTRODUCTION (Continued) AND OUTLINE
FURTHER REMARKS ON THE INTRODUCTION

In the preceding discussion we considered somewhat the
subject of chronology, in which stress was laid on Acts 13:
19_20, as an important factor in determining the time extent
of the period. In citing this passage we designedly followed
the rendering of the common version, to wit: „And when he
had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he divided
their land to them by lot. And after that he gave unto them
judges about the space of 450 years, until Samuel the prophet.”
The Standard Revised Version of these verses, though based
on high manuscript authority, makes utter nonsense, to wit:
„And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of
Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about
450 years; and after these things he gave them judges until
Samuel the prophet.” The manufactured punctuation of this
rendering violates whole classes of scriptural facts and ab_
surdly makes the distribution of inheritance by Joshua last
450 years and leaves a gap of equal length of time between
Joshua and Judges . It is of a piece with the nonsensical butch_
ering punctuation of Daniel 9:25_26, by the Canterbury Re_
vision, happily in that case not followed by the Standard,
which there coincides with the common version. In this
criticism of the Standard Revision of a single passage, under_
stand that I do not retract my commendation of its general
superiority over all other English versions.
I understand Paul to affirm that the period of the judges
until Samuel the prophet was 450 years. And, as was said
in the preceding discussion, this harmonizes with every date
given in the book of Judges. particularly the express statement
of Jephthah to the Ammonites, that up to his time Israel
had dwelt at Heshbon, Aroer and by the side of the river
Ainon for 300 years, Judges 11:26. It also harmonizes with
the crucial date given in I Kings 6:1, that the building of
Solomon’s temple commenced in the four hundred and
eightieth year after the Exodus from Egypt and was com_
pleted in seven years.

ONE OTHER INTRODUCTORY REMARK
The book of Joshua 14:6_15, not only recites the story of
Caleb’s allotment by Joshua himself, but also records its con_
quest by Caleb, together with the exploit of Othniel and the
story of Achsah, Joshua 15:13_19, all of which is repeated
in Judges 1:12_15, 20. It also records in brief, general terms
Dan’s conquest of Laish, Joshua 19:47, which event is
elaborated at length in Judges 17 and 18. Nor are these two
events the only ones recorded in the book of Joshua and re_
peated in the book of Judges. We must understand, there_
fore, that in several particulars the books overlap. And in_
asmuch as Joshua’s leadership expired with the allotment of
territory, after which for some years he lived in retirement
before his farewell addresses, Joshua 23_24, it becomes a
question somewhat difficult to determine with satisfaction
how many of the events in Judges 1:8 to 3:6, 20_21, occurred
in Joshua’s lifetime. All of them, we are sure, preceded the
period of the Judges, which commences, Judges 3:7, with
Othniel who achieved the first deliverance. There was a period
after Joshua’s death, i.e., during that generation of the con_
temporaneous elders who survived him, in which Israel, in the
main, continued faithful to Jehovah.

OUTLINE OF THE BOOK OF JUDGES
Really, if you have mastered the outline you have mastered
the book.

I. The Events Preceding the Judges
1. A short period of fidelity, after Joshua died. Judges
1:6_10.
2. The history showing how each one in order of the nine
and a half tribes west of the Jordan failed in executing Jehovah’s ordinance to destroy the remnants of the Canaanite tribes, and in some fashion made terms with these nations as follows:
(a) Judah and Simeon, how they failed, 1:19.
(b) Benjamin, how he failed, Judges 1:21; 19_21.
(c) Ephraim after doing well, failed, Judges 1:20_25, 29.
(d) Manasseh failed, that is, Manasseh west of the Jordan, 1:27.
(e) Zebulun failed, Judges 1:30.
(f) Asher, 1:31_32.
(g) Naphtali, 1:33.
(h) Dan. 1:34; 17_18.
3. The third great event that precedes the period of the
judges, that is yet recorded in the book of Judges, is the coming of the angel of Jehovah from Gilgal where Joshua had seen him, to rebuke the unfaithful tribes, and their temporary penitence, 2:1_6.
4. Their general apostasy, including the two and a half
tribes east of Jordan, which brought them under the power
II. A General Statement concerning Jehovah’s intervention
of their enemies, Judges 2:11_15, 20_23; 3:1_2. by special deliverers called judges and the relapse after the death of each judge. This is a prospective review of the whole period of the judges down to Samuel, showing that as they failed in the wilderness under Moses, and failed after the settlement under Joshua, so will they fail under the judges, 2:16_19.
III. The third grand division of the book is The Story of
the Several Special Deliverers.
1. Othniel, 3:7_11. There had been an oppression for seven
years, but there was a rest of forty years. Period forty_seven
years. The oppressors in this case were the Mesopotamians
under their king living between the Tigris and the Euphrates.
You see their eastern boundary touched the Euphrates River,
and on account of the failure of the tribes God let these peo_
ple oppress them. The Mesopotamians came from the east,
swept over the two and a half tribes east of the Jordan and
struck the center about Jericho. Othniel, of the tribe of Judah,
was raised up to beat back that tribe of invaders.
2. The second judge was Ehud, 3:12_30. Here the oppres_
sion lasted eighteen years and the rest that followed the
deliverance, eighty years. Period, ninety_eight years. The
oppressor in this case was the king of Moab, assisted by
Ammon and the Amalekites. They also came from the east,
or rather from the southeast.
3. The third judge was Shamgar, 3:31. The history is
simply a single exploit. The oppressor was the Philistines,
no time period given at all.
4. Deborah and Barak, chapters 4_5. Oppression, twenty
years. The rest following the deliverance lasted forty years.
Period, sixty years. The oppressor was Jabin, king of Hazor,
who came from the north and united with the northern
Canaanite tribes.
Now, I wonder if you recall the location of the countries
around the Promised Land, where they had failed to drive
out the inhabitants. Right around from these comes the
oppression.
5. Gideon, 6_8. The oppression in this case lasted seven
years, the rest after the deliverance, forty years. Period,
forty_seven years. This is followed by the story of Abimelech,
Gideon’s natural son, who is discussed in chapter 9; the time
period, three years. I don’t count him among the judges.

6. Tola is the sixth judge, 10:1_2. No oppressor cited. The
time given is twenty_three years. (You will have a use for all
these periods of time directly.)
7. The seventh Judge is Jair, 10:3_5. Time given, twenty_
two years.
8. The eighth judge is Jephthah, 10:6, to 12:7. Here the
oppression lasted eighteen years and Jephthah judged six
years, so that period is twenty_four years. The oppressor in
this case is Ammon and the Philistines. Here the oppression
comes from the southeast and southwest following the strip_
line.
9. lbzan, 12:8_10. Not a thing is said about him, but the
time is seven years.
10. Elon, 12:11_12. Time ten years. That is all about him.
11. Abdon, 12:13_15. Time eight years.
I have something funny to say about those judges, that
is, it seems funny to me whenever I read it. It is about as big
as the sarcastic history of Franklin Pierce when he was run_
ning for President. It said, „F. Pierce was born. He is
running for President.”
12. Samson, 13_16. The oppression in this case was forty
years and Samson’s judging twenty years; period, sixty years.
The oppressors are the Philistines again from the southwest.
Now, that is the outline of the book of Judges. Now we
come to some remarks on the outline. We will take up the
items of history in the next discussion.

REMARKS ON THE OUTLINE

1. The sum of years cited in the book is 409.
2. The 300 cited by Jephthah, 11:26, up to the Ammonite
oppression plus the years cited in the book after that event
make 409 years. If to the sum of the dates in the book
we add Eli’s forty years, I Samuel 4:18, we have 449 years,

coming within one year of Paul’s 450 years up to Samuel.
And if we add Samuel’s time of judging to Eli’s and then add
them to the Jephthah calculation, we have 490 years from the
settlement to the monarchy.
3. Of the 409 years only a little over one_fourth, i.e., 110
years, were they oppressed. As usual, the periods of rest and
righteousness have no history. Turbulence and wickedness
make history, according to the saying, „Blessed is the nation
which has no history.” I always stand for Paul; Paul said
the period of the judges lasted 450 years, and I am for Paul.
4. The only fact cited concerning two of these judges relates
to the number of their children. It says of one, „And he had
thirty sons and thirty daughters; he sent abroad to get other
people’s sons and brought back thirty daughters from other
people for his thirty sons.” I smile every time I read it. Now,
God smiles more in an approving way on history of that kind
than if his boys had killed other people and his daughters had
gone to the bad. Then the other: „Abdon had forty sons and
thirty son’s sons, that rode on seventy asses’ colts.” Now, that
must have been a wonderful procession all in a row. That is
all the history there is about it. Now, in times of war the
boys go out and are killed and grandsons don’t come on and
live while the old grandfather is living. They go out and
get killed. That is my fourth remark.
5. Ehud, Shamgar, and Samson are renowned for individual
exploits.
6. Othniel, Deborah (with Barak), Gideon, and Jephthah
lead armies.
7. The oppressions came on the cast from the Euphrates;
on the southeast from Ammon, Moab and Amalek; on the
north from Hazor, and on the southwest from Philistia.
8. The parts of the book that are of special interest:
(1) The failure of the tribes one by one, chapter 1.
(2) The coming of the angel and their transitory penitence,
2_1_5.
(3) The prospective review of the failure of the people dur_
ing the whole period, 2:11_23.
(4) The stories of Deborah, Gideon (and his son), Jeph_
thah, and Samson.
(5) The migration of Dan.
(6) The war with Benjamin.
I shall take you out of the book into general literature
several times to show you how some of the finest things in
literature originated in the book of Judges.
9. My last remark on the outline is a request that you note
and specify the tribe of each judge to see what tribes were
represented by these inspired men whom God raised up as
special deliverers. For instance, Othniel is of the tribe of
Judah, that commences the Judges. But you know Samson
didn’t belong to the tribe of Judah, nor did Jephthah, nor
Deborah.

QUESTIONS
1. What is the fault in the punctuation of Acta 13:19_20, of the
Standard Revised Version?
2. Give the events of the book of Joshua repeated in the book of
Judges. What is, therefore, proved with reference to the 2 books?
3. Give main divisions of the outline of the book.
4. Remarks on the outline.
(1) What the sum of years cited in the book?
(2) How may this number be obtained in another way?
What the time from the settlement to the monarchy and
how obtained?
(3) What part of the period was oppression? The bearing of
this fact on the history of the book?
(4) What singular fact with reference to two of the judges?
(5) Which ones are renowned for individual exploits?
(6) Which were leaders of armies?
(7) Whence came the oppressions?
(8) What parts of the book are of special interest?
(9) Note and specify the tribe of each judge.

XXVI
EVENTS PRECEDING THE JUDGES AND SOME
SPECIAL DELIVERERS
Judges 1:1 to 3:31

We have had the introduction to the book of Judges and the
analysis, and with that analysis before you, we shall now take
up the book itself, covering the first three chapters. That
takes in a brief account of three of the judges and brings us
to the great discussion of Deborah and Barak, to which we
must give an entire section, as we shall give a section to Gideon
and one to Jephthah, one to Samson, and one to the migra_
tion of Dan and the tribe of Benjamin. So there will be five
sections after this one on the book of Judges.
According to the chronological analysis submitted, we take
up in order the matters antecedent to Jehovah’s call of special
deliverers called judges.
1. The first period is a brief period of fidelity to Jehovah
after the death of Joshua, (Judg. 2:6_10). As in Exodus, a
change towards Israel came when there arose a king that knew
not Joseph, so here toward Jehovah Israel changed when a new
generation arose who had not personally known the great ex_
ploits of Joshua, nor participated in the solemn covenant
renewals.
The historical lesson is of great signification, that neither
the experience nor the piety of the fathers can be educational_
ly transmitted to their children. There cannot be a more de_
cisive proof of the inherent depravity of the race, of the neces_
sity of the spirit’s work in every generation. The wise man
sadly said, „There is no remembrance of former things,” and
the prophet with equal sadness enquired, “Our fathers! Where

are they? And the prophets, do they live forever?” There is
no such thing as hereditary grace. The whole fight for salva_
tion must be fought over from start to finish with each incom_
ing soul and with each generation. Even the glories of the
millennium are followed by an outbreak of Satan, the most
formidable of all, with a new and unconverted generation.
2. The second period is the exploits of Judah alone before
Joshua’s death, 1:8_15. You are to understand that all the
particulars of this section preceded the death of Joshua, 1:
8_15, 20. Tribal responsibility commenced when the land
was allotted and the general or national army was dismissed,
Joshua 21:43 to 22:6. The book of Judges in describing tribal
responsibility goes back to this period and includes with
matters transpiring after Joshua’s death tribal events preced_
ing. Therefore, in time order the second paragraph precedes
the first. The capture of Jerusalem, 1:8, preceded the cam_
paign against Adoni_bezek and was not a sequel to it as your
Revised Version would indicate.
The King James Version is better here and at Genesis 12:1:
„God had said to Abraham,” rightly using the „had fought”
and „had said” instead of the past tense „said” and „fought”
which accords with the facts and doesn’t violate the grammar
of the language. In Hebrew there is no pluperfect tense and
the context must always determine whether to put the past
tense or the pluperfect tense, a fact which your Revised
Version ignores more than once. Now, if you will put the
word „had” there at the beginning of verse 8 and then include
the paragraph in quotation marks, you will not get confused.
It is an outright quotation from Joshua, and the use of the
pluperfect „had” would save a great many perplexities of
mind. More than once in the book of Judges this remark will
apply. In other words you need quotation marks because the
matter is quoted from Joshua and you need the word „had”
instead of the imperfect. This explains the puzzle to most
commentators, of the first sentence in the book, „And it came
to pass after the death of Joshua,” and then seems to relate
things that had happened in Joshua’s time.
A prominent lawyer said he would have to quit teaching
Sunday school if he could not account for the apparent dis_
crepancies (and they are only apparent) between Joshua and
Judges and between this and another part of Judges. He
sent me a letter, a remarkably well_written one, showing
thoughtful study. He is evidently troubled with difficulties
that he doesn’t know how to solve, and it illustrates the neces_
sity of a theological seminary. It shows that the unaided,
untrained mind of the average preacher with few books cannot
grapple with some of the apparently most serious difficulties in
the book. Now, it used to bother me no little and I deter_
mined to get at the end of it one way or another, but it is now
plain sailing in my mind.
When I read the first chapter of Judges I read the first
seven verses and at the next verse, which tells about the Jeru_
salem campaign, I stick up quotation marks and use the word
„had” and carry that on to the end of verse 16. Now, with
that passage in parenthesis your first seven verses will
harmonize with verses 17_19. So that in considering the his_
tory of the tribal responsibility of Judah we commence with
verse 8, which describes matters in Joshua’s lifetime. In that
you will notice, if you look carefully, that Judah alone fought
the Jerusalem and Hebron campaign down to the end of verse
15. In the preceding verses, (1:1_7) and the following,
(17_19) it is Judah and Simeon who fought the campaign.
Very distinct as to the object, very distinct as to the parties
conducting it and very distinct in the time. The beautiful.
story of Caleb, Othniel, and Achsah, the daughter of the one
and the wife of the other, belongs, therefore, to the earlier
date. We have already considered this in the book of Joshua.
Just now I wish to put only one library question. In what
romance written by Sir Walter Scott is a maiden’s hand in
marriage, aa here in this story, offered for a prize, open to all
contestants, to the hero who would perform a certain exploit?
That is what Caleb does, offers his daughter’s hand to who_
ever would capture a certain town. There is an analogous
story to that one in one of the Waverley novels. Answer that
question and briefly outline the story. Note how the thrifty
girl secures her dowry. I don’t blame her. She is disposed
of in marriage very acceptably to herself, but she thinks that
her father, out of his big possessions, should wish, himself, to
help her. I have always admired this girl for making that
request of her father.
The reference here and elsewhere to the capture of Jeru_
salem with the later reference to it as being yet in the hands
of the Jebusites after it had been captured twice, gives trouble
to some minds and calls for some explanation. It will be re_
called that Joshua himself, with a united army, captured the
country in a general way by defeating all organized armies
and dissipating all open opposition. But the people did not
occupy and settle the conquered provinces until years after_
ward. So the remnants of the defeated people would return
and occupy their old territory. So with the tribal victories.
That part of Jerusalem lying in Judah’s territory was cap_
tured, but as the fortified citadel in the upper town lay in
Benjamin’s territory, it is expressly said they were not dis_
possessed by Benjamin and so would measurably control the
whole city. Indeed they were not finally expelled from the
upper town (Jerusalem) until David’s day. The line between
Judah and Benjamin passed through the city.
In the same way Joshua disrupted the northern confederacy,
centering at Hazor, and slew Jabin (Jabin being the name of
a dynasty as Pharaoh, Caesar, or Abimelech), and inasmuch
as the tribes to which this conquered territory belonged did
not actually settle it till years afterwards, another Jabin is
reoccupying the old territory and city. This applies to terri_
tory east of the Jordan. It is twice repeated that it was not
the purpose of God to expel them utterly at once, but little
by little to prevent the unoccupied land going to waste, and
to prove the fidelity of the tribes when responsibility passed
to them in their several capacities. All that God promised to
accomplish through Joshua was literally fulfilled, and whether
the tribes followed up his victories, dispossessing the remnants
and actually settling the lands, depended upon themselves
and was expressly so stated.
3. We now come to the history, after the death of Joshua,
of the seven and a half tribes west of the Jordan, and in a
very orderly way the book of Judges tells how each of these
tribes succeeded or failed. And all of that is told in the fol_
lowing parts of the first chapter, 1:1_7, then it skips to verse
17 and goes on to the end of the chapter. Now, we have not
come to the judges yet, but we have come to the tribal respon_
sibility after Joshua’s death. Now, this period opens with
proof that the assembled tribes rightly appealed to Jehovah to
designate which tribe should commence the campaign. This
appeal was doubtless made at Shiloh, the central place of
worship, and answered by the high priest through Urim and
Thummirn, according to the Mosaic law and precedent. The
answer assigned the initiative to Judah, who associated him_
self with Simeon since the territories were not only contiguous
but co_mingled. We cannot but be impressed with the fidelity
of the assembled tribes to Jehovah though now without any
leader but Phinehas, the high priest. Without their great
lawgiver, Moses, and the great general, Joshua, both extraor_
dinary officers for special emergencies which passed, the na_
tion is on trial through its regular officers. The high priest and
Shiloh represent the national unity. The princes and elders
represent the regular tribal authority. The high priest trans_
mits Jehovah’s voice to them, tribe by tribe, in order. And the
remnants of the first chapter tell the story of the experiment,
tribe by tribe.
Judah and Simeon, leading off, conduct the campaign de_
scribed in 1:1_7, 17_19. That leaves the intervening para_
graph that was quoted from Joshua of what Judah alone had
previously done. The sum of this campaign is that they first
capture Bezek, which is not very far from Jerusalem and
Hebron, the three places forming the angles of a triangle. And
they inflicted on Adonibezek the mutilation he had inflicted on
seventy petty kings conquered by him. The tragedy in a few
words is told by himself. The lex talionis found him. What
is the lex talionis? Moses gives it: „An eye for an eye, a
tooth for a tooth.” In this case the lex talionis comes, „A
thumb for a thumb, and a toe for a toe.” This man tells the
tragedy of the story himself. It comes from God through man.
It seems to me that his head ought to have been cut off, as
he had been so cruel and made the chieftains take the place
of dogs. His heels ought to have been cut off right back of
his neck. The record says that they brought him to the Judah
part of Jerusalem, gained in a campaign in Joshua’s time. The
Judah and Simeon story is continued in verses 17_19. They
captured Zephath, Hormah and three of the five Philistine
cities and captured the hill country throughout their territory.
But they failed in these particulars:
(1) They did not conquer two of the five Philistine cities.
(2) They had not faith in Jehovah to face the war chariots
in the plains and the chariots of the north.
(3) They did not settle up as they conquered.
Now, the record disposes of Benjamin’s case in verse 21,
but there is a big appendix that we have to study and I cannot
incorporate it here because it will have to be in a section by
itself. Benjamin’s failing is the key to the whole territory
west of the Jordan. The record says that he not only did
not dispossess them but he made a treaty with them contrary
to the law.
We pass on, then, to the word „Joseph.” When the word
„Joseph” is used, it means both Ephraim and Manasseh. While
they are together, they capture one city; somewhat question_
able strategy, but they got it. Having discussed their success,
he will discuss their failure. Verses 27_29 will tell you where_
in they failed and what places they did not take. He left
them there and the verses following will tell you where each
failed. You know when the land was divided that Joshua re_
quired Ephraim to go and take the woods. Well, Ephraim
didn’t go up and take the woods in the mountains.
There is no need for me to take them up tribe by tribe. In
a few words it is clearly shown. I will make a remark on the
failure Dan made. He made the biggest failure of all. The
enemies that he was to conquer almost ran him out of the
country and that led to the migration of Dan to Laish, way
up in the northern part of the territory, and we will find when
we come to discuss the migration of Dan, only hinted at in the
book of Joshua, the extent of Dan’s failure. It was a fearful
failure; they captured the town of Laish and set up that image
with Gershon, the grandson of Moses, as officiating priest.
That is the failure of Dan. Tribe by tribe they failed. There
is nothing said about the tribes east of the Jordan, but they
failed also.
4. We now come to an exceedingly important event in the
beginning of chapter 2: „The angel of Jehovah came up from
Gilgal to Bochim.” They all had broken the covenant and
the angel announces to them that these enemies that they
had spared should not be driven out before them; that they
should remain as thorns in their sides. It looks like a very
promising revival when the angel got through with his re_
monstrance. You see they all assembled there and they wept
and offered sacrifices to Jehovah, and it looked as if a re_
formation had begun.
Now we take verse II (we have already considered w.
6_10): „The children of Israel did that which was evil in the
sight of Jehovah.” Now we are going to find out what evil.
That beats any evil yet. Heretofore they had made treaties
with them but now, „they did evil in the sight of Jehovah and
served the Baalim and bowed down before them” Please no-
tice the names of these deities. Baalim, that is the plural, as
cherubim is the plural of cherub. „Baal, Baalim,” that means
that Baal, the sun_god, in different places went by different
names. I confess that if you have to worship anything like
that, that the sun is a big, bright thing to worship, a most
life_giving thing. If I were going to adopt idolatrous worship,
I had rather take the sun than anything else. The ancient
Peruvians and the ancient Persians worshiped the sun. Many
nations have worshiped the sun. The other name, Ashtareth,
is the female deity corresponding to the male deity, Baal.
Literally it means the moon, called among the Greeks the
Goddess Astarte, who drove the moon chariot, as they be_
lieved. There the female deity corresponds to the sun deity,
but as there were many Baalim, so there was not only Ashta_
reth but Ashtoroth.
When we come to chapter 3, verse 7, we find a new name to
look at. The Revised Version reads this way: „The children
of Israel did that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah . . .
served Baalim and Asheroth.” That is not „Asheroth” in the
King James Version. There it reads „groves,” as where it says,
„and Gideon cut down a grove.” That puzzled me at one
time, but if you will follow that word, you will see that it does
not mean trees; it is wooden images. Asheroth is a wooden
image. Now, Baal is an image made out of stone, but when”
ever you come to Asheroth images they were made out of
wood and stood up in groups, and often they were cut down
and burned. This was their culminating sin. The record
then tells us when they got to that climax and withdrew from
God, that they were not able to stand before their enemies.
If they farmed, an enemy would come and eat up the crop.
If they went to battle in one way they would flee in seven
ways. With God against them they could do nothing.
5. Now, that brings us to what is called the period of the
judges, and from 2:16 to 3:6, gives a prospective review of
Judges, the whole period. The author is not going into the
details of the book of Judges, but the object of that paragraph
is to give a prospective review; how, when they left Jehovah
and he sent an oppressor, they would cry unto him for mercy.
Then he would hear them and send them a deliverer. Then
when that special deliverer left them they would be faithful
for a time. So that paragraph is simply what you would call
the heading of all the book of Judges. If it were put into one
chapter, that would be the contents. It gives a review of the
book without mentioning special names.
6. That brings us to the Judges proper, and the first judge is
Othniel. It had probably been many years since he got that
girl. He was a plucky fellow, of the tribe of Judah and the
first judge. We are also informed who was the first oppressor.
The first oppressor was Cushan_richathaim king of Mesopo_
tamia. He was a son of Ham and occupied the territory be_
tween the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, that great mother
of nations. In all the subsequent history of those nations
whenever a stream pours out from between the Tigris and
Euphrates you are going to see trouble. That is where Abra_
ham came from, but lower down. It is unnecessary to go
into any details of this campaign. The record simply states
that this king of Mesopotamia came from between the rivers
and, of course, he conquered first the two and a half tribes
east of the Jordan and then crossed the Jordan and struck
the territory of the tribes of Judah. And he oppressed the
land for years, then the Lord put into the heart of Othniel to
lead Israel. The record states that he did it handsomely. He
defeated this king and brought a long rest to the people.
Now, the next judge was Ehud, the left_handed fellow. And
a blow from a left_handed fellow is the hardest to dodge. Je_
hovah uses various methods to accomplish his purpose; some_
times he uses the devil. Now here is Moab. You go back to
Genesis and read that Abraham’s nephew, Lot, was called out
of Sodom and Gomorrah and his daughters, thinking the
world had come to an end and that they and their father were
all that was left, made their father drunk and so became
mothers of Moab and Ammon. Moab comes over and op_
presses the people, following right in the track of Cushan. You notice the oppression so far is coming from the east, showing that the two and a half tribes were the first decadent tribes. The deliverer was Ehud, and I need not tell you he killed Eglon, the fat old king of Moab. The other thing is concerning Shamgar. There is only one verse about him and he fought only one fight. He fought that with an oxgoad, that is, a long, heavy pole sharp at one end and heavy at the other. It makes a formidable weapon. This finishes chapter 3.

QUESTIONS
1. What parallel between Exodus and Joshua?
2. What the historic lesson?
3. What the time of the events of this section?
4. What difficulty of translation here? Explain fully.
5. In what romance by Sir Walter Scott is a maiden’s hand in marriage as here in this story, offered as a prize to the man who would perform a certain exploit? Give brief outline of the story.
6. Explain the reference to Jerusalem’s being in the hands of the
Jebusites. In like manner the reference to Jabin.
7. How did they determine which tribe should commence the campaign of subduing the remnants?
8. Which was to take the initiative?
9. What is the lex tationis and what example here?
10. In what did Judah and Simeon fail?
11. What advance did Benjamin make in violating the law?
12. What Joseph’s success and failure?
13. Give briefly Dan’s failure.
14. What the purpose and effect of his coming?
15. What advance did they make now in violating the law? Name their gods.
16. What the result of this culminating sin?
17. Explain in general terms this prospective review.
18. Who the first judge? The first oppressor?
19. Who the second judge? The second oppressor?
20. Who the third judge? The third oppressor (3:31)?
21. Whence came the first two oppressors and what does this show?
Whence the third oppressor?

XXVII
DEBORAH AND BARAK, DEBORAH’S SONG
Judges 4_5

The oppression that we are to consider in this section came
from Jabin, another king of Hazor. You have learned in the
book of Joshua that a king of the same name and over the
same city was defeated and slain and the city taken. Some
people are troubled about his reappearance at a later date. I
have explained to you that Jabin is the name of a dynasty
like Pharaoh of Egypt, and that when Israel did not occupy
conquered territory, in the lapse of time the inhabitants would
take possession; so that accounts for this king, Jabin, and in
the same place, Hazor.
The oppression in this case lasted twenty years and his
power came from his having 900 chariots of iron, which Israel
dreaded to meet on any open plain. They had a general,
Sisera, who seems to have had complete management of all
of the martial affairs of his kingdom.
Our lesson introduces us to another one of those crises when
no man rose up to meet it and where God put power in the
heart of a woman. I am always glad when men fail that some
good woman comes to the front. And instead of criticising
her, I lift my hat to her, and we ought to take shame to our_
selves that no man could be found to stand in the breach and
meet the exigencies of the occasion. Of what tribe was Deb_
orah? Locate the tribe of each one of the judges. She was
a prophetess, an inspired woman and it is easy enough to tell
where her habitat was at the time this story commences. The
record states that she dwelt under the palm tree between
Ramah and Bethel. She was in the territory of Ephraim, but
don’t be too sure that she belonged to the tribe of Ephraim.

It may have been that the oppression under Jabin drove her,
as it did others, from the tribe where she belonged and that
she came down to a safe place in the territory of Ephraim and
there judged Israel.
There is no question but that many of the people of the
tribes being in the dark, having no prophet during the entire
horrible oppression, would come to this woman upon whom
God’s inspiration rested, to know what to do. The pitiable
condition of the nation I shall let her describe later in her
magnificent song. Anyhow, there was one woman whose heart
was not cowed, that believed in God.
She believed that if her people would come together and ask
God for help that they would receive it, and she sent orders to
Barak and commanded him to take 10,000 men out of the two
tribes of Naphtali and Zebulun, and take possession of Mount
Tabor. Mount Tabor was not a big mountain, but as it was
in a level plain it was a very conspicuous mountain and it
commanded the plain where this battle was to be fought. She
sent word to him through the inspiration of God resting upon
her. He hesitated. He was not inspired and he wanted some_
body along who was inspired and he said, „If you will go with
me I will go.” She had not intended to accompany the army,
but if he would not go without her she would go. So she went.
A number of the tribes did furnish contingent troops; so she
gathered a considerable army. In the battle which followed,
Sisera’s army was completely defeated, his chariots of iron
availed him nothing, and he himself turned aside from the
crowd and fled in order to escape death.
The record states that Heber, the Kenite, the brother_in_
law of Moses) had separated from the rest of the Kenites who
had gone away down in the south; that particular one had
withdrawn from the rest of Hobab’s children and had taken
his station on the northern plains, Kedesh, not Kadesh_barnea.
It is a fact that this Heber had had an agreement with the
oppressor by which he did not bother them and they did not
bother him. Bear in mind what Moses said to his brother_in_
law. He said, „Come thou and go with us, for we are going
to a place which God has promised to give us and we will do
thee good.” How often I have heard a country Baptist preach_
er preach from this text: „We are going to the place that God
has promised us.” Well, anyhow, they went and God did bless
them.
Now, this particular one of these descendants separated
from the others and went up into this northern section of the
country. When this fleeing king turned eastward, he went
to the house of this Kenite, Heber, and the man was not
at home but the woman was, Jael, and she invited him to
come in and gave him refreshment and covered him up, and
while he slept she took a tent pin and a hammer and drove
the pin through his head and pinned him to the ground. So
that was the last of the great Sisera.
We will discuss the morality of that when we come to the
song. I am just giving you an historical outline. But what
about the morality of the act of Jael in driving a tent_pin
through the head of a man that she invited into her tent and
who accepted her hospitality, and she slew him while he slept?
In one of Sir Walter Scott’s novels, The Talisman, Saladin,
the Sultan of the Mohammedans, says to King Richard of
England, „If my worst enemy were received in my tent under
the law of Arabian hospitality he would be as safe from any
harm as if he were in his own castle.” That is their ethical
theory of hospitality. If you take salt with him, then you are
safe as long as you are in his tent. Now, Jael invited this
man in the misfortune that was on him, if we may call it that,
and slew him while he trusted her hospitality. So what about
the morality of that act? But the victory was complete and
the oppression ceased.
Now we come to chapter 5, which is the interesting part of
this section. I suppose one hundred times in my life I have
read over this triumphal song of Deborah and compared it
with the triumphal song of Miriam and the triumphal song of
Mary and other great songs that are mentioned in the Bible
as coming from the lips of women. And many times in my life
I have compared the act of Jael with that incident in the
apocryphal Old Testament, where Judith slew Holofernes un_
der similar circumstances and became the deliverer of the
nation. During the war, in Kechi, Louisiana, the ladies of
that city, who were very patriotic, gave a number of tableaux
in order to raise money for the soldiers. I happened to be there,
wounded but able to be carried in a hack, and I attended, and
one of the most striking scenes was Judith and Holofernes,
Judith cutting off the head of Holofernes while he was asleep.
A young lady friend of mine entered into controversy with
me as to the morality of her action, and I put this controversy
on to you with reference to the action of Jael.
Now we look at this song. Nearly all of the Old Testament
poetry is lyric poetry, yet it is intensely lively. The first
part commences with praise to God for avenging Israel, and it
is filled with doctrines that you can use now as well as she did
then. The second line gives the doctrine, „Praise ye the Lord
for avenging Israel, When the people willingly offered them_
selves.” The Lord will deliver his people every time if the
people will offer themselves.
An one of Aesop’s fables we find this story: „A country_
man’s wagon stuck in the mud and he kneeled down and
prayed to Hercules to help (Hercules being the god of
strength) and Hercules replied, ‘When I see you put your
own shoulder to the wheel yourself, I will help you.’ ” The
thought is the same. Jehovah will avenge his people when
the people offer themselves. We have no right to call on God
to get us out of our troubles and just sit still and do nothing
ourselves. The thought is expressed by a proverb that I will
ask you to tell who said: „Trust in the Lord but tie your
camel.” Don’t just turn your beast out and trust in the Lord
to have him hanging around in the morning. Who said, „Trust
in the Lord but keep your powder dry”? The thought is the
same. The Lord avenges Israel whenever Israel offers him_
self.
A great meeting was held in Waco conducted by a Yankee
evangelist of some note and the first sermon that he preached
was on what Martha said to Mary: „The master is come
and calleth for thee.” And he commenced with his peculiar
Yankee nasal twang by saying, „The Lord had come to help
that family but that Mary sot thar, not goin’ to do narthin’.”
He made a great sermon out of it. He said, „I have come to
help you in the meetin’; now are you goin’ to set thar and do
narthin’?” In all of these things that I am telling you is a
great thought. If you ever hold a meeting, it will be a good
thing to take that text, „Praise ye the Lord when the people
willingly offer themselves.” Brother Truett has preached
some wonderful sermons on consecration, and he shows that
the grace of Jehovah grew out of the fact that the people
offered themselves willingly.
The American Revised Version changes the thought. Now,
the change of thought is this, that you may shout praise to
God when leaders will rise up and people offer themselves
willingly. It is a fact, though, that no leaders rose up until
this woman stirred them up, and she was very glad that some_
body, when she gave out the word, did rise up. That only
shows that what is necessary to success is a leader, some man
of God, somebody that has the courage of his convictions,
somebody that will blow the trumpet and unfurl the flag, and
the people will rally around a true leader. To illustrate:
When we were retreating before the oncoming of General
Banks coming up Red River, and knowing that another army
was coming from Little Rock, Arkansas, and the two armies
converging where all the war supplies were, at Shreveport,
Louisiana, when we were falling back before Banks’ army
without cavalry, and the Federal cavalry enclosing us and
shooting into the column, I stepped out and said, “One blast
of Tom Green’s horn is worth 1,000 men.” He was our great
cavalry general in the West, but was absent at the time; a few
days later he joined us and at Mansfield, Louisiana, captured
their train and while our infantry went into Arkansas to defeat
Steele, he kept Banks retreating herded around their gunboats
in Red River. Every man felt that what we needed was a
competent man, a leader on that rear guard.
In the next paragraph of her song Deborah develops this
thought, a thought that she commands even kings and princes
to hear, that is, that the same Jehovah that went out of Seir,
that shook the mountaintop of Sinai, that delivered the peo_
ple in the days of Moses was just as ready to come to the
aid of his people as he was then. Every now and then they
would figure what God had done for them in their behalf.
The victors knew about it, but the next generation didn’t know
about it, and they would think that God would not intervene
now as he had in the past. I tell you he will always intervene
in behalf of his people if the people will trust him, and if the
leader blows the trumpet and unfurls the flag, the deliverance
will be just as signal now as it ever was in the heroic days of
the Israelites. This is poetry of a very high order, lyric:
„Thou wentest forth out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of
the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also
dropped, yea, the clouds also dropped water. The mountains
melted from before the Lord. Even you Sinai from before
the Lord God of Israel.” When you get over into the Psalms
you will find that they almost quote that language referring to
the same experience. It served to keep the minds of the
nation about the tremendous power of Jehovah; over and
over again you will find that cited in the Psalms and a num_
ber of times in the New Testament.
Now, in the next paragraph you come to the condition of
the people, and you also come to the fact that Shamgar, the
hero, and Jael, the heroine, were contemporaries. There was
DO note of time when we discussed Shamgar; it was the same
commander but a different country; it was in Judah. In the
days of Jael the highways were unoccupied and the deliverer
walked through byways. Now, the country was in a terrible
state when even the rich were silent, when those who are
troubled take to the brush, slip around in the bypaths. How
shameful that God’s people, knowing Jehovah as they should
have known him, were afraid even to walk in the big road!
This is the first point that indicates the condition of the peo_
ple. Now we come to the second indication of their condition:
„The rulers ceased in Israel.” No hero, no captain, no man to
take the lead. And for twenty years this state of affairs was
going on until Deborah arose: „Until that I arose a mother
in Israel.”
Now, the third condition is, „they chose new gods.” That
accounts for their condition, they turned away from Jehovah
and worshiped these gods, then they had no leader, then the
highways were unoccupied. The fourth item of their condi_
tion is, „There was war in the gates.” Then we come to the
next condition: „Was there a shield or spear seen among the
40,000 in Israel?” That is susceptible of two interpretations.
That may mean either that out of 40,000 men there were no
arms to be found, or it may mean that out of 40,000 men not
one was willing to take a shield in his hand or a spear. My
idea is that the first one is right. I think it shows the condi_
tion of the disarmed people; that among 40,000 men there
would not be one spear. You come to something like that in
another period where even the means of husbandry were taken
away.
Look at the conditions: First, the highways were unoc_
cupied; second, no leaders; third, they chose new gods; fourth,
there was war in the gates; fifth, no means of making war,
they were disarmed. Out of 40,000 there was not a spear.
Now we come to an expression that indicates this woman’s
gratitude. She says, “My heart is toward the governors of

Israel, that offered themselves willingly among the people;
Bless ye the Lord.” I know what that means. In 1887 I was
made chairman of the Prohibition Committee and I saw the
necessity of leaders. I issued an appeal that was published in
every paper of any prominence in the state, an appeal for
young men, an appeal for men who would look at the dreadful
situation wrought in the homes and country by the saloon busi_
ness, and who would put themselves at the head of the people
in their section and take a stand. I don’t suppose I ever wrote
a more fiery article, and I mailed with my own hands hun_
dreds of copies to men that I picked out, and U. S. senators,
Congressmen, Texas legislators and hundreds of others re_
sponded, and my heart was filled with joy and gratitude to
God that they responded to my appeal.
Now she says, „My heart is toward the governors of Israel,
that offered themselves willingly among the people; Bless ye
the Lord.” She then anticipates the response of the people,
and we will see who the people were that did respond. Her
heart is affected with the news that such people did come.
The dignitaries rode not on horses but on white asses, the
most comfortable animal of travel that there is in the world.
The Lord Jesus Christ rode such an animal. She says, „Speak,
ye that ride on white asses, ye that sit in judgment and walk
by the way. They that are delivered from the noise of archers
in the places of drawing water. They shall rehearse the right_
eous acts of the Lord. . . . Then the people of the Lord went
down to the gates.” Before, there was war in the gates. The
gate was a place for a man to get into the city and whoever
saw him would invite him to his house. Job refers to that,
and the same is in Genesis in the account of Sodom and
Gomorrah. For a gate or portal of a city to be unfrequented
was considered a terrible condition of the people. Now, the
richest, most prominent will come together and discuss the
marvelous achievements of Jehovah.

Now, here she stirs up herself and Barak; „Awake, awake,
Deborah; Awake, awake, utter a song: Arise, Barak, and lead
away thy captives, thou son of Abinoam.” That sounds just
like the blast of a trumpet where she rouses herself, where
she rouses the leader Barak. Now we come (v. 13) to the
result of the appeal: „Then came a remnant of the nobles and
the people.” The remnant, who were they? I want to know
how general was the response when the inspired prophetess
called them to fall into line of battle. „Out of Ephraim,
came down they whose root is in Amaiek; After thee, Benja_
min, among thy peoples; Out of Machir came down governors,
And out of Zebulun they that handled the marshal’s staff.
The princes of Issachar were with Deborah,” and also Barak.
Now, there are four tribes specified under her appeal: Eph_
raim, Benjamin, Zebulun, Issachar, and „Into the valley they
rushed forth at his feet.”
Now you come to a trouble well known in Texas. It is a
fine sarcasm: „By the watercourses of Reuben there were
great resolves of heart. Why sattest thou among the sheep_
folds, To hear the pipings for the flocks?” „By the water_
courses of Reuben there were great resolves of heart,” but
that is all. I read that in an association once that had
occupied years in making resolutions. They resolved in their
hearts and then „did narthin’.” They resolved but they never
did turn. What is the use of finding out the wrong if they do
not turn to the right way? They looked into themselves; they
passed resolutions; they put themselves in line; then they
listened to the bieatings of the flock. Not a man went from
the tribe of Reuben.
Let us see the men above Reuben. „Gilead abode beyond
the Jordan.” Let us see that half_tribe of Manasseh. This
war was on the western side of the Jordan. So Gilead sent
no response. Let us take Dan. Dan was quartered on the
Mediterranean Sea and he was very busy with his commerce.
He had his goods of exprot to send out and his goods im-
port to receive. Dan was busy in ships. No Danites came.
Let us try Asher. They were going to sit still and „do
narthin’.” Asher crept up to the forks of the creek and went
into the brush. Well, now what about Zebulun? „Zebulun
was a people that jeoparded their lives unto the death, and
Naphtali upon the high places of the field.” Those tribes
responded. Well, if one lone woman can rouse up that many
tribes it certainly is a great thing.
Now she tells what the enemy did: „The kings came and
fought; then fought the kings of Canaan. The stars from
their courses fought against Sisera.” A few tribes, but all
heaven was on the side of the righteous. As the sun and the
moon conspired to help Joshua in the battle of Beth_horon,
so here the stars in their courses fought against Sisera. Now,
whenever you get that thought into men’s minds, the thought
that Patrick Henry has fired every schoolboy’s heart with,
„Besides, sir, we shall not be fighting alone; there is a God of
battles and He will fight for us,” they will respond.
Whenever you can get a man to feel that the power of
heaven will come down, he will say one is a majority if God
is with him. Well, that is what heaven did. Let us see what
earth did. „The river of Kishon swept them away. . . . 0 my
soul, march on with strength.” That Kishon River at times
was as dry as a powder house, but Deborah selected the
battlefield right where she did for the reason that the water
spout, if it came, would beat all the chariots in the world.
I have seen on the plains of Texas a dry basin of a river and
a wall of water sweep down, twenty_five feet high and a
mile wide, in thirty minutes. Here nature on the earth and
nature in the stars was helping God’s people. It is real poetry.
„Then were the horsehoofs broken by the means of prancings,
the prancings of their mighty ones.” What would a chariot do
against Kishon when Kishon came down? It was like the
sea, and swept over the enemy until they perished in the
water.
Now we come to the theme of many sermons, „Curse ye
Meroz, said the angel of the Lord, curse ye bitterly the in_
habitants thereof, because they came not to the help of the
Lord.” Heretofore we considered the tribes but here is a par_
ticular city that failed to come to the help of God. The stars
came, the earth came, and a woman went forth and led in
the battle, but this city, this city upon which, by the voice
of the angel of Jehovah himself, a curse came, didn’t take
hold. The sin of omission under certain circumstances is as
fearful as the sin of commission. I have not preached less
than twenty sermons myself on that.

QUESTIONS
1. Explain the reappearance of Jabin. How long his oppression?
Who his general?
2. Who the deliverer? Of what tribe? Where did she dwell? Why
there? Who led the army with her?
3. Give an account of the battle that followed and of Siaera’s
death.
4. With what should one compare Deborah’s song for study?
6. Quote the text with which this song opens, and illustrate its
application.
6. What does she invoke kings and princes to hear?
7. What were the conditions of the people as portrayed in this
song?
8. What expression indicates the gratitude of Deborah? and
illustrate.
9. Contrast the former condition with this.
10. Quote her appeal and give the tribes that responded; also the
ones that did not and why.
11. Describe the effort of the enemy and the battle in general.
12. What. city is cursed and why? Quote the text here.

XXVIII
DEBORAH’S SONG (Concluded); MIDIAN AND
GIDEON
Judges 5:23 to 8:35
DEBOBAH’S SONG – Concluded

In verse 23 a curse is denounced on Meroz and in verse 24
a blessing pronounced on Jael. Now, is this imprecation on
the one hand or this benediction on the other hand merely an
expression of Deborah’s personal enthusiasm and aroused
patriotism, or must we attribute it to the inspiration of God?
Ans. – The whole context shows that she is not only speak_
ing as a prophet under inspiration (compare 4:9, „Jehovah
will sell Sisera into the hand of a woman”), but quoting the
very words of Jehovah, 5:23.
2. Then would you approve the morality of Jael’s apparent
violation of the laws of hospitality held so sacred in the
Orient, and of what seems on its face to be assassination?
Ans. – Yes, what Jehovah himself commands and blesses
is not to be judged by man according to human standards.
The avenger of blood was not an assassin but commissioned
as a sheriff. So the case of Ehud. So the destruction of the
Canaanites. So the flood. So the destruction of Sodom and
and Gomorrah.
3. But may not Jehovah in a governmental sense avail
himself of wicked instruments overruling the evil but not
approving it, as in the case of Joseph’s brethren, Genesis
42:21; 45:5, of the remarkable case of the Assyrian, Isaiah
10:5_15, and in the case of the betrayers and crucifiers of
Christ, Acts 2:23?
Ans. – This is all true but cannot under a fair construction
of our text apply in the case of the inspired curse on Meroz
and the inspired blessing on Jael, especially since it was „the
angel of Jehovah” who curses and blesses and Deborah only
quotes Judges 5:23. Compare the blessing on Jael with the
blessings on Mary, the mother of our Lord, Luke 1:41_42, by
Elisabeth and Mary’s own saying, verse 48.
4. But is not the doctrine dangerous in the hands of fanatics
as in the assassination of William of Orange and Henry of
Navarre?
Ans. – All doctrines are dangerous in the hands of fanatics
and are liable to fearful abuse. To assume, without warrant,
to act in Jehovah’s name in either blessing or cursing or to
cloak private revenge under religious sanction is a blasphem_
ous usurpation of divine prerogative. See Romans 12:19.
God only can bless or curse. See specially the case of Balaam,
Numbers 22:5_6,. and 23:7_8, 11_12, 20; 24:10_12. It devolves
upon him who assumes to bless or curse or slay in God’s
name to give miraculous proofs as signs of his credentials.
5. But is it ever true that an individual or a people may
dispense with ordinary forms of law?
Ans. – It is true that under extraordinary conditions in
which ordinary forms of law are not available the law of
self_preservation may justify a father in protecting his family
from burglary, assassination, and dishonor, and there have
been extraordinary cases where there was no law to protect
life or property, the right to social government inhering in the
people justified extraordinary means of social protection, until
ordinary forms of legal protection should be created. This
doctrine also is liable to terrific abuses, but it is a true doc_
trine under the real conditions which demand it.
6. What can you say of the morality of Deborah’s exulta_
tion over the hopeless waiting of Sisera’s mother for the return
of her son?
Ans. – It is of a piece with the rest. A mother watching
through the lattice for the return of a son who for twenty

years has ground an oppressed people to powder, and who is
delighting herself with the expectation of a robber’s spoils
and of captive maidens to be devoted to bondage and dis_
honor, cannot reasonably hope that the delivered people will
condole with her disappointment. Nor can it be evil to rejoice
at that disappointment. See Revelation 19:1_8. The joy of
Deborah was a righteous joy. The sentimental deprecation
of some commentators on this point is sickly, namby_pamby,
goody_goody gush, very far from piety. It is such a weakness
as would weep over the ultimate downfall of the poor devil!

MIDIAN AND GIDEON – CHAPTERS 6_8
7. What the occasion of the next oppression of Israel, how
long the oppression, who the oppressor and where his territory?
Ans. – See 6:1, and map.
8. Trace the origin of the Midianites and show their kin_
ship to Israel and the past connection of Joseph and Moses
with them and what part of them was associated with Israel
in travel and settlement in Canaan.
Ans. – Examine Genesis 25:2; Exodus 3:1; 18:1_27; Num_
bers 10:29_32; 12:1; 22:4_7; 31:1_12; Judges 1:16; 4:11_17,
24, and then make your own reply.
9. Why are Midianites used synonymously with Ishmaelites
both here (Judg. 8:24) and in Genesis 37:25,28?
Ans. – They were close akin, occupied the same territory
and had the same customs of desert life, were intermingled as
one people.
10. What other tribes or nations were associated with
Midian in this invasion of Israel?
Ans. – Consult 6:3, and 8:24, and reply.
11. What characteristics show them to be the true children
of the East?
Ans. – (1) Their methods of travel and making war, 6:5.
(2) Their ornaments, 8:24_26.

12. What the sweep of the invasion and the extent of the
desolation wrought?
Ans. – Consult 6:2_6 and answer.
13. To whom did Israel cry for help and the method of
response?
Ans. – Consult 7:7_10, and reply.
14. After the rebuke of Israel’s sin through a prophet how
docs Jehovah intervene?
Ans. – He comes to call and qualify a human deliverer, 6:11.
15. Comparing 6:11, with Genesis 15:1; 18:2; 21:17; Ex_
odus 3:2; 23:20, 23; 33:2; Joshua 5:13; Judges 13:3_7, what
are these appearances of the „angel, or Word of Jehovah”?
Ans. – They were real Theophanies or pre_manifestations of
our Lord. Compare John 8:5_6 and Hebrews 9:26_27.
16. State the circumstances of Gideon’s call, its miraculous
sign, its commemoration, the meaning of Jehovah_Shalom and
cite other significant combinations of „Jehovah” with a modi_
fying word and the meaning of each.
Ans. – For all but the last item see 6:11_24. For the last
item see Genesis 22:14; Exodus 17:15; Jeremiah 23:6. On
the last item: Jehovah_Jireh – The Lord Will Provide, Genesis
22:14. Jehovah_Nissi – The Lord our Banner, Exodus 17:15.
Jehovah_Shalom – The Lord our Peace, Judges 6:24. Je_
hovah_Tsidkenu – The Lord Our Righteousness, Jeremiah
3:6.
17. How does the New Testament comment on Genesis 18:
1_8, and Judges 6:18_19?
Ans. – Hebrews 13:2.
18. Compare in the following cases the different ways in
which men receive God’s call to service.
(1) Moses, Exodus 3:10_11; 4:10_13.
(2) Gideon, Judges 6:15.
(3) Samuel, I Samuel 3:4-10

(4) Saul, I Samuel 10:22.
(5) Jonah, Jonah 1:3, and 3:2_3.
(6) Isaiah, Isaiah, 4:8.
(7) Jeremiah, Jeremiah 1:6.
(8) Amos 7:14_16.
(9) Paul, Acts 26:19; Galatians 1:15_16.
19. How was Gideon directed to make a square issue and
fulfil it?
Ans. – 6:25_27.
20. Explain different renderings in common and revised
versions of „cut down the grove,” „cut down the Asherah” in
verse 25.
Ans. – Form your own answer.
21. Wherein the great courage of Gideon in this act?
Ans. – It was against his own family and city.
22. What the reply of Gideon’s father to the demand of
the city that Gideon be delivered up to die?
Ans. – 6:31.
23. What new name was given to Gideon and of what was
it a standing memorial?
Ans. – The name of Jerubbaal and it is a standing memorial
of the fact that throughout his life Gideon was against Baal
and that if Baal could not defend himself he was no god.
24. Compare this case with the remarkable case in I Kings
18:17_20.
Ans. – Form your own answer.
25. How did both sides respond to Gideon’s issue?
Ans. – 6:33_35.
26. What the two confirmatory signs of victory given to
Gideon?
Ans. – 6:36_40.
27. What and why the two eliminations of Gideon’s army?

Ans. – 7:2_8. The first elimination was this: God said,
„These 32,000 you have here are too many. The battle must
be the Lord’s battle and you have too many men.” The first
elimination was to send home every man that was afraid.
You know men get scared when they jam right up against a
formidable army. The first elimination was that every one
of the 32,000 that was scared might fall out, and 22,000 fell out.
God looked at the 10,000 and said, „There are still too many.
Now bring the 10,000 down to the creek and let me see them
drink water,” and every one but 300 when they got there laid
down their equipments and kneeled down and deliberately
took a drink. But the 300 waded in and lapped up the water
as they marched through, and never stopped walking. God
said that the 300 that lapped the water like a dog were his
crowd. Why? They had before them, after the battle, a
march that would try the souls of men. Gideon will never
let up pursuing them, across the Jordan and way out into
Midian, and soldiers that have to lay aside their equipments
and lie down and grunt, they never will overtake a fleeing
enemy, and he needed people that wouldn’t lose time. I
once heard an infidel say that that was the sorriest test he
ever heard of. I always thought it a remarkable test. It was
precisely the kind of a test that was made by an old Indian_
fighter. He said, „I am going to pursue the Indians into the
mountains; whoever cannot load your gun as you go must
drop out; you must be able to load your gun as you go.”
28. What additional sign of victory?
Ans. – 7:9_14. Gideon and one man marched up and took a
close look at the enemy and heard one of them say, „I have
dreamed. I dreamed that we would be destroyed by the
sword of Gideon.” There is the mighty spirit of God sending
a dream to a man as he sent a dream to Pharaoh.
29. What the arms of Gideon’s 300, his method of battle, the
war cry and the result?

Ans. – 7:16_23. Army trumpets, lamps, and pitchers. The
trumpets to blow, the pitchers to hide the light until the time
came. They put the light down deep in the pitchers so they
could slip up to the enemy, then at a signal they broke the
pitchers and the 300 trumpets blew and the war cry came
from three directions, „The sword of the Lord and of Gideon.”
You see he divided his men into three companies; let a big
crowd of men wake up in the night with 100 lights burning on
the right, 100 on the left and 100 behind and three divisions
shouting, „The sword of the Lord and of Gideon,” it would
scare them nearly to death. The result was that they just
ran until they dropped. That great big army, a multitude,
running away before trumpets, lamps, and pitchers and the
war cry.
30. What great sermon by great men have been preached
from two texts in this paragraph?
Ans. – 1 will give you two and let you think of a dozen
more. Spurgeon has a sermon, indeed a series, on „Lamps
and Pitchers.” Then John A. Broadus preached at the con_
vention at Atlanta on „The Sword of the Lord and of Gideon.”
31. What other cases can you cite of using insignificant
weapons to achieve great victories?
Ans. – 1 will tell you of a few and you must think of some
more. The ox_goad in the hands of Shamgar, the jawbone
of an ass in the hands of Samson, and the sling and pebble in
the hands of David.
32. What precautions of Gideon to cut off the retreat of
the enemy?
Ans. – He sent a rapid messenger to the tribe of Ephraim
and they fell into line and captured two of the kings and
killed a great multitude of the people.
33. Considering the case of Ephraim in dealing with Joshua,
Gideon, and Jephthah, what the description of that tribe by a
later prophet, and what the meaning of the metaphor?

Ans. – Hosea 7:8: „Ephraim is a cake not turned.” You
read those three passages about Ephraim and you will think
of that prophets metaphor. He was just cooked on one side.
Did you ever eat a piece of bread that was cooked on one side
and raw on the other? That is the description of Ephraim.
34. What kings commanded the Midianites, and their fate?
Ans. – Zabah and Zaimunna, who were slain by Gideon.
35. State the case of the cities of Succoth and Penuel and
give your judgment of Gideon’s punishment of them.
Ans. – When Gideon’s men came with their tongues out
from thirst, having come all the way from the battlefield east
of the Jordan, they said, „We are soldiers of Gideon and dying
of hunger and thirst; feed us,” and those cities from financial
and prudential reasons thought maybe the other side was
going to capture them, so they went against the starving army
and refused them bread and drink. Gideon said that when
he came back he was going to make scourges out of the bushes
with thorns and punish them and plough up their foundation.
Later he did exactly what he said he was going to do.
36. What great sin did Gideon commit?
Ans. – 1 wish that he had stopped without committing that
sin. He commanded that the earrings, raiment, and the
chains that were about their camels’ necks (as is character_
istic of desert people) should all be poured into a sack and
out of that he would make an ephod. What is an ephod? It
is a garment like a Mexican blanket with a hole in it to put
down over the head. The one for the high priest, on the
breast, had a plate and two jewels, one on each side, and it
was worn when the priest went to consult the oracles; when_
ever a question came up the high priest put on this robe and
the oracle would answer. And the record says, „All Israel
went a whoring after the ephod of Gideon.”
37. How long did peace last from this deliverance?
Ans. – Forty years; it was just a day or two that that fight
lasted and forty years of peace followed one brief fight.

XXIX
THE STORY OF ABIMELECH, THE USURPER,
AND OF JEPHTHAH
Judges 9_12

1. Who was Abimelech, and was he one of Israel’s judges
sent out by the Lord?
Ans. – Abimelech was the natural son of Gideon, not the
legal son, and evidently a godless case. He was not sent of
the Lord to be a judge. Whatever rule he obtained he ob_
tained by murder, unsurpation, and conspiracy. So we don’t
count him at all in the list of the judges, but his history only
as an episode in the period of the judges.
2. How was his usurpation effected?
Ans. – By conspiracy with the city of Shechem, and by the
murder and assassination of all his father’s legal children
except one, the youngest, Jotham, who escaped.
3. Analyze the sin of Abimelech and Shechem.
Ans. – (1) The sin consisted in the attempt to establish a
monarchy while God was the ruler of the theocracy. (2) It
consisted of murder in order that no competition might arise
between the real, legal children of their great leader, Gideon.
4. Through whom and how came a protest against the sin?
Ans. – The protest came from Jotham, the youngest son of
Gideon. He took his position on top of Mount Gerizirn, and
from the top of that mountain all the valley could hear him
and all on the highest mountains, so he occupied a high pulpit.
He stated his case in the form of a parable, or in the strictest
sense of fable. He said that the trees of the field called upon
the fig tree to be their king, and it had better things to attend
to than to be king; they called on the olive tree, and the olive
tree had better things to do than to be king; so finally they
applied to the bramble, and it agreed that it would be king
if they would rest under its shadow. Now the briar doesn’t
make much of a shadow, but they agreed to it.
5. Was Jotham’s illustration a fable or a parable, and what
the distinction between them?
Ans. – Parable is a broader word and includes fable. A
fable is a parable of this kind: It attributes intelligent action
to either inanimate creation or brute creation. Numerous
cases you have of them in Aesop’s Fables. But a parable
supposes real people and presents them acting as one would
naturally do under the circumstances. But inasmuch as a
parable etymologically means, according to the strict Greek
word parabola, the putting of one thing down against another
for the purpose of contrast, therefore a fable may come within
the definition of a parable.
6. What fable of Aesop’s somewhat similar?
Ans. – The fable of the frogs who implored Jupiter to send
them a king. He dropped a log into the pond and it made a
great splash and ripples but later when they found that they
could jump upon that log they had no regard for their king
and implored Jupiter to send another. Whereupon Jupiter
sent a long_necked stork, or crane. And he gobbled up quite
a number of his subjects every morning and they much re_
gretted swapping King Log for King Stork.
7. What are the great lessons of Jotham’s fable?
(1) The best and most ambitious men are not ambitious
to rule over people. See our Lord’s lesson in the Gospel:
„The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; it
shall not be so with you.” There is something greater than
to be king and whoever ministers to others is greater than
any king that ever sat on the throne.
(2) The second lesson of the fable is that when the ambi_
tious in their selfishness seek to rule and the people are gullible

enough to give them rule, then it means mutual destruction
both to the self_seeking ambitious one and the gullible peo_
ple who put him in power.
8. How did Jotham apply his fable?
Ans. – In this way: „Now) if you have done the right thing
to Gideon in the murder of his children and in the election of
this self_seeking assassin, then have joy in him and let him
have joy in you; but if you are wrong in that may the fire
come out of him that will burn you up and may a fire come
out of you that will burn him up.”
9. Cite proof that the fable was inspired.
Ans. – The proof is found at the close of this lesson where
it is said, „according to the word of Jotham,” and that is
exactly what happened. The first time a row came up be_
tween him and the people he wiped them off the face of the
map, and soon after a remnant in fighting against him killed
him; a woman dropped a millstone down on his bead. What
an inglorious death! So he perished and they perished, and
the record says that it was done according to the word of
Jotham.
10. What use does Dr. Broadus make of Jotham in his His_
tory of Preaching?
Ans. – In citing cases of real pulpit eloquence he mentions
Jotham and his high pulpit he stood on, his use of illustrations
and his sensational sermon, and then that having created a
sensation, he ran away from it. That is about the substance,
but you had better read what Dr. Broadus says in his History
of Preaching.
11. What Old Testament parables precede Jotham’s fable?
Ans. – None; for another fable, see 2 Kings 14: Off.
12. Cite the names and tribes of the next two judges after
Gideon and their respective periods of judging.

Ans. – Tolar of the tribe of Issachar, who judged twenty_
three years, and Jair of the tribe of Manasseh, who judged
twenty_two years.
13. After Tolar and Jair how did Israel increase its idola_
tries and what the deities?
Ans. – Read 10:6. Here is what he says: „And the children
of Israel did evil again in the sight of the Lord, and served
Baalim, and Ashtaroth [both of these are plural], and the
gods of Syria, and the gods of Sidon [Sidon is a part of
Phoenicia], and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the chil_
dren of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines.” They took
in more gods this time than ever before.
14. Find the names of the gods of the Philistines, of Ammon, of Moab, and of Sidon in addition to Baalim and Ashtaroth.
Ans. – One god of the Philistines was Dagon; another was
Baal_zebub; Milcom, or Moloch of Ammon; Chemosh of
Moab; Gerakles and Melkar of Phoenicia.
15. What evidence of their repentance when trouble came?
Ans. – (1) The confession of sin 10:10_15. (2) Putting
themselves in God’s hands to be punished at his will, 10:15.
(3) Putting away the strange gods. That is good proof of
repentance.
We now come to consider the case of

JEPHTHAH

16. Cite the story of Jephthah up to the call of the peo_
ple to make him leader. Where is Tob, what his life there
and what the similarity with the case of Abimelech?
Ans. – Jephthah, as I have stated, was the son of Gilead,
by a harlot, and his brethren or his half_brothers, the legal
children of Gilead, denied him the right to any part of the
inheritance, and the city of Shechem coincided with them.
So he had to leave, and he retired to a great rich country in
Syria. The name of the place was Tob, and there, being a
valorous man, he gathered about him a company of men,
pretty lawless fellows; some of them, regular free_lances. The
similarity of his case and Abimelech’s is that he and Abime_
lech were both natural sons.
17. Considering Genesis 21:10, the case of Hagar; the case
of Tamar, Genesis 38:12_26; and Deuteronomy 21:15_17, was
it lawful to deny Jephthah a part of his father’s inheritance,
and if so wherein does this case differ from others cited?
Ans. – Hagar was really the wife under the law and Tamar’s
action was strictly within the law, though Judah did not
suppose it at the time. And in the case cited in Deuteronomy
there were the children of two wives but they were both wives.
So none of them applies to this case. Jephthah was the son of
a harlot born utterly out of wedlock, and therefore, it was
lawful to deprive him of any inheritance, but it was a mean
thing to do.
18. What condition did Jephthah exact of Gilead before
he would accept their appeal and how did he certify it?
Ans. – He made them enter into a claim covenant at Mispah
that if he came in their extremity and delivered them from
this bondage that had come upon them, then he was to be
their prince, and he had the word spoken before the Lord at
Mizpah. The student of history will remember how Rome
pleaded with Coriolanus, whom she expelled, not to destroy
Rome, and sent his mother to beg him not to do it. He said,
„Mother, you have saved Rome but you have lost your son.”
19. State Jephthah’s negotiation with Ammon, and its
results.
Ans. – He sent a very able statement to the king of Ammon,
who was leading this invasion of Israel, and he put the case
this way: „We obtained this territory 300 years ago under
Moses; God put it into our hands. Why have you been silent
300 years? We will not surrender what God has put into our

hands and which we have held for that long.” They disre_
garded his negotiation.
20. What the first proof that Jehovah had any part in the
leadership of Jephthah?
Ans. – Now, heretofore everything that is said in the rec_
ord shows that it was the plan of the people to go and stand
for Jephthah as leader, and the first sign is in 11:29, showing
that after he took the position of leader the Spirit of the Lord
came upon him.
21. What the vow of Jephthah and wherein its rashness?
Ans. – When they refused to negotiate, he vowed if God
would give him the victory over them that whoever was the
first to come out of his house to meet him on his return from
battle) he would offer as a burnt offering to Jehovah.
The rashness of it was, as all the context goes to show, that
he meant persons and Jehovah’s law was against offering
people as burnt offerings.
22. State two theories of what became of Jephthah’s daugh_
ter, which the older, which best supported by the context
and history, and if you say the first, how, then, did the second
originate?
Ans. – The first theory is that Jephthah said he would offer
the one meeting him as a burnt offering and the text shows
that just what he vowed, that he did unequivocally. That
theory held the fort until 1,200 years after Christ, i.e., from
Jephthah’s time until 1,200 years after Christ; all commen_
taries, Jewish and Christian, stated that Jephthah did sacrifice
his daughter as a burnt offering to Jehovah, but about 1,200
years after Christ a Jewish rabbi questioned it and then a
few of the sentimental Christians, among them Grotius, the
distinguished theologian of Holland, followed by Hengsten_
berg, a German, and a few English people, Adam Clarke for
one, and their theory was that Jephthah vowed to the Lord
that if something that could be offered as a burnt offering met

him it should be burned, but if it were not it was still to be
consecrated to God, and what took place was not the death
on the altar of sacrifice, but the daughter was shut up to
perpetual virginity. The overwhelming majority of the com_
mentaries, and men who have respect for what the Word says,
hold to the first theory, but if you want to see both theories
stated and your question demands that, you look in Appendix
4 to the „Cambridge Bible,” Book of Judges. Now, that sec_
ond theory being more and more in fashion was originated by
early nunneries, women taking the vow of perpetual virginity
for Christian service, and yet the majority of the Catholics do
not believe that. They believe that she was put up as a
burnt offering.
23. Why, in your judgment, did not Jephthah appeal to
Leviticus 27:2_8, for commutation of his vow? That is, if
one made a vow, a scale of compensation was provided and
by paying that compensation in money he could be released
from the vow. The question now is why did not Jephthah
appeal to the Levitical law?
Ans. – A great many people say that Jephthah was ignorant
of this law, but that history took place at Mizpah where the
high priest lived, and the high priest knew of that law if
Jephthah didn’t. He did not appeal to that because the
Levitical law did not apply as it does to other kinds of vows.
24. From the context was the vow inspired?
Ans. – Judges 11:29_30, shows that the Spirit of the Lord
rested on him, and inasmuch as in Hebrews 11:32, Jephthah
is commended as one of the heroes of faith, my answer is
that the vow was not inspired and an entirely new subject on
the vow question was introduced after the statement that the
Spirit of the Lord came on Jephthah. Hebrews 11:32 has
nothing to do with it from the fact that a man may have faith
and do many mean things and wrong things, as David did.
25. Is it better to break a vow that involves sin than to
keep it?
Ans. – Before you answer, compare Psalm 15:4, Ecclesiastes 5:4, with Matthew 14:6_11, where Herod vowed with an oath that he would give the dancing girl anything she asked for, and she asked for the head of John the Baptist. Take the three passages and make out your answer. Let those first
two cases refer to cases that are not sin. I heard a man once
swear that he would eat the devil in flames and I have always
excused him from eating the devil particularly as hot as that.
26. What proverb of English classics applies to Jephthah’a
vow?
Ans. – This proverb, „This promise is better in the breach
than in the observance of it.”
27. Cite the case of Jephthah’s contention with Ephraim,
and what use has been made of „Shibboleth”?
Ans. – Ephraim as usual (you know, I quoted the prophet
who said that Ephraim is a cake not turned), when Jeph_
thah gained that victory, drew out his army and demanded
why he did not call on him. Jephthah did not give him a soft
answer. He said, „I did call on you and you refused to come
and when you refused I wrought the deliverance, and now if
you want to fight let us fight.” And he gave him a good beat_
ing. In other words, when he got through the cake was cooked
on both sides. Now, this „Shibboleth,” that was the word that
the enemy had to pronounce. They could not pronounce the
sh; they said Sibboleth, and as they were running away and
Jephthah’s men found them, they were asked to say „Shib_
boleth,” and if they said „Sibboleth,” they were known to be
the enemy and were killed right there. It has become since
that day popular with those who think that others are re_
quiring too hard doctrines. They say, „Well, I don’t pretend
to be able to pronounce ‘Shibboleth,’ but you need not want
to kill me just because I can’t sound every letter just like
you.”
28. What three judges succeeded Jephthah, from what
tribes, and the notes of time?
Ans. – That is expressed in two or three verses, as follows:
lbzan of the tribe of Zebulon, judged seven years; Elon of
the tribe of Zebulon, judged ten years; Abdon of the tribe of
Ephraim, judged eight years.

XXX
SAMSON
Judges 13_16

Contrast the history of Samson with that of the other
judges.
Ans. – (1) It is every way more minute and circumstantial
in its details and more extensive.
(2) It resembles the cases of Ehud and Shamgar as a rec_
ord of individual exploits, but seems to have even less
national significance.
(3) Othniel, Barak, Gideon, and Jephthah led armies,
fought pitched battles, conducted great campaigns and
achieved results of national and lasting importance. They
were men differing, indeed, in character from one another, but
all men of a high order of intelligence and administrative
capacity, but Samson not only manifests no such intelligence
and capacity in a general way, but is weak in judgment and
weak in character. He is merely an individual champion in
the direction of physical strength, and like the prize fighters
of all ages, susceptible to temptations which appeal to flesh_
passions.
(4) Unlike all others he was a Nazarite.
(5) Unlike the others his history commences with his father
and mother and, like Isaac, Samuel, and John the Baptist,
his very birth was the result of a miraculous power.
(6) His history is a history of miracles and prodigies,
more than all the others.
2. What legendary hero of the classics most resembles
Samson, indeed whose mystical story is supposed by some
to be a heathen outgrowth of the Bible story?
Ans. – Hercules.

3. How do you account for the marvelous hold of Samson

upon the imagination of all succeeding ages?
Ans. – The personal hero, the man of individual exploits,
always impresses the popular mind more than the ripest
statesmanship or the greatest generalship. More of the com_
mon people have ever gone to witness the feats of a gladiator,
a bullfighter, or a prizefighter than would assemble to hear
an orator, poet, statesman, scholar, or inventor. With the
exception of the orator perhaps, the fame of the others will
most likely be posthumous instead of contemporaneous.
4. In the case of men like Moses, Samuel, and John the
Baptist it is easy to account for the Spirit’s circumstantial
record of their birth and youth, so largely do their lives and
influence affect all succeeding generations, but how do you
account for the minute prologue concerning Samson – all of
chapter 13ùand the relative extent and circumstantial de_
tail of his history?
Ans. – We may not be able to philosophize profitably con_
cerning the matter, but we suggest:
(1) The infinite variety of the Scriptures as a whole is
designed to present something circumstantial about all phases
of individual life. We need the circumstantial record of
Moses the law_giver, Samuel the founder of the school of the
prophets, David the psalmist, Job the patient, Jonah the
reluctant foreign missionary, Peter the impulsive, John the
meditative theologian, Paul the world moulder in doctrine
and aggressive propagandism, and so we need one circum_
stantial record, the power of physical prowess, as a special
gift of God. A child’s mind easily takes hold of the simple
catechism: Who was the first man, the oldest man, the meek_
est man, the strongest man, the wisest man, etc.?
(2) There are lessons to be learned from the history of
Samson of invaluable use to all ages, lessons far more sig_
nificant than his exploits in themselves considered, and this

is the governing thought in the fulness and variety of the
Holy Scriptures. (See 2 Tim. 3:16_17.)
5. According to Oliver Wendell Holmes, where does the
education of a child commence?
Ans. – „With his grandmother,” Timothy’s grandmother
a case in point. (2 Tim. 1:5; 3_15.)
6. In this case show how Samson’s education commences
with his mother.
Ans. – „Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink no
wine nor strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing: for
lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall
come upon his head; for the child shall be a Nazarite unto
God from the womb; and he shall begin to save Israel out of
the hand of Philistines.” „And Manoah said, Now let thy
words come to pass; what shall be the ordering of the child
and how shall we do unto him? And the angel of Jehovah
said unto Manoah, Of all that I said unto the woman let
her beware. She may not eat of anything that cometh of
the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, nor eat
any unclean thing; all that I commanded her let her ob_
serve,” (13:4_5,12_14).
7. What is a Nazarite, and the token of one?
Ans. – (1) The law of the voluntary Nazarite is found in
Numbers 6:1_21. The dominant idea is consecration or de_
votedness to Jehovah for a limited period or for life. The
token is the unshaved hair. The requirements are total ab_
stinence from intoxicating liquors and even the fruit of the
vine and from contact with any defilement, and holiness
of life.
(2) But in the case of some either the parents or God
himself decreed them Nazarites for life from the womb, as
Samson (Judges 16:17), Samuel (I Sam. 1:11), John the
Baptist (Luke 1:15), and the Rechabites (Jer. 35).

(3) A passage in Lamentations 4:4, shows the require_
ments of holiness and the beneficial effect of an abstemious
life.
8. In what other scriptures is abstinence from intoxicating
drink required of consecrated men?
Ans. – „It is not for kings, 0 Lemuel, it is not for kings
to drink wine; nor for princes to say, Where is strong drink?
Lest they drink and forget the law, and pervert the justice
due to any that is afflicted,” Proverbs 31:4_5, and in I
Timothy pastors and deacons should be „not given to much
wine.”
9. Unto what nation was Israel subject in the days of
Samson?
Ans. – See 14:4ùThe Philistines.
10. From whom do all Samson’s troubles come?
Ans. – From two Philistine women 14:15_17; 16:20.
11. Did these women entice him to evil of their own
thought or were they used as tools by the Philistines?
Ans. – In both cases the Philistines brought pressure to
bear on the women.
12. Distinguish between the pressure on the one who was
his wife and the one who was a harlot.
Ans. – On the wife by a threat of burning her and her
father’s family, on the harlot by bribery.
13. Did the wife and her father escape the burning by
her yielding to the threat?
Ans. – No.
14. Describe the character and power of the temptation
in each case.
Ans. – See 14:16_17; 16:15_16. It was in both cases per_
sistent from day to day; in both cases they asked the secret
as a proof of love. In the first case with persistent tears, in
the second case with accusation of mocking and lies, nag_

ging, nagging until his soul was vexed unto death; a woman’s
seven days’ weeping; a woman’s seven days’ nagging; tears
and nagging.
15. What proverbial question have the French when a
man goes to the bad?
Ans. – „Who was the woman?”
16. What secrets should a man withhold from his wife?
Ans. – That depends on the nature of the case, and the dis_
position of the wife.
17. Who, perhaps, was the only man known to history that
fully and fairly answered all the hard questions put to him
by a woman?
Ans. – Solomon.
18. What infamous and notorious chief of police used a
woman to trap men, and what great novelist devoted a sec_
tion of a romance to a description of the method?
Ans. – Fouche, the chief of the Parisian police, and Balzac
is the romance writer in that book of his, Les Chouans. Now,
he has a section of that book headed with these words: „The
Notion of Fouche,” showing how he wanted to get hold of the
enemy that he could not capture on the field.
19. What chapter of the Bible is devoted to warning against
women like Delilah, and quote its last two verses. Cite an_
other passage to prove that the author of this chapter had
ample experimental qualifications for the warning.
Ans. – Proverbs 7. See verses 26 and 27. I Kings 11:1_8
proves that Solomon, the author of Proverbs 7, had the ex_
perimental qualifications for this warning.
20. Cite in order the exploits of Samson.
Ans. – (1) Slaying the lion, 14:5_6.
(2) Slaying the thirty Philistines, 14:19, to get the changes
of raiment to pay his wager.

(3) The use of foxes in burning the harvest fields of the
Philistines for giving his wife to another, 15:4_5.
(4) The great slaughter to avenge the burning, 15:7_8.
(5) The slaying of a thousand with the jawbone of an ass,
15:14_15.
(6) Carrying off the gates of Gaza, 16:1_3.
(7) The breaking of the seven green withes, of a new rope,
and the carrying away of the pin and web in which his hair
had been woven, 16:7_14.
(8) The pulling down of the Philistine temple and his
consequent destruction, 16:29_31.
21. In what power were all these achievements wrought?
Ans. – „The Spirit of the Lord came upon him.”
22. In a noted book, Types of Mankind, by Drs. Nott and
Gliddon of Mobile, what different rendering is given of 15:
4_5, and what do you say of the merits of their rendering?
Ans. – Turn to 15:4_5. This is the way they translate this
passage: „And Samson went and took three hundred sheaves
of grain and took firebrands and turned them end to end and
put a firebrand in the midst between the two ends. And
when he had set the brands on fire, he threw them into the
standing grain of the Philistines, . . .” What is the merit of
this translation? I say, none at all. It is just one of those
ways by which men try to evade the marvelous features of
scripture.
23. Hitherto we have considered Samson as only an em_
bodiment of physical strength, but what proof in the record
of his much higher endowments?
Ans. – The feats of physical strength make the most vivid
impressions on the mind, but there is evidence sufficient in
history to show his higher endowments. It is said, without
giving details, „he judged Israel twenty years.” The exercise
of this function called for knowledge, judgment, and fidelity
to God’s law.

His propounding a riddle shows training in Oriental wis_
dom and his proverbial reply to his enemies who treacher_
ously found its solution shows not only quick discernment
but racy humor. His readiness to locate the source of all
the hidden assaults upon him indicates a shrewd knowledge
of human nature.
We may not assume his inability to lead armies and con_
duct great campaigns because through the abject spirit of his
people there were not only no armies to lead, but there was
even that despicable meanness on the part of the people to
surrender their own deliverer in bonds to the enemy at their
demand. There was no material for an army in a people
who thought it necessary to take 3,000 men to arrest one
man, and then were afraid to arrest him without his consent.
The national cowardice of both Israel and Philistia forms the
dark outline of his sublime and solitary courage.
He seems to have been the only brave, absolutely fear_
less man in the two nations, and stalks among them like
a Titan among quail bugging the covert or ready to take
flight at the mere sight of him. His life deserves its pro_
logue to which reference has been made. His sin of going
unto harlots was the sin of his age characterizing great men
of his nation before and after him. He never led Israel into
sin like Gideon, nor offered human burnt offerings like
Jephthah. He never went into idolatry. It is true that like
other and even greater men he could not withstand the per_
sistent tears or continual nagging of a woman, yet he never
himself wronged a woman.
His sense of the stern justice of the lex talionis taught in
his law and his logical mind are both evident in his reply to
his own abject countrymen who rebuked his heavy strokes
against the common enemy: „As they did unto me, so I
have done unto them.”
For his one great sin against Jehovah he patiently bore
the penalty, and, in penitence and prayer, found forgive_
ness. He wag truly a great man, deserving no help from
contemporaries and stands like a solitary mountain on the
dead level of a plain.
This, with the pathetic tragedy of his death, gives him his
place in human memory and appeals to the imagination of
succeeding ages. A mere gladiator or prizefighter would never
have awakened the muse of Milton. Therefore we greatly
misjudge him if we count him simply a prodigy of physical
strength. He stands in the New Testament roll of the heroes
of Old Testament faith.
That he was a man of prayer as well as of faith appears
from 15:18, and 16:28. His celebration of his great victory,
15:16, his riddle, 14:14, and his poem 16:18, show him a
poet, and his reticence about killing a lion with his naked
hands show that he was no braggart even in his own family.
You may contrast this with the publicity given to Roosevelt’s
lion killing, armed with weapons so deadly that at a distance
the lions had no chance.
24. What Old Testament riddles precede Samson’s?
Ans. – None.
25. Was Samson a wilful violator of the Mosaic law of
marriage in insisting on taking a Philistine wife against the
protest of his father and mother, 14:3?
Ans. – No, God can make his own exceptions, and this
marriage was of the Lord to furnish occasion for smiting
the enemy under their own provocation, 14:4.
26. What do you learn of the methods and customs of
courtship and marriage at that time from 14: 1_18?
Ans. – (1) The son selects the wife – „she pleased his sight.”
(2) The father and mother conduct negotiations.
(3) The son docs his own courting – „she pleased him in
conversation.”
(4) The prospective bridegroom gives a seven_days’ feast
in the bride’s city to which her family invites thirty young
men.
(5) At the entertainment there is the feast of reason and
flow of soul in which riddles are propounded, wagers made,
and racy humor employed.
27. What the great sin of Samson?
Ans. – In yielding through weariness to the nagging of a
bad woman in the disclosure of the secret of his strength
after she had thrice demonstrated her purpose of using it to
his destruction, and then putting himself in her power. It
was telling the Lord’s secret to a harlot, fulfilling the words
of Jeremiah:
„Her Nazarites were purer than snow, they were whiter
than milk;
They were more ruddy in body than rubies, their polishing
was as of sapphire.
Their visage is blacker than a coal; they are not known in
the streets:
Their skin cleave to their bones; it is withered, it is become like a stick.” (Lam. 4:7_8.)
28. Did Samson’s strength reside in his hair?
Ans. – No, but in keeping his Nazarite vow, of which the
unshaved head was the token.
29. What the pathetic elements of the tragedy which fol_
lowed?
Ans. – (1) „He wist not that the Lord had departed from
him,” and that he was as any other man. This time, though
he shook himself as before, he could not break the bonds.
(2) The enemy took him and put out his eyes.
(3) Bound him in fetters of brass.
(4) Made him grind in the prison house.
(5) On the day of their sacrifice claimed him as the cap_
tice of their gods.
(6) Caused him to be exhibited in sport.
30. What indication of God’s mercy appeared in prison?
Ans. – His hair began to grow.
31. Cite his possible reflections.
Ans. – 1 preached a sermon on that once, a sermon to back_
sliders, that Spirit power is given for the good of others, for
the deliverance of others, and this man through sin had lost
the Spirit power, lost spiritual sight. He was becoming a
slave to the enemies of God. While he is grinding in the
mill, he hears coming from the valley the cry of a young
woman as the Philistines snatched her and she cries out, „0
Samson, appointed of God to deliver Israel, help me.” And
Samson is blind, powerless. Another story comes from the
mountains from an old gray_haired woman, a grandmother,
whose old age is put to shame. In a quivering voice she
cries, „0 Samson, appointed of God as our deliverer, come,
help us.” I draw this picture for you as his possible re_
flection and the way any preacher will feel who loses hi?
Spirit power and becomes like other men.
32. What proof of his penitence?
Ans. – His humble prayer to God.
33. What evidence of his unselfishness?
Ans. – „Let me die with the Philistines; I don’t ask to live
and be tried again; I have proven myself unworthy. Just
forgive me and deliver these people who have put out my
eyes to vengeance and let me die with them.”
34. How may he illustrate the backslider and the final
preservation of the saints?
Ans. – That is exactly what he was, a backslider. You
have to kill them sometimes to bring them back. They get
so far off that they grow indifferent and have to be killed
to be brought back.
35. Cite Milton’s words in his great poem „Samson Ago_
ites,” illustrating the answer to his last prayer.
Ans. – After Samson’s prayer, Milton says in his poem this:
This uttered, straining all his nerves he bowed:
As with the force of winds and waters pent,
When mountains tremble, those two massy pillars’
With horrible convulsion to and fro.
Now you are prepared to understand the place of Samson
with the other judges. It is the object of this chapter to show
that he was a great man and a good man; that he was a man
of intelligence; that he was a poet; and on wonder the whole
world from that time until now thinks about Samson.

XXI
MICAH AND THE DANITES, OUTRAGE OF THE
MEN OF GIBEAH, AND THE NATIONAL WAR
AGAINST BENJAMIN
Judges 17_21

What can you say of this whole section?
Ans. – (1) It, like the book of Ruth, is an appendix to
the book of Judges without regard to time order as to pre_
ceding events.
(2) While there are four distinct episodes, namely (a)
the case of Micah, (b) the Danite migration, (c) the out_
rage at Gibeah, (d) the war of the other tribes against
Benjamin, yet they go in pairs; the story of Micah is merged
into the Danite migration and the outrage of Gibeah results
in the war against Benjamin.
2. Show how one expression characterizes all four of the
episodes and would serve for a text illustrated by each of the
four stories in historical order.
Ans. – The text is, „In those days there was no king in
Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes.”
First episode, 17:6; second episode, 18:1; third episode,
19:1; fourth episode, 21:25.
3. What the bearing of this text on a late date of the com_
position of the book?
Ans. – If the reference be to an earthly king, as usually
supposed, it would only indicate that the book was com_
piled from tribal and national documents and edited by
Samuel after the establishment of the monarchy, which
theory is supported by many identical passages in parts of
Joshua, Judges, and I Samuel. But if the reference be to
Jehovah as King, then it proves nothing as to later author_
ship.
4. What the probability of its reference to Jehovah as
King?
Ans. – (1) The whole book is written to show a series of
rejections of the theocracy that they might follow their own
bent, some one way and some another (2:11).
(2) Every one of the four instances of its use is intro_
duced in a connection to emphasize a forsaking of Jehovah
as a King, plainly marking insubordination against his royal
authority. Its first use immediately follows and expounds
Micah’s establishing an independent „house of gods” with an
independent ephod and images and priesthood, 17:5_6. Its
second use introduces the rebellion of Dan in leaving the lot
assigned to him by Jehovah and setting up at Laish a rival
house of worship with images and independent priesthood,
18:1. Its third use introduces a story of wickedness against
Jehovah equaling the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah, 19:
1, 22_26. Its fourth use does not occur in 20:1_18, 26_28,
where the people seek Jehovah for counsel, but is reserved
as a comment on the irreligious dancing of Shiloh’s daugh_
ters and the crafty expedient of supplying wives to the male
remnants of Benjamin without appeal to Jehovah 21:16_25.
(3) This series of the rejections of Jehovah as King cul_
minated in demanding an earthly king, I Samuel 8:1_7.
(4) When they did get an earthly king there was no
tendency to check them in doing what was right in their
own eyes, instead of in Jehovah’s eyes, but only increased
it. See case of Solomon, I Kings 11:1_4; Jeroboam, I Kings
12:26_33; Ahab, I Kings 16:30_34, and many others. Hence
there would be no relevancy in saying, „every man did that
which was right in his own sight,” because there was no
earthly king in Israel. The „doing what was right in his
own sight” does not apply to everything but is limited in its
four contextual uses to sins of rebellion against Jehovah’s

kingly authority, and what earthly kings promoted rather
than checked.
5. But is not late authorship clearly established by the
declaration that Dan’s rival house of worship was continued
by Jonathan and his sons as priests „until the day of the
captivity of the land”?
Ans. – It entirely depends upon what captivity is meant.
It could not mean the Babylonian captivity of Judah, for
long before that event the ten tribes, including Dan, had been
led into captivity so perpetual they are called the lost tribes.
It could not mean the captivity of the ten tribes by Sen_
nacherib, for long before that event Jeroboam, the founder
of the northern kingdom, had established at Dan a different
worship. It could not have persisted during the times of
David and Solomon when all recognized the central place of
worship at Jerusalem. It could not have referred to any date
beyond the period of the judges, because the duration of this
rival Danite worship is limited in the very verse following
the time the house of God was at Shiloh, 18:31. So that
„the captivity” referred to must have been the Philistian
captivity in the days of Elithe judge, when the ark was cap_
tured, I Samuel 4:3_18, and quite to the point the Hebrew
text of I Samuel 4:21_22, replaces the phrase „captivity of
the land” by „captivity of the glory of the Lord.”
6. What the first episode?
Ans. – The sin of Micah in establishing in his family a
„house of gods,” with image worship and an independent
priesthood.
7. State the case in detail to show Jehovah was not rec_
ognized as King in Israel.
Ans. – (1) A son stole 1,100 shekels of silver from his
mother, violating Jehovah’s Fifth and Eighth Command_
ments, afterwards confessing and restoring.
(2) The mother (a) usurped Jehovah’s prerogative in
cursing the unknown thief; (b) she either lied in saying she
had „wholly dedicated it to Jehovah” or) like Ananias and
Sapphira, robbed God in keeping back more than four_fifths;
(c) she violated the Second Commandment in making images
for worship; (d) the son established in his family a rival
house to Shiloh; (e) he first violated the law of the priest_
hood by setting apart his own sons as priests; (f) he sub_
stituted a stray Levite, out of a job, and not of the house
of Aaron.
8. What the second episode?
Ana. – The Danites, through cowardice failing to capture
from strong enemies the land allotted them by Jehovah,
sent out spies to find good land where the inhabitants were
weak and peaceful. The spies on their way discover Micah’s
private „house of God” and inquire of its false priest rather
than of Jehovah at Shiloh, whether they will prosper in
their intent. The subservient priest assures them it will come
out all right. They come to a part of the territory allotted
to another tribe and find a quiet, unwarlike community re_
mote from the capital and power of their nation. The spies
return with a glowing report of the good land, the helpless_
ness of the inhabitants, and the little prospect of interference
from their nation. An army is dispatched forthwith, which
on the way over bids Micah for his recreant priest who,
preferring to represent a tribe rather than a family, not only
breaks his contract by slipping away, but helps to steal all
Micah’s gods and paraphernalia of worship. Then the bereft
Micah follows with his piteous remonstrance: „Ye have taken
away my gods which I have made, and the priest, and gone
away, and what have I more! And then mock me by saying,
What aileth thee?” The grim response of the Danites re_
minds me of the ungrateful wolf’s reply to the crane in
Aesop’s fable: „Count it reward enough that you have safely
withdrawn your neck from a wolf’s throat.” So Micah re_
turned empty_handed to reflect on the rewards of hospitality,
the sanctity of contracts, the wisdom of investing good shekels
in the manufacture of gods, and the ingratitude of God’s
people in forsaking their Maker. But the imperturbable Dan_
ites, like Gallio, caring for none of these things, went march_
ing on, and like a stealthy band of Comanches, swooped
down upon the unsuspecting community, blotted it off the
map and set up their rival to the house of God in Shiloh and
went into tribal idolatry.
9. How does the incident prove ancestor Jacob a prophet?
Ans. – „Dan shall be a serpent in the way, an adder in the
path, that biteth the horse’s heels so that his rider falleth
backward.”
10. Wherein did the Mormons show their appreciation of
the prophecy and its fulfilment?
Ans. – By naming their terrible secret organization which
perpetrated the Mountain Meadows Massacre, „the Danites.”
11. Who was this shabby, subservient Levite and how
did later Jews seek to hide his identity?
Ans. – His name was Jonathan, a grandson of Moses. See
Standard Revision of 18:30, and compare with common ver_
sion „Manasseh” instead of Moses. The Jews in the Targum
and Septuagint changed Moses to Manasseh, unwilling to
tarnish the name of the great ancestor. But Manasseh had
no son named Gershom while Moses did, as the genealogies
show. It is not unusual for even sons of great men, much
less grandsons, to degenerate and „peter out.”
12. What prophecy of Moses is also fulfilled in the in_
cident ?
Ans. – „And of Dan he said, Dan is a lion’s whelp, that
leapeth forth from Bashan.” And it was from the moun_
tains of Bashan that this „cub lion” leaped upon the hapless
village of Laish in the valley below.
13. Why is the tribe of Dan omitted in the catalogue of
tribes in Revelation 7:4_8?
Ans. – Probably because Dan migrated to Laish and there
set up a rival worship.
13a. What event introduces the episode of the Benja_
minites?
Ans. – The horrible outrage perpetrated by the men of
Gibeah, a city of Benjamin, Chapter 19.
14. What do you gather from the first of this story?
Ang. – (1) That the relation between a man and his con_
cubine was a legal one counted here as marriage.
(2) It was the woman who sinned and the man who for_
gave.
(3) The instant reconciliation when he went after her and
the insistent hospitality and welcome of the father_in_law.
(4) The Levite’s loyalty to Israel in refusing to lodge in the
city of the Jebusites when by a little more travel he could
reach a city of his own nation.
(5) The inhospitality of the men of Gibeah who would
have suffered one of their nation to remain in the street all
night, contrasted with the generous welcome to strangers
extended by the sojourning Ephraimite.
15. What the moral condition of the city as disclosed by
the horrible outrage?
Ans. – It was as Sodom in the days of Lot. Compare
Genesis 19:1_11, with Judges 19:22_27.
16. The Common Version and the Vulgate (Latin) make
a certain Hebrew word of verse 22, and other Old Testa_
ment passages, a proper name, as, „certain sons of Belial,”
which the Canterbury Revision renders „certain base fel_
lows” – which is right?
Ans. – The author is much inclined to favor the Common
Version here and in I Samuel 2:12. It is true that the He_
brew word etymologically means „base, reckless, lawless.”
And it is also true that the Hebrew idiom „son of,” „daugh_
ter of,” „man of” does not imply a person when associated
with „Belial.” Yet the atrocious and unnatural crime against
Jehovah here and in some other cases implies a devilish

origin. Particularly is this true when associated with idol_
atrous worship. It is certainly so interpreted in the New
Testament, I Corinthians 10:27, 20_22, and 2 Corinthians
6:15_18. It was on account of these awful associations, being
a part and practice of the religious worship of the Canaan_
ite gods, as later of Greek and Roman gods, that idolatry
was made a capital offense under the theocracy. When Mil_
ton, therefore, in Paradise Lost, makes Belial a person, a
demon, it is not a case of poetic personification, but is the
expression of a profound philosophical truth as well as scrip_
tural truth in both Testaments. The ghastly, beastly, ob_
scene, and loathsome debaucheries of heathen worship would
never have been counted religion except under the prompt_
ings of the devil.
17. What steps did the wronged and horrified Levite take
to make this local crime a national affair?
Ans. – He divided the murdered woman’s body into twelve
parts and sent one part to each tribe with the story of the
wrong.
18. What impression was made by this horrible method of
accusation?
Ans. – „And it was so that all that saw it said, There was
no such deed done nor seen from the day that the children
of Israel came up out of the land of Egypt unto this day.
Consider it, take counsel and speak,” 19:30.
19. Was he justified in making it a national affair?
Ans. – Yes, otherwise the whole nation would have per_
ished. Compare the judgment on Sodom and Gomorrah.
Compare the solemn declarations of Jehovah that on account
of such abominations the measure of the iniquity of the Can_
aanites was so full that that very „land was ready to spew
them out of its mouth.” Read carefully the solemn charge
to the nation in Deuteronomy 13:12_18, and the awful judg_
ment of God on Eli because he merely admonished but did

not restrain his sons for so corrupting Jehovah’s worship, I
Samuel 2:12, 17, 22_25; 3:11_14.
20. What the result of the Levite’s ghastly method of
accusation?
Ans. – The whole nation was at once aroused. The public
conscience was quickened and they assembled before the
Lord at Mizpah to learn and do his will, and they strictly
followed the direction of his oracle. Four hundred thousand
warriors assembled as executors of God’s judgment.
21. Show how this was no mob action stirred by an im_
pulse of sudden passion.
Ans. – (1) They assembled under all the forms of law.
(2) They carefully examined the simple testimony of the
Levite (20:4_9), its very simplicity constituting its power.
(3) They deliberated gravely.
(4) They submitted every step proposed to God’s oracle.
(5) They sent messengers through all the tribe of Benjamin,
giving notification of the crime, and giving opportunity for
the tribe to clear itself by surrendering the criminals to justice
according to the law of Jehovah.
22. What awful comment on the moral condition of Benja_
min?
Ans. – The whole tribe deliberately sided with the adulter_
ous murderers and determined to protect them.
23. How was Israel taught the awful solemnity of act_
ing as executors of Jehovah’s will?
Ans. – They were humiliated by two disastrous defeats,
losing 40,000 men in two battles, 14,000 more than Ben_
jamin’s whole army. After each defeat they carried the case
again to the Lord, with fastings, weeping, and sacrifices,
which indicated their consciousness of their own sins.
24. What the result of the third battle?
Ans. – The tribe of Benjamin was almost blotted out. They
were surrounded, driven hither and thither with relentless
pursuit and desperate battle. First 18,000, then 5,000, then
2,000, i.e., 25,000 out of Benjamin’s veterans perished on the
battlefield and still Israel pursued, devoting to sweeping de_
struction city after city, men, women, children and cattle,
until only 600 fugitives remained, who sheltered in the rocks
of the wilderness four months.
25. What evidence that Israel fought not with malice
against Benjamin?
Ans. – (1) Their weeping cry before Jehovah: „Shall I go
up again to battle against the children of Benjamin, my
brother?” (2) After the victory they come again before
the Lord in tears: „0 Lord God of Israel, why is this come
to pass that there should be today one tribe lacking in
Israel?” There is no exultation. They mourn more over
fallen Benjamin than over the thousands of their own dead.
26. As this was a national assembly to accomplish a pur_
gation by which alone the nation could be saved, what oaths
had been sworn before Jehovah?
Ans. – (1) That no man of the eleven tribes should give
his daughter as a wife to a man of Benjamin.
(2) That whosoever would not come up before the Lord
in the crusade for national salvation should be put to death.
27. What was their dilemma in view of the first oath and
how were they preserved from it by the second oath?
Ans. – By the first oath the 600 fugitives were barred from
marriage and the tribe would have utterly perished, but by
investigation they found that the city of Jabesh_Gilead had
refused to obey the national oath and in virtue of the second
oath was doomed. A detachment of 12,000 men smote it to
destruction, reserving 400 virgins to be the wives of the
two_thirds of the 600.
28. What expedient was adopted to provide wives for the
remaining two hundred?

Ans. – In 21:19_23, the expedient is set forth by which,
without technical violation of the oath, the 200 managed, at
the suggestion of the elders, to capture a wife apiece from
the dancing daughters of Shiloh.
29. What legend of early Rome is something similar?
Ans. – The Romans captured the Sabine women at a fes_
tival. See Roman History, by Myers, pp. 58_59.
30. How is it alluded to in Scott’s lvanhoe?
Ans. – DeBracy plots to carry off Rowena. Fitzurse said,
„What on earth dost thou purpose by this absurd disguise
at a moment so urgent?”
DeBracy replied: „To get me a wife after the manner of
the tribe of Benjamin.”
31. Why is one left_handed called a Benjaminite?
Ans. – Because the men of the tribe of Benjamin were
left_handed.
32. What prophecy by Jacob fits the Benjaminites of this
story?
Ans. – „Benjamin is wolf that raveneth: In the morning
he shall devour the prey. And at even he shall divide the
spoil.” Gen. 49:27.
33. Who was the high priest through whom Jehovah makes
known his will in the story of Benjamin, and what .proof does
the fact afford that the two stories of Dan and Benjamin
occurred in the early period of the judges?
Ans. – Phinehas was high priest (Judges 20:28) who is
referred to in Numbers 25:7 and Joshua 22:13, 30. These
last passages refer to an early period of the judges.

XXXII
THE BOOK OF RUTH
A CATECHISM

To what time in the history of Israel does the story of
Ruth belong?
Ans. – 1:1, to the period of the Judges.
2. What the relations of this book to the book of Judges,
and its place in the Old Testament canon?
Ans. – (1) It is an appendix to the book of Judges and
the two were counted as one book in the early Jewish enu_
meration. It is an episode of the general story of the judges
like the migration of the DANAIDES and the war with Ben_
jamin in the latter part of that book.
(2) Its natural place of order is just after Judges, and it
80 appears in the Septuagint, Vulgate, and English Ver_
sions.
3. What its place in the Hebrew Bible, and why?
Ans. – All the known Hebrew manuscripts are modern. The
later Jews, for liturgical purposes, arranged their scripture
into three grand divisions, to wit: The Law, the Prophets,
and the Psalms, or other writings. In the synagogues on their
various sabbaths and on their great days appointed sections
from these grand divisions were read, so that every Jew
would know beforehand the scriptural lesson. Now, in this
Hebrew Bible so arranged, Ruth was the fifth book of the
third division, coming between the Song of Songs and Lamen_
tations. (See Isaac Leeser’s English Version.) The date of
this arrangement was after the Septuagint version was made
but before the coming of our Lord, as there appear to be
references to it in Luke 4:16_17, and 24:44, and Acts 15:21.
4. What passages in the book itself bear on the date of
the composition?
Ans. – The most important are 1:1; 4:7_8, and 4:18_22.
The first passage in verse I seems to imply that the period
of the judges had passed before the book was written. In
4:7_8, it seems that the custom of taking off a shoe as a
token of relinquishing a kinsman’s right to redeem had passed
away when the book was written, and in 4:18_22, the last
paragraph of the book, the genealogy is carried to David’s
time and stops with David, which seems to imply that the
book was written in the time of David, but not later than
David’s time.
5. On what grounds do the radical critics place the date
of the composition to the time of the Exile, after the down_
fall of the Monarchy and even later?
Ans. – Their principal argument, as usual, is based on
philology, that is, the use of certain expressions or words
that they claim must belong to a later date. It is enough
for me to say that their argument is so very feeble and in_
conclusive it is hardly worth a dignified reply.
6. Who probably was the author?
Ans. – The book itself does not say, only we know that
every Old Testament book was written by some prophet.
The probable author of the whole book was Samuel, who
lived to anoint David as king.
7. The scene of the story?
Ans. – There are two scenes, the Land of Moab and Beth_
lehem of Judah.
8. What the purpose of the book?
Ans. – On the face of it the body of the book is to give a
picture of domestic life in the period of the judges, and to
show how faith and piety are rewarded even in this life and
to trace the line of the coming Messiah.
9. What the literary characteristics of the book?
Ans. – It is a true story of domestic life, both historical
and biographical. The principal personages in the story were

the ancestors of David, showing the Moabitish link not only
in David’s genealogy but in the genealogy of our Lord. On
account of this relation to the fields it is sometimes called a
pastoral and is certainly a gem of literature.
10. Analyze the story.
Ans. – This story is dramatic and consists of three acts and
several scenes, thus:
ACT I – At Bethlehem.
Scene 1 – A Happy Family
Scene 2 – A Sore Famine
Scene 3 – A Fortunate Transition
ACT II – In Moab
Scene 1 – Arrival and Settlement
Scene 2 – Marriage and death of sons
Scene 3 – Departure for Judah
ACT III – At Bethlehem Again
Scene 1 – Visit of all Bethlehem to Naomi
Scene 2 – Gleaning in the Field
Scene 3 – Naomi the Matchmaker
Scene 4 – Ruth and Boaz at the Threshing_floor
Scene 5 – A Court in the Gate
Scene 6 – A Man_Child is Born
EPILOGUE: The Messianic Line.
11. What the more important contrasts of the story?
Ans. – (1) With wars and deeds of violence to which the
book of Judges is mostly given. A writer has said, „Blessed
is the nation which has no history,” because history mostly
is made of wars and commotions. One would get from the
repetition of the bloody wars in the book of Judges that the
whole life of the nation was violent, but this book on domestic
life shows us the contrast in the home with the exceptional
phases of national strife.
(2) The second contrast is between Ruth and Orpah, the
two daughters_in_law of Naomi, both of whom have the op_
portunity to become incorporated with God’s people and re_
main in connection with them, but Orpah when put to the test
returns to her own people and their worship of idols. Ruth,
through faith, clings to Jehovah and his worship and be_
comes the ancestress of the Messiah.
(3) The third contrast is between Boaz and the other kins_
man mentioned, who stood nearer in blood ties to Naomi
than Boaz did. The one for fear of endangering his own in_
heritance surrendered the privilege of the kinsman, the other
availed himself of the surrendered privilege and becomes
known throughout the world as the ancestor of the Messiah.
12. What are the special lessons of this book?
Ans. – (1) The lesson on the levirate marriage, that is
where a man after marriage dies without children the closest
male kin under the Mosaic law takes the widow as his wife
with the view to raise up seed in the name of the dead hus_
band and who inherited his part of the land.
(2) The second lesson is the messianic picture. All
through the history of Israel is an ever increasing prophetic
light pointing to the coming of Christ and especially showing
that among the ancestors of Christ were Gentile women, as
Rahab the harlot and Ruth the Moabitess.
(3) The third lesson is to note how famine and pestilence
cause shifting of population. It was a famine that took
Abraham to Egypt and the whole family of Jacob.
(4) The fourth special lesson is the exquisite gem of Rutli’s
reply to Naomi. It is poetic, pathetic, manifesting a high order of faith and steadfastness. I will give it in its poetic form:
Insist not on me forsaking thee,
To return from following after thee;
For whither thou goest, I will go,
And wheresoever thou lodgest, I will lodge,
Thy people is my people,
And thy God my God.
Wheresoever thou diest, I will die
And there will I be buried.
So may Jehovah do to me,
And still more,
If aught but death part me and thee.

(5) The fifth special lesson is the significance of names.
„Elimelech” means, God is King, „Naomi” means, God is
sweetness; and these names were bestowed as expressions of
faith of their parents. You will see in the book that Naomi re_
fers to the meaning of her name, on her return from Moab,
when she says, „Call me no more Naomi, meaning sweetness,
but Marah, meaning bitterness.” meaning the opposite of
sweetness, which shows how pessimistic she had become; that
instead of God being sweet to her he had become bitterness to
her. It is like the pessimistic passage in the book of Job in
the culmination of his affliction and in one of the Psalms.
13. What the probable bearing of this story on David’s
exile in Moab as described in I Samuel 22:3_4?
Ans. – David’s ancestors on one side were Moabites and this
may account for his carrying his father and mother to Moab
for a time during his outlaw life.

SPECIAL QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
1. Point out an oath in this book.
2. Point out a benediction.
3. Point out at least three names of God in this book.
4. Mention at least three texts from which good sermona could be preached.
5. Where do you find the Mosaic law allowing the privileges of gleaning after reapers in the harvest fields?
6. In 2:12, Boaz saya to Ruth, „Jehovah recompense thy work, and a full reward be given thee of Jehovah, the God of Israel, under whose wings thou art come to take refuge.” Cite a passage in the Psalms about sheltering under the wings of God, and our Lord’s reference in Matthew 23 to sheltering under wings, and the hymn of which this appears as a part:
All my trust on Thee is stayed,
All my help from Thee I bring;
Cover my defenceless head
With the shadow of Thy wing.
7. Was the marriage of the Jew and Moabite lawful? Compare Deuteronomy and Nehemiah and then answer.
8. Cite a passage from Thomson’s Land and the Book, p. 647, bearing on 2:17.
9. In 1:22, Naomi says, „I went out full and Jehovah hath brought me home again empty”; did she refer to property or husband and sons?
10. See Josephus on the handing over of the shoe.
11. Read carefully 4:3_5, and answer whether Naomi still possessed landed property. If she sold this property allowing the nearest kinsman the option of purchase, would the sale be absolute or would it be merely a lease until the Year of Jubilee?
12. Meaning of Ephrathite?

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